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Occurrence of drought under rainfed conditions is the foremost factor responsible for yield reduction in soybean. Developing soybean cultivars with an inherent ability to withstand drought would immensely benefit the soybean production in rainfed areas. In the present study, F2 derived mapping populations were developed by crossing drought tolerant (PK 1180, SL 46) and susceptible (UPSL 298, PK 1169) genotypes to investigate the inheritance of seedling survival drought mechanisms and to identify simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with them, using bulked segregant analysis. Parents as well as a F2 derived mapping population were screened for drought tolerance based on seedling survivability under controlled conditions. Segregation analysis of F2 population derived from a cross between PK 1180 × UPSL 298 was previously shown to have a 3:1 tolerant to susceptible ratio and a probability of 0.61 at a χ2(3:1) value of 0.258. This was confirmed in another F2 population derived from a cross between PK 1169 × SL 46 with a χ2(3:1) value of 0.145 obtained at a probability of 0.70. One SSR marker Satt277 showed polymorphism between contracting bulks (tolerant and susceptible) out of 50 polymorphic markers identified during parental polymorphism. Single marker analysis suggested that the marker, Satt277 is linked to seedling survival drought tolerance and is located on chromosome linkage group C2 (chr 6) with a map distance of 3.40 cM. The tolerant genotypes identified could be used as a donor in soybean improvement programs. The marker identified can be used in marker-assisted selection while screening large collection of germplasm.
Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
In recent years, the government of Bangladesh has encouraged private sector involvement in producing mid-level health cadres including Medical Assistants (MAs). The number of MAs produced has increased significantly. We assessed students’ characteristics, educational services, competencies and perceived attitudes towards health service delivery in rural areas.
We used a mixed method approach using quantitative (questionnaire survey) and qualitative (key informant interviews and roundtable discussion) methods. Altogether, five public schools with 238 students and 30 private schools with 732 students were included. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA v-12. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically.
The majority of the students in both public (66%) and private medical assistant training schools (MATS) (61%) were from rural backgrounds. They spent the majority of their time in classroom learning (public 45% versus private 42%) and the written essay exam was the common form of a students’ performance assessment. Compared with students of public MATS, students of private MATS were more confident in different aspects of educational areas, including managing emerging health needs (P<0.001); evidence-based practice (P=0.002); critical thinking and problem solving (P=0.02), and use of IT/computer skills (P<0.001). Students were aware of not having adequate facilities in rural areas (public 71%, private 65%), but they perceived working in rural areas will offer several benefits, including use of learnt skills; friendly rural people; and opportunities for real-life problem solving, etc.
This study provides a current picture of MATS students’ characteristics, educational services, competencies and perception towards working in rural areas. The MA students in both private and public sectors showed a greater level of willingness to serve in rural health facilities. The results are promising to improve health service delivery, particularly in rural and hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh.
In most mental illnesses, onset occurs before the age of 25 and the earliest stages are critical. The youth bear a large share of the burden of disease associated with mental illnesses. Yet, Canadian youths with mental health difficulties face delayed detection; long waiting lists; inaccessible, unengaging services; abrupt transitions between services; and, especially in remoter regions, even a complete lack of services. Responding to this crisis, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announced a 5-year grant that was awarded to ACCESS, a pan-Canadian network of youths, families, clinicians, researchers, policymakers, community organisations and Indigenous communities. Using strategies developed collaboratively by all stakeholders, ACCESS will execute a youth mental healthcare transformation via early detection, rapid access and appropriate, high-quality care. The project includes an innovative, mixed-methods service research component. Similar in many respects to other national youth mental health initiatives, ACCESS also exhibits important differences of scale, scope and approach.
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recognized by the WHO as ‘Neglected Diseases’. Minimal attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of disease incidence patterns. Using disease notification data, we detected spatio-temporal clusters of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis across three time periods: (i) 1997–2000, (ii) 2001–2004, (iii) 2005–2008. There was substantial variation in the geographical location and timing of recurrent cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis clusters. Statistically significant (P < 0·05) giardiasis clusters tended to occur in predominantly urban areas with little apparent seasonal influence, while statistically significant cryptosporidiosis clusters were detected in spring, in areas with high livestock land use. The location and timing of cryptosporidiosis clusters suggest an influence of livestock production practices, while urban exposures and host behaviour are likely to influence giardiasis clusters. This approach provides a resource-efficient method for public health authorities to prioritize future research needs and areas for intervention.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep hygiene, excessive daytime sleepiness and work hours among resident physicians in Chandigarh, India. Data were collected from 350 volunteering junior resident doctors and included sociodemographic variables, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep hygiene as measured by the Sleep Hygiene Index and hours worked. Almost half of the resident physicians studied reported a problem of EDS and maladaptive sleep hygiene practices. Physicians working more than 80 hours per week and physicians with more maladaptive sleep behaviours were much more likely to report EDS. The authors propose that sleep hygiene and number of hours slept should be considered as EDS prevention and treatment strategies, especially for physicians working less than 80 hours per week. The authors also propose that the most salient intervention for physicians working more than 80 hours per week is one of workplace advocacy, where the government is encouraged to adopt legally binding guidelines as seen in other countries.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
This study describes the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in New Zealand using notified, hospitalized and fatal cases over a 12-year period (1997–2008). The average annual incidence for notifications was 42·8/100 000 population and 3·6/100 000 population for hospitalizations. Incidence was about twice as high in summer as in winter. Rural areas had higher rates than urban areas (rate ratio 1·23, 95% confidence interval 1·22–1·24 for notifications) and a distinct spring peak. Incidence was highest in the 0–4 years age group (154·2 notifications/100 000 and 11·3 hospitalizations/100 000). Hospitalizations showed higher rates for Māori and Pacific Island populations compared to Europeans, and those living in more deprived areas, whereas notifications showed the reverse, implying that notifications are influenced by health-seeking behaviours. Salmonella Typhimurium was the dominant serotype followed by S. Enteritidis. For a developed country, salmonellosis rates in New Zealand have remained consistently high suggesting more work is needed to investigate, control and prevent this disease.
Crohn's disease is one of the leading causes of intestinal failure. The term ‘type 2’ intestinal failure is used to describe the relatively rare type of intestinal failure that occurs in association with septic, metabolic and complex nutritional complications, typically following surgical resection and/or laparostomy for intra-abdominal sepsis. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with type 2 intestinal failure is crucial, and it is helpful to approach patient care in a structured manner using the ‘sepsis-nutrition-anatomy-plan’ algorithm: resolution of sepsis is required before adequate nutritional repletion can be achieved, and it is crucial to optimise nutritional status, and define intestinal anatomy before delineating a definitive medical or surgical plan. A structured approach to the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who have developed type 2 intestinal failure, should reduce the likelihood of these patients developing ‘type 3’ intestinal failure, which is characterised by the need for long-term parenteral nutrition. However, Crohn's disease is still the commonest indication for home parenteral nutrition in the UK.
To describe the syndrome of optic nerve involvement in cases of allergic fungal sinusitis.
Academic tertiary care centre.
Analysis of prospectively accrued data for 10 consecutive cases (three bilateral, giving 13 eyes) with visual loss secondary to optic nerve compression, from a total of 70 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis undergoing surgical treatment between June 1997 and May 2007.
The mean duration of rhinological symptoms prior to the onset of visual loss was 22 months. At presentation, visual loss ranged from a visual acuity of 6/12 to complete loss of light perception. Bilateral involvement was noted in three of the 10 cases. Urgent surgical decompression with removal of all fungal debris and decompression of the optic nerve resulted in visual recovery in seven of the 13 eyes. On univariate analysis, recovery was less likely in cases with long standing visual loss, and in cases with complete visual loss.
Long standing allergic fungal sinusitis may be complicated by visual loss due to compression of the optic nerve. Urgent surgery to clear the sinuses and decompress the optic nerve is successful in reversing visual loss in cases with partial visual loss.
We suggest a diversity-dependent strategy, based on Principle Component Analysis, for selecting distinct accessions/parents for breeding from a soybean germplasm collection comprising of 463 lines, characterized and evaluated for 10 qualitative and eight quantitative traits. A sample size of six accessions included all the three states, namely low, medium and high of the individual quantitative traits, while a sample of 16–19 accessions included all the 60–64 distinct states of qualitative as well as quantitative traits. Under certain assumptions, the paper also develops an expression for estimating the size of a target population for capturing maximum variability in a sample three accessions.
Scheelite mineralization in the granulite-facies supracrustal sequences of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India is reported. The supracrustal sequences where the mineralization is found comprise granulite-grade metasediments which underwent metamorphism at ∼550 Ma. The mineralization is assumed to have formed by late-stage metasomatism that overprinted the regional metamorphism of the country rock (garnet-biotite gneiss) and occurs along a quartz vein that intrudes the regional foliation. The paragenetic data from the vein demonstrate unambiguously a separate cycle of hydrothermal activity, resulting in metasomatism and mineralization. Scheelite is found in both the altered host rock along the foliation plane and in the quartz vein. Fluid inclusions preserved in the vein suggest that the mineralizing fluids were saline-aqueous in composition, while those in the country rocks were predominantly CO2-rich. The mineral chemistry and bulk-rock chemical composition of the mineralized domain reveal the unusual enrichment of Ca in the mineralised zone with the depletion of K. We propose that fluid discharging from a crystallizing deep-seated magma, mixing with deep circulating Ca-bearing palaeo-groundwater gave rise to the deposition of scheelite. The scheelite mineralization and the quartz vein emplacement occurred after the Pan-African regional metamorphism.
Solid solution series of the type K2Bi8-xSbxSe13, K2-xRbxBi8Se13 as well as K2Bi8Se13-xSx were prepared and the distribution of the atoms (Bi/Sb, K/Rb and Se/S) on different crystallographic sites, the band gaps and their thermoelectric properties were studied. The distribution Se/S appears to be more uniform than the distribution of the Sb and Rb atoms in the β-K2Bi8Se13 structure that shows preference in specific sites in the lattice. Band gap is mainly affected by Sb and S substitution. Seebeck coefficient measurements showed n-type character for of all Se/S members. In the Bi/Sb series an enhancement of p-type character was observed. The thermoelectric performance as well as preliminary high temperature measurements suggest the potential of these materials for high temperature applications.
There is considerable controversy surrounding the optimum treatment of advanced hypopharyngeal cancers. Curative radiotherapy with surgical salvage in reserve is an accepted protocol as is also a combined treatment of surgery and radiotherapy. The present study is a retrospective analysis of the survival results of 195 cases treated in a single centre. The combined surgery and radiotherapy group comprised a greater number of pyriform fossa and post-cricoid tumours whereas, the curative radiotherapy group had a higher proportion of posterior pharyngeal wall tumours. Actuarial two-year disease-free survival rates were significantly better with combined treatment when results of stage III and IV lesions (164 patients) of all sites are taken together, as compared to those obtained with curative radiotherapy without salvage (p = 0.000) or radiotherapy with surgical salvage for residual/recurrent tumours (p = 0.0021).
Lithium niobate single crystal is an excellent material for various optical applications such as frequency conversion, optical switches, optical modulators and others. An automatic diameter control Czochralski crystals growth system has been designed and fabricated. A brief description of the entire system along with software developed has been described. With optimized growth parameters, pure and Fe/Mn doped crystals have been successfully grown using this system. Preliminary characterizations of these crystals have also been presented.
Isolates of Cryptosporidium muris and C. serpentis were characterized from different hosts using nucleotide sequence
analysis of the rDNA 18S and ITS1 regions, and the heat-shock (HSP-70) gene. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed
preliminary evidence that C. muris is not a uniform species. Two distinct genotypes were identified within C. muris; (1)
C. muris genotype A; comprising bovine and camel isolates of C. muris from different geographical locations, and (2) C.
muris genotype B comprising C. muris isolates from mice, a hamster, a rock hyrax and a camel from the same enclosure.
These 2 genotypes may represent separate species but further biological and molecular studies are required for
In this paper, we review the production of radiocarbon and other radionuclides in extraterrestrial materials. This radioactivity can be produced by the effects of solar and galactic cosmic rays on solid material in space. In addition, direct implantation at the lunar surface of 14C and other radionuclides can occur. The level of 14C and other radionuclides in a meteorite can be used to determine its residence time on the Earth's surface, or “terrestrial age”. 14C provides the best tool for estimating terrestrial ages of meteorites collected in desert environments. Age control allows us to understand the time constraints on processes by which meteorites are weathered, as well as mean storage times. Third, we discuss the use of the difference in 14C/12C ratio of organic material and carbonates produced on other planetary objects and terrestrial material. These differences can be used to assess the importance of distinguishing primary material formed on the parent body from secondary alteration of meteoritic material after it lands on the earth.
We have investigated the photophysical properties of surface capped CdS and CdS:Mn nanoparticles in the form of spin coated thin films of the pure nanoparticles and nanoparticle -polymer blends. The organic capping reagent was p-thiocresol. Electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated and characterized by their current/voltage characteristics and EL emission performance. This is to our knowledge the first report on Mn doped CdS nanoparticles applied in EL devices with a single layer device structure (ITO/CdS:Mn/Al). Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation measurements were performed on CdS:Mn nanoparticles in pyridine dispersion and on thin films. The PL excitation spectrum shows a narrow peak at 390nm. Excitation at this wavelength yields a broad PL spectrum spanning from about 450 to 700nm, which is dominated by a strong emission band at 585nm. This emission is attributed to transitions involving Mn levels in previous works. The EL emission peak is shifted to the red compared to the PL emission spectra. The characteristics and performance of these new types of EL devices will be presented and discussed.