To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor of childhood with >95% survival rates in the US. Traditional therapy for retinoblastoma often included enucleation (removal of the eye). While much is known about the visual, physical, and cognitive ramifications of enucleation, data are lacking about survivors' perception of how this treatment impacts overall quality of life.
Qualitative analysis of an open-ended response describing how much the removal of an eye had affected retinoblastoma survivors' lives and in what ways in free text, narrative form.
Four hundred and four retinoblastoma survivors who had undergone enucleation (bilateral disease = 214; 52% female; mean age = 44, SD = 11) completed the survey. Survivors reported physical problems (n = 205, 50.7%), intrapersonal problems (n = 77, 19.1%), social and relational problems (n = 98, 24.3%), and affective problems (n = 34, 8.4%) at a mean of 42 years after diagnosis. Three key themes emerged from survivors' responses; specifically, they (1) continue to report physical and intrapersonal struggles with appearance and related self-consciousness due to appearance; (2) have multiple social and relational problems, with teasing and bullying being prominent problems; and (3) reported utilization of active coping strategies, including developing more acceptance and learning compensatory skills around activities of daily living.
Significance of results
This study suggests that adult retinoblastoma survivors treated with enucleation continue to struggle with a unique set of psychosocial problems. Future interventions can be designed to teach survivors more active coping skills (e.g., for appearance-related issues, vision-related issues, and teasing/bullying) to optimize survivors' long-term quality of life.
Duck production has the potential to play a major role in agricultural economy. Asian countries alone contribute 84.2% of total duck meat produced in the world. Driven by the demand of processed foods among consumers, the global duck meat market is expected to grow at a steady pace, reaching a value of about $11.23 billion in the coming years. Duck meat has higher muscle fibre content in breast meat compared to chicken, and is considered as red meat. Moreover, due to a higher fat content (13.8%) than chicken and a stronger gamey flavour, duck meat can be less appreciated by the consumer. Development and diversification of ready-to-eat duck meat products is expected to increase consumption levels. Hence, the status of duck meat production, physicochemical properties, processing, including traditional products, and development of novel value-added ready-to-eat products from spent duck meat is discussed in detail to explore its importance as an alternative to chicken.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
To evaluate the survival outcomes and toxicities experienced by non-metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving modulated radiotherapy (RT).
Materials and methods
A total of 608 HNC patients treated consecutively from March 2010 to December 2014 with common subsites (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and nasopharynx) of HNCs formed the study group. Eligible patients included those treated with radical or postoperative RT between March 2010 and December 2014. More than 90% patients received modulated RT [intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] with concurrent chemotherapy as per stage guidelines. Demographic parameters and disease-related factors were analysed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated from end date of RT till last follow-up or last date of disease control. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from date of registration to last follow-up date if alive. The primary endpoint was survival. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0 and Kaplan–Meier method was used for calculation survival.
Among the evaluable patients, the median age was 60 years (range: 16–93) with male preponderance (male:female – 513:95). Majority were squamous cell carcinoma 93·4% (568/608). The subsites treated were oral cavity 36·8% (224). oropharynx 26·4% (161), larynx 19·7% (120), hypopharynx 10% (62) and nasopharynx 6·4% (41). RT intent was radical in 63·5% (386) and postoperative in 36·5% (222), with 59·5% (362) receiving concurrent chemotherapy. At last follow-up, 348 (57·2%) patients were alive, 169 (27·7%) patients had succumbed to disease and 120 (24·6%) patients had recurrent disease. Out of 120 recurrent cases loco-regional recurrence, nodal recurrence and distant metastases were seen in 62 (51·7%), 25 (20·8%), 33 (27·5%), respectively. In the entire study cohort at 2 year OS and DFS was 80 and 79% whereas 3 years OS and DFS was 70 and 75%, respectively.
In our study, 2 years and 3 years OS and DFS rates are found comparable to the international data with acceptable toxicity profile with the use of modulated RT. It seems to be possible because of stringent departmental protocols and good medical physics support. Our data re-validates need and benefit of advanced RT techniques like IG-IMRT and VMAT for both postoperative and radical HNC treatment at the cost of minimal long-term side effects. Future stringent follow-up and quality of life issues are being considered in a prospective manner.
With the rapid development of telescopes, both temporal cadence and the spatial resolution of observations are increasing. This in turn generates vast amount of data, which can be efficiently searched only with automated detections in order to derive the features of interest in the observations. A number of automated detection methods and algorithms have been developed for solar activities, based on the image processing and machine learning techniques. In this paper, after briefly reviewing some automated detection methods, we describe our efficient and versatile automated detection method for solar filaments. It is able not only to recognize filaments, determine the features such as the position, area, spine, and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. It is applied to process the full disk Hα data observed in nearly three solar cycles, and some statistic results are presented.
We analyze Sun-as-a-star observations spanning over solar cycles 22 – 24 from the ground-based network BiSON and solar cycles 23 – 24 collected by the space-based VIRGO and GOLF instruments on board the SoHO satellite. Using simultaneous observations from all three instruments, our analysis suggests that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for modifying the frequencies remained comparable between cycle 23 and cycle 24 but differ from cycle 22. Thus we infer that the magnetic layer of the Sun has become thinner since the beginning of cycle 23 and continues during the current cycle.
We could identify three categories of solar proton events (SPE) with distinct solar origin from an analysis of direct and indirect observations during the years 1561-2016 CE spanning 42 sunspot cycles. They are (i) 10 MeV SPE whose number of occurrences closely follow the sunspot cycles (ii) 30 MeV SPE which show secular changes with peaks near Gleissberg solar cycle minima and inferred to be associated with distinct enhancements in the efficiency of the solar dynamo and (iii) those associated with Impulsive and irregular solar activity changes such as the Carrington event of September 1859. The relevance of above results for stars exhibiting cyclic and irregular activity changes will be also discussed.
The kinematic modeling of the solar convection zone remains the workhorse of the solar dynamo to understand the solar cycle. During the past several years, the major progress in understanding the solar cycle using kinematic models is as follows. (1). The Babcock-Leighton (BL) mechanism was confirmed to be at the essence of the solar cycle. (2). The scatter of sunspot tilt angles is identified as a major cause of solar cycle irregularities. (3). The important roles of the magnetic pumping in the dynamo process are recognized. (4). Some 3D kinematic BL type dynamo models have been developed. As a key part of the solar dynamo loop, the surface observable part of the BL mechanism makes the physics-based solar cycle prediction feasible. Including the effects of the tilt scatter on the polar field generation, the possible strength of the subsequent cycle can be predicted when a cycle starts for a few years.
We utilized line-of-sight magnetograms acquired by HMI/SDO to derive the value of turbulent magnetic diffusivity in undisturbed photosphere. Two areas, a coronal hole area (CH) and an area a super-granulation pattern, SG, were analyzed. The behavior of the turbulent diffusion coefficient on time scales of 1000-40000 s and spatial scales of 500-6000 km was explored. Small magnetic elements in both CH and SG areas disperse in the same way and they are more mobile than the large elements. The regime of super-diffusivity is found for small elements (the turbulent diffusion coefficient K growths from 100 to 300 km2 s−1). Large magnetic elements disperse differently in the CH and SG areas. Comparison of these results with the previously published shows that there is a tendency of saturation of the diffusion coefficient on large scales, i.e., the turbulent regime of super-diffusivity gradually ceases so that normal diffusion with a constant value of K ≈ 500 km2 s−1 might be observed on time scales longer than a day. The results show that the turbulent diffusivity should not be considered in modeling as a scalar, the flux- and scale-dependence is obvious.
The solar oscillation frequencies have shown variation over the solar activity cycle, which is believed to be the indicator of the structural and magnetic changes taking place in the Sun. The ground-based network of six identical solar telescopes in the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) program has been nearly-continuously observing the Sun since the last quarter of the year 1995 for Doppler imaging of the solar-disk aimed to study the oscillations and velocity flows on the surface of the Sun. In this work, we study the variations in the solar disk-integrated mean velocity flows on the solar surface as observed with the GONG over the complete Solar Cycle 23 and ongoing Cycle 24. The correlation analysis of these solar photospheric mean velocity flows relative to the various solar activity indicators is also discussed.
The particular environment with high temperature and low plasma density in the corona results to the formation of some forbidden emission lines, in which the well-known green line at 530.3 nm has been utilized to diagnose the corona for a few decades. For the green line, besides its contribution on revealing the long-term coronal cycles as well as their relationship to the other solar phenomena, it is also helpful to detect limb coronal waves and ejections originated from the lower corona which seems not to be paid close attention to. Suggestions are presented that we not only need to keep the green line observation as a routine task for current coronagraph observations, but need to develop larger coronagraphs with advanced technology.
The process of the magnetic polarity reversal of the Sun has been an important subject in the solar physics. The objective of this study is to investigate how solar global magnetic field change over solar cycle by tracking the migration of open magnetic flux regions. The results show that the open magnetic fluxes migrate from one pole to the other crossing the equator during a solar cycle. The migration rate is approximately 10 m s−1, comparable to meridional flow. The results have been published in Scientific Reports (Huang et al. (2017)).
Generally Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun into interplanetary space. CMEs are most frequently associated with a variety of phenomena occurring in the lower corona before, during and after onset of eruption and generally are visible in coronagraph observation. Stealth CMEs do not obviously exhibit any of the low-coronal signatures (LCS) like solar flares, flows, jets, coronal dimmings or brightenings, filament eruptions or the formation of flare loop arcades. In this study, five stealth CMEs are selected using LASCO/SOHO CME catalogue and associated ICMEs (Interplanetaty CMEs) are identified using data from STEREO, ACE and WIND.
By considering the physical properties of Sun-like G stars and their exoplanets, present study examines whether presence of planets near the host stars enhances their stellar activity. In order to attain this goal, chromospheric RHK index data-a proxy for the magnetic activity-for the stars with and without planets is considered. With the reasonable constraints on the exoplanetary data, we obtained a power law decay relationship between the magnetic activity of host stars and their ages, for stars with and without planets. Both these results strongly suggest that there is no difference in magnetic activity of the sun-like stars with and without presence of planets. In order to confirm this result, further we also examine an association between the host stars RHK index that have exoplanets and their respective exoplanetary masses. We find that magnitude of RHK (hence magnetic activity) of the host stars is independent of presence of planetary mass in its vicinity.
After decades of effort, the solar magnetic cycle is exceptionally well characterized, but it remains poorly understood. Pioneering work at the Mount Wilson Observatory demonstrated that other Sun-like stars also show regular activity cycles, and identified two distinct relationships between the rotation rate and the length of the cycle. The solar cycle appears to be an outlier, falling between the two stellar relationships, potentially threatening the very foundation of the solar-stellar connection. Recent discoveries emerging from NASA’s Kepler space telescope have started to shed light on this perplexing result, suggesting that the Sun’s rotation rate and magnetic field are currently in a transitional phase that occurs in all middle-aged stars. We have recently identified the manifestation of this magnetic transition in the best available data on stellar cycles. These observations suggest that the solar cycle is currently growing longer on stellar evolutionary timescales, and that the global dynamo may shut down entirely sometime in the next 0.8-2.4 Gyr. Future tests of this hypothesis will come from ground-based activity monitoring of Kepler targets that span the magnetic transition, and from asteroseismology with the TESS mission to determine precise masses and ages for bright stars with known cycles.
The tilt angle of a sunspot group is a critical quantity in the surface transport of magnetic flux and the solar dynamo. To contribute long-term databases of the tilt angle, we developed an IDL routine, which allows the user to interactively select and measure sunspot positions and areas on the solar disc. We measured the tilt angles of sunspot groups for solar cycles 19-24 (1954.6-2017.8), using the sunspot drawing database of Kandilli Observatory. The method is similar to that used in the discontinued Mt. Wilson and Kodaikanal databases, with the exception that sunspot groups were identified manually, which has improved the accuracy of the resulting tilt angles. We obtained cycle averages of the tilt angle and compared them with the values from other datasets, keeping the same group selection criteria. We conclude that the previously reported anti-correlation with the cycle strength needs further investigation.
We study the properties of coronal holes during solar cycle 21-23 from the McIntosh archive. In the spatial distribution of coronal hole area we find that there is a sharp increase in coronal hole area at high latitude in agreement with expected open flux configuration there. In overall spatiotemporal distribution of coronal hole centroids, we find the dominance of high latitude coronal holes except for the maximum of the solar cycle, when coronal holes mostly appear in low latitudes. This is in agreement with the expected solar cycle evolution of surface magnetic flux.
Solar wind kinetic energy gets transferred into the Earth’s magnetosphere as a result of dynamo action between magnetosphere and solar wind. Energy is then dissipated among various dissipation channels in the MI system. In the present study, energetics of 59 intense geomagnetic storms are analyzed for the period between 1986 and 2015, which covers the three consecutive solar cycles SC 22, 23 and 24. The average solar wind energy impinging the MI system is estimated using Epsilon parameter, the coupling function. Moreover, the relative importance of different energy sinks in the MI system are quantified and is found that more than 60% of solar wind energy is dissipated in the form of ionospheric Joule heating.
We present here the observations of solar jets observed on April 04, 2017 from NOAA active region (AR) 12644 using high temporal and spatial resolution AIA instrument. We have observed around twelve recurring jets during the whole day. Magnetic flux emergence and cancellation have been observed at the jet location. The multi-band observations evidenced that these jets were triggered due to the magnetic reconnection at low coronal null–point.
The Chinese Solar and Geophysical Data (CSGD) was first issued at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now the headquarter of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1971, when China’s satellite-industry was booming. CSGD covers the observational data (observations of the sunspots, solar flares, solar radio bursts, ionospheric storm and geomagnetic storm) from a couple of domestic observatories and the forecast data. The compiler of CSGD still keeps the data exchange with other institutes worldwide. The type of the dataset includes texts, tables, figures and so on. Up to now, we have electronized all the historic archives, making them easily accessible to people who are interested in them.