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A palynostratigraphic zonation is for the first time established for the entire Cretaceous succession in NE Greenland from Traill Ø in the south to Store Koldewey in the north (72–76.5° N). The zonation is based on samples from three cores and more than 100 outcrop sections. The zonation is calibrated to an updated ammonite zonation from the area and to palynozonations from the northern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea areas. The palynozonation is primarily based on dinoflagellate cyst and accessory pollen. The Cretaceous succession is divided into 15 palynozones: seven Lower Cretaceous zones and eight Upper Cretaceous zones. The two lowermost zones are new. The following five (Lower Cretaceous) zones have already been described. Two of the Upper Cretaceous zones are new. The zones have been subdivided into 20 subzones, 11 of which have been described previously and one of which has been revised/redefined. Nine subzones (Upper Cretaceous) are new. More than 100 stratigraphical events representing more than 70 stratigraphic levels have been recognized and presented in an event-stratigraphic scheme.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are useful tools in ornithological studies. Importantly, though, UAV-caused disturbance has been noted to vary among species. This study evaluated guidelines for UAVs as a tool for researching geese. Twenty-four flocks of foraging geese were approached at an altitude of 50–100 m with a quadcopter UAV and disturbance effects were analysed across different horizontal distances between the UAV and the flocks. Geese were increasingly disturbed when approached by a UAV, with birds showing increased vigilance behaviour within approximately 300 m. Increasing UAV flight altitude as well as increasing take-off distance from the flocks both decreased the risk of bird flocks flushing. In conclusion, when monitoring geese using UAVs, flight altitudes of 100 m and take-off distances of ideally ∼500 m are recommended, to minimise initial disturbance and reducing the risk of birds flushing.
Hyper-prolific sows nurse more piglets than less productive sows, putting a high demand on the nutrient supply for milk production. In addition, the high production level can increase mobilization from body tissues. The effect of increased dietary protein (104, 113, 121, 129, 139 and 150 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) CP/kg) on sow body composition, milk production and plasma metabolite concentrations was investigated from litter standardization (day 2) until weaning (day 24). Sow body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique on days 3 and 24 postpartum. Blood samples were collected weekly, and milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10 and 17 of lactation. Litter average daily gain (ADG) peaked at 135 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Sow BW and back fat loss reached a breakpoint at 143 and 127 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Milk fat increased linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.05), and milk lactose decreased until a breakpoint at 124 g SID CP/kg and 5.3% (P < 0.001) on day 17. The concentration of milk protein on day 17 increased until a breakpoint at 136 g SID CP/kg (5.0%; P < 0.001). The loss of body protein from day 3 until weaning decreased with increased dietary SID CP until it reached a breakpoint at 128 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). The body ash loss declined linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.01), and the change in body fat was unaffected by dietary treatment (P=0.41). In early lactation (day 3 + day 10), plasma urea N (PUN) increased linearly after the breakpoint at 139 g SID CP/kg at a concentration of 3.8 mmol/l, and in late lactation (day 17 + day 24), PUN increased linearly after a breakpoint at 133 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001) at a concentration of 4.5 mmol/l. In conclusion, the SID CP requirement for sows was estimated to 135 g/kg based on litter ADG, and this was supported by the breakpoints of other response variables within the interval 124 to 143 g/kg.
Recent data suggest that organic broilers often score worse on footpad lesions than conventional broilers but also that the current scoring of organic broiler feet may be misleading. In order to characterise footpad lesions in organic broilers, this study assessed and compared footpad lesions in a sample of 2987 conventional and 3578 organic broiler feet obtained from a large Danish abattoir during summer and winter. The feet were scored according to two scoring systems: the modified Danish surveillance scoring system and a histopathology-based new scoring system specifically developed to target the ability to differentiate between broiler feet with hyperkeratosis and ulcers. For both systems, all broiler feet with visible lesions were cross-sectionally incised. Significant differences between the two production systems were found for both scoring systems (χ2 = 710; P < 0.001 and χ2 = 247; P < 0.001 for the new and the surveillance systems, respectively), showing that a larger proportion of the organic feet compared to conventional feet – summer and winter – exhibited signs of hyperkeratosis. In addition, a smaller fraction of the organic feet than of the conventional feet were given the outermost scores, that is, normal or ulcerated; 13.4% v. 25.3% broiler feet were given score 0 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 152; P < 0.001), and 18.4% v. 23.8% feet were given score 4 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 308; P < 0.001). Thus, the results suggest that surveillance scoring systems such as the one used in Denmark are useful for the examination of footpad lesions in broilers from both types of production systems. However, the results have also raised attention to a typical characteristic of the feet of organic broilers, that is, profound hyperkeratosis, which may underlie potential misclassifications in surveillance scoring systems like the one used in Denmark. Among the possible solutions to this challenge to the correctness and fairness of the scoring system are improved procedures (such as mandatory incision), training of technicians and calibration of results (especially for the organic footpads).
In the mid-1980s, the Anthropology Division of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) began the creation of digital resources as a means of collections access. Much of the database work was a secondary component of projects funded by outside grants and driven by new accountability mandates. The ongoing upgrading process was sporadic in its progress, but it still accomplished the primary goals of improved housing for collections and an exhaustive database. This paper discusses how the historical complications of the data, the scale of the database, its irregular schedule of funding, and deadline-driven projects resulted in inconsistency in data and difficulty in use. Although the examples provided will be specific to the AMNH Anthropology database, the circumstances and issues are common to many databases and the approaches presented broadly applicable. The discussion includes the practices used to mitigate the negative impact of these problems and the way the Division is positioning itself for the future, even as the database continues to provide unprecedented public and institutional access to and utility for the AMNH Anthropology collections.
Dietary phosphoglycerides and n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) play important functions in the development of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae. This study aimed to determine optimal dietary levels of soyabean lecithin (SBL)-derived phospholipids (PL) in starter feeds for pikeperch larvae 10–30 d post-hatch (DPH) and examine performance and ontogeny by additional supplementation of n-3 LC-PUFA in the form of Algatrium DHA 70 (glyceride product; 660–700 mg/g DHA; EPA 60–75 mg/g). In total, six isoproteic and isoenergetic extruded diets were formulated with increasing levels of PL (3·7, 8·3 or 14·5 % wet weight (w.w.), respectively); however, three of the diets were supplemented with three levels of Algatrium DHA 70 (0·6, 2·0 or 3·4 %, respectively). Liver proteomic analyses of larvae at 30 DPH were included for effects of PL and primarily DHA on performance, physiological expression and interactions in larval proteins. In addition, bone anomalies, digestive enzymatic activity, candidate gene expression and skeleton morphogenesis were examined. Results confirmed the importance of dietary PL levels of at least 8·2 % w.w., and an additional beneficiary effect of supplementation with DHA plus EPA. Thus, combined supplementation of SBL (up to 14·51 % w.w. PL) and n-3 LC-PUFA (1·004 % DM DHA and 0·169 % DM EPA) in the form of TAG resulted in highest growth and lowest incidence of anomalies, improved digestive enzyme activity and had differential effect on liver proteomics. The results denote that essential fatty acids can be supplemented as TAG to have beneficial effects in pikeperch larvae development.
Parasite distribution patterns in lotic catchments are driven by the combined influences of unidirectional water flow and the mobility of the most mobile host. However, the importance of such drivers in catchments dominated by lentic habitats are poorly understood. We examined parasite populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from a series of linear-connected lakes in northern Norway to assess the generality of lotic-derived catchment-scale parasite assemblage patterns. Our results demonstrated that the abundance of most parasite taxa increased from the upper to lower catchment. Allogenic taxa (piscivorous birds as final host) were present throughout the entire catchment, whereas their autogenic counterparts (charr as final hosts) demonstrated restricted distributions, thus supporting the theory that the mobility of the most mobile host determines taxa-specific parasite distribution patterns. Overall, catchment-wide parasite abundance and distribution patterns in this lentic-dominated system were in accordance with those reported for lotic systems. Additionally, our study highlighted that upper catchment regions may be inadequate reservoirs to facilitate recolonization of parasite communities in the event of downstream environmental perturbations.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
This study aims to investigate the climate–malaria associations in nine cities selected from malaria high-risk areas in China. Daily reports of malaria cases in Anhui, Henan, and Yunnan Provinces for 2005–2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to quantify the city-specific climate–malaria associations. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression analyses were used to pool the city-specific effects. An inverted-U-shaped curve relationship was observed between temperatures, average relative humidity, and malaria. A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature (Tmax) resulted in 6·7% (95% CI 4·6–8·8%) to 15·8% (95% CI 14·1–17·4%) increase of malaria, with corresponding lags ranging from 7 to 45 days. For minimum temperature (Tmin), the effect estimates peaked at lag 0 to 40 days, ranging from 5·3% (95% CI 4·4–6·2%) to 17·9% (95% CI 15·6–20·1%). Malaria is more sensitive to Tmin in cool climates and Tmax in warm climates. The duration of lag effect in a cool climate zone is longer than that in a warm climate zone. Lagged effects did not vanish after an epidemic season but waned gradually in the following 2–3 warm seasons. A warming climate may potentially increase the risk of malaria resurgence in China.
Dietary carbohydrates constitute a major fraction of the diets for pigs. The carbohydrate fraction consists of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides and two broad classes of polysaccharides – starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The carbohydrate fraction has a diverse composition in terms of constituent sugars (pentoses, hexoses, deoxysugars, etc.), glycosidic linkages (alfa or beta), size (degree of polymerisation from one to several thousand), and physical form (soluble in water, insoluble, cation and adsorbing properties). It is now evidential clear that the composition of the carbohydrate fraction influences the digestion and absorption processes of carbohydrates and other nutrients in the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, it has a profound influence on the secretory response of the gut to feed intake, the volume flow, the mucosal architecture, the composition of the gut flora and the development of the gastrointestinal tract.
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden. Naturally acquired immunity predominantly targets blood-stage parasites with antibody responses being the main mediators of protection. The targets of clinical immunity are the extracellular merozoite and the infected erythrocyte surface, with the extremely diverse PfEMP1 proteins the main target here. This observation provides a strong rationale that an effective anti-malaria vaccine targeting blood-stage parasites is achievable. Thus the identification of antigenic targets of naturally acquired immunity remains an important step towards the formulation of novel vaccine combinations before testing their efficacy in clinical trials. This review summarizes the main findings to date defining antigenic targets present on the extracellular merozoite associated with naturally acquired immunity to P. falciparum malaria.
Lake et al. propose that people rely on “start-up software,” “causal models,” and “intuitive theories” built using compositional representations to learn new tasks more efficiently than some deep neural network models. We highlight the many drawbacks of a commitment to compositional representations and describe our continuing effort to explore how the ability to build on prior knowledge and to learn new tasks efficiently could arise through learning in deep neural networks.
Employing a comparative experimental design drawing on over 18,000 interviews across eleven countries on four continents, this article revisits the discussion about the economic and cultural drivers of attitudes towards immigrants in advanced democracies. Experiments manipulate the occupational status, skin tone and national origin of immigrants in short vignettes. The results are most consistent with a Sociotropic Economic Threat thesis: In all countries, higher-skilled immigrants are preferred to their lower-skilled counterparts at all levels of native socio-economic status (SES). There is little support for the Labor Market Competition hypothesis, since respondents are not more opposed to immigrants in their own SES stratum. While skin tone itself has little effect in any country, immigrants from Muslim-majority countries do elicit significantly lower levels of support, and racial animus remains a powerful force.
For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice–water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of ‘warm ice’ under high pressure. After excellent progress at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few parameters of ten different deep drills.
We report on the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) deep drilling operation. Starting with the scientific questions that led to the outline of the EPICA project, we introduce the setting of sister drillings at NorthGRIP and EPICA Dome C within the European ice-coring community. The progress of the drilling operation is described within the context of three parallel, deep-drilling operations, the problems that occurred and the solutions we developed. Modified procedures are described, such as the monitoring of penetration rate via cable weight rather than motor torque, and modifications to the system (e.g. closing the openings at the lower end of the outer barrel to reduce the risk of immersing the drill in highly concentrated chip suspension). Parameters of the drilling (e.g. core-break force, cutter pitch, chips balance, liquid level, core production rate and piece number) are discussed. We also review the operational mode, particularly in the context of achieved core length and piece length, which have to be optimized for drilling efficiency and core quality respectively. We conclude with recommendations addressing the design of the chip-collection openings and strictly limiting the cable-load drop with respect to the load at the start of the run.
Purpose: Clients with an acquired brain injury (ABI) are at risk of mental health problems and it has been argued that transitions throughout the rehabilitation process are a challenge for rehabilitation practice; however, the link between transitions and psychosocial outcome has been under-researched. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the status of clients with moderate or severe ABI two-year post-discharge on the following outcomes variables: Physical and cognitive function, depression, quality of life, civil and work status, (2) examine correlations between these outcomes and (3) explore through qualitative interviews the subjective experiences of individuals with ABI in order to increase our understanding of clients’ perspectives on this outcome and its relation to life transitions in a two-year period.
Method: 37 individuals aged 18–66 with moderate or severe ABI were interviewed two years after discharge. At this time, they also completed standard measures of depression (MDI), quality of life (WHOQOL-bref) and functional independence (FIM™). Historical data of their FIM™ status at discharge were obtained for comparison.
Results: We found psychological problems two years post-hospitalization, especially depression (35.1%) and decreased psychological QOL (61%). Analysis of interviews found six main factors perceived as important for psychosocial outcome: family relations, return to work, waiting lists, psychological support, fatigue and personal competences.
Conclusions: Clients’ status two years post-hospitalization is often characterized by psychological problems. Based on clients’ accounts, we found a connection between psychosocial outcome and life transition experiences and developed a model of factors that are perceived as helping and hindering positive outcome.
Introduction: Emergency medicine physicians in our urban/suburban area have a range of training in medical education; some have no formal training in medical education, whereas others have completed Master’s level training in adult education. Not all staff have a university appointment; of those who are affiliated with our university, 87 have appointments through the Department of Medicine, 21 through the Department of Pediatrics, and 117 through the Department of Family Medicine. Emergency physicians in our area are a diverse group of physicians in terms of both formal training in adult education and in the variety of settings in which we work. The purpose of this study was to gauge interest in formal training in adult education among emergency medicine physicians. Methods: With research ethics board approval, we created and sent a 10-item electronic questionnaire to emergency medicine staff in our area. The questionnaire included items on demographics, experience in emergency medicine, additional post-graduate training, current teaching activities and interest in short (30-60 minute) adult education sessions. Results: Of a potential 360 active emergency physicians in our area, 120 responded to the questionnaire (33.3%), representing 12 area hospitals. Nearly half of respondents had been in practice over 10 years (48.44%). Respondents were mainly FRCP (50%) or CCFP-EM (47.50%) trained. 33.3% of respondents had masters degrees, of which 15% were MEd. Most physicians were involved in teaching medical students (98.33%), FRCP residents (80%) and family medicine residents (88.3%), though many were also teaching off-service residents, and allied health professionals. More than half of respondents (60%) were interested in attending short sessions to improve their skills as adult educators. The topics of most interest were feedback and evaluation, time-efficient teaching, the learner in difficulty, case-based teaching and bedside teaching. Conclusion: Emergency physicians in our area have a wide variety of experience and training in medical education. They are involved in teaching learners from a range of training levels and backgrounds. Physicians who responded to our survey expressed an interest in additional formal teaching on adult education topics geared toward emergency medicine.