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Pakistan is at the verge of polio eradication but isolation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases may result in serious or even fatal outcome. Many enteroviruses share similar symptoms and epidemiology as is the case with poliovirus and coxsackievirus (CV). The present study was designed to genetically characterize coxsackievirus B (CV-B) serotypes isolated from non-polio acute flaccid paralytic children, as well as to understand their probable role in paralysis. A total of 63 (20·1%) out of 313 stool samples during 2013 were found positive for NPEVs in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Only 24 (38·0%) NPEVs were typed as CV-B by microneutralization assay and were further characterized by sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. Molecular phylogenetic analyses classified the study strains into six coxsackievirus B serotypes (coxsackievirus B1 to B6) with their respective prototype strains with evidence of epidemiological linkage and distinct clusters. Moreover, four major differences were found within the amino acid sequences of BC-loop in VP1 of CV-B strains. In conclusion, this study presented the molecular evolutionary genetic overview and distinct phylogenetic pattern of CV-B isolates from AFP cases in Pakistan, and explored the possible link between CV-B infections and AFP cases. Furthermore, our data reveal that these viruses might contribute to the incidence of paralysis in population and there is need of time to establish an enterovirus surveillance system for better understanding of epidemiological and virological characteristics of NPEV infections associated with AFP cases in the country.
The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders.
A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded. The primary outcomes were associations of genres with the medical usage rate (MUR). Secondary outcomes investigated were the association of confounders and the influences on the level of care provided, the transport rate, and the nature of medical complaint.
A total of 2,399,864 concert attendees, of which 4,546 patients presented to venue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during 403 concerts with an average of 11.4 patients (annual range 7.1-17.4) each concert. Of potential confounders, only the heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C) and whether the event was a festival were significant (P=.027 and .001, respectively). After adjustment, the genres with significantly increased MUR in decreasing order were: alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music (P<.05). Medical complaints were significantly increased with alternative rock or when the heat index was ≥90°F (32.2°C; P<.001). Traumatic injuries were most significantly increased with alternative rock (P<.001). Alcohol or drug intoxication was significantly more common in hip-hop/rap (P<.001). Transport rates were highest with alcohol/drug intoxicated patients (P<.001), lowest with traumatic injuries (P=.004), and negatively affected by heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C; P=.008), alternative rock (P=.017), and country music (P=.033).
Alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music concerts had higher levels of medical resource utilization. High heat indices and music festivals also increase the MUR. This information can assist event planners with preparation and resource utilization. Future research should focus on prospective validation of the regression equation.
Westrol MS, KoneruS, McIntyreN, Caruso AT, ArshadFH, MerlinMA. Music Genre as a Predictor of Resource Utilization at Outdoor Music Concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):289–296.
We consider the ergodic (or additive eigenvalue) problem for the Neumann-type boundary-value problem for Hamilton–Jacobi equations and the corresponding discounted problems. Denoting by uλ the solution of the discounted problem with discount factor λ > 0, we establish the convergence of the whole family to a solution of the ergodic problem as λ → 0, and give a representation formula for the limit function via the Mather measures and Peierls function. As an interesting by-product, we introduce Mather measures associated with Hamilton–Jacobi equations with the Neumann-type boundary conditions. These results are variants of the main results in a recent paper by Davini et al., who study the same convergence problem on smooth compact manifolds without boundary.
Two-fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) equations are employed to investigate linear and nonlinear properties of the magnetosonic waves in a semi-relativistic dense plasma accounting for degenerate relativistic electrons. In the linear analysis, a plane wave solution is used to derive the dispersion relation of magnetosonic waves, which is significantly modified due to relativistic degenerate electrons. However, for a nonlinear investigation of solitary and shock waves, we employ the reductive perturbation technique for the derivation of Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) and Korteweg–de Vries Burger (KdVB) equations, admitting nonlinear wave solutions. Numerically, it is shown that the wave frequency decreases to attain a lowest possible value at a certain critical number density
, and then increases beyond
as the plasma number density increases. Moreover, the relativistic electrons and associated pressure degeneracy lead to a reduction in the spatial extents of the magnetosonic waves and a strengthening of the shock amplitude. The results might be important for understanding the linear and nonlinear magnetosonic excitations in dense astrophysical plasmas, such as in white dwarfs, magnetars and neutron stars, etc., where relativistic degenerate electrons are present.
The formation and propagation characteristics of small-amplitude magnetoacoustic dark/grey solitons are investigated in a semi relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma whose constituents are electrons and singly ionized positive ions. For this purpose, the electrons are assumed to follow the degeneracy pressure law through the Chandrasekhar equation of state, while the inertial cold ions are taken as non-degenerate and magnetized. By solving the one-fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model with the aid of a reductive perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is derived for weakly nonlinear envelope magnetoacoustic solitons. The NLS equation admits the existence of stable excitations, e.g. dark and grey solitons for which the condition
holds. Numerical results reveal that the variation of plasma number density, magnetic field strength, relativistic parameter
and the quantum parameter
significantly modify the profiles of the envelope magnetoacoustic solitons. The present results are important to understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of magnetoacoustic solitons in astrophysical dense magnetoplasmas (viz., white dwarfs, magnetars, neutron stars, etc.), where the relativistic degeneracy effects play a vital role in collective interactions.
Cu90Ag10 alloys were subjected to severe plastic deformation at temperatures ranging from 25 to 400 °C and strain rates ranging from 0.1 to 6.25 s−1 using high-pressure torsion. The deformed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom-probe tomography. A dynamic competition between shear-induced mixing and thermally activated decomposition led to the self-organization of the Cu–Ag system at length scales varying from a few atomic distances at room temperature to ≈50 nm at 400 °C. Steady-state microstructural length scales were minimally affected by varying the strain rate, although at 400 °C, the grain morphology did depend on strain-rate. Our results show that diffusion below 300 °C is dominated by nonequilibrium vacancies, and by comparison with previous Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations [D. Schwen et al., J. Mater. Res.28, 2687–2693 (2013)], their concentration could be obtained.
We assessed for vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) precursor organisms in southeastern Michigan, an area known to have VRSA. The prevalence was 2.5% (pSK41-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 2009–2011) and 1.5% (Inc18-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 2006–2013); Inc18 prevalence significantly decreased after 2009 (3.7% to 0.82%). Risk factors for pSK41 included intravenous vancomycin exposure.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1531–1534
This study aimed to describe the transmission dynamics, the serological and virus excretion patterns of Nipah virus (NiV) in Pteropus vampyrus bats. Bats in captivity were sampled every 7–21 days over a 1-year period. The data revealed five NiV serological patterns categorized as high and low positives, waning, decreasing and increasing, and negative in these individuals. The findings strongly suggest that NiV circulates in wild bat populations and that antibody could be maintained for long periods. The study also found that pup and juvenile bats from seropositive dams tested seropositive, indicating that maternal antibodies against NiV are transmitted passively, and in this study population may last up to 14 months. NiV was isolated from the urine of one bat, and within a few weeks, two other seronegative bats seroconverted. Based on the temporal cluster of seroconversion, we strongly believe that the NiV isolated was recrudesced and then transmitted horizontally between bats during the study period.
A polymeric chelating ligand containing hydroxamic acid and amidoxime functional groups were prepared from acrylate polymer grafted acacia cellulose and this ligand was introduced to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The heavy metals binding property with this ligand is excellent up to 3.78 mmol/ g sorbent and the rate of exchange of some metals was very fast i.e. t½ ≈ 6 min (average). Two types of wastewater from electroplating plants used in this study those containing chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron etc. Before removing heavy metals from wastewater, pH was adjusted to 4 and various metal concentrations were used for finding the extraction capability of the ligand. It was found that the metals recovery was highly efficient, up to 99.99% of several heavy metals were removed from electroplating wastewater using the ligands. Therefore, the proposed polymeric chelating ligands could be used to the remove such heavy metals from industrial wastewater and as well as effective ligands for environment protection.
We investigate the effect of a weak ambipolar field on non-local heat transport by solving the reduced Fokker-Planck equation in the non-diffusive approximation for the electron distribution function. It turns out that for a moderately high-Z plasma with steep gradients the maximum-heat-flow expression is modified and the ensuing results compare favourably with the experimental values. However, in the gentle-gradient limit the classical Spitzer-Härm heat flux expression is unaltered.
The terms ‘conversion’, ‘hysteria’ and ‘conversion hysteria’ were used interchangeably to describe a condition characterised by a single somatised symptom, often pseudo-neurological in nature. DSM–III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) expanded the concept of conversion to generalised symptoms involving loss or alteration of physical functioning suggestive of a physical disorder, along with a clinical indication that the conversion was an expression of psychological conflict or need. The type of symptom or deficit should be specified as: with motor symptom or deficit, with sensory symptom or deficit, with seizure or convulsions, or with mixed presentation (Kaplan & Sadock, 2004).