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The Systems Ecology Paradigm (SEP) incorporates humans as integral parts of ecosystems and emphasizes issues that have significant societal relevance such as grazing land, forestland, and agricultural ecosystem management, biodiversity and global change impacts. Accomplishing this societally relevant research requires cutting-edge basic and applied research. This book focuses on environmental and natural resource challenges confronting local to global societies for which the SEP methodology must be utilized for resolution. Key elements of SEP are a holistic perspective of ecological/social systems, systems thinking, and the ecosystem approach applied to real world, complex environmental and natural resource problems. The SEP and ecosystem approaches force scientific emphasis to be placed on collaborations with social scientists and behavioral, learning, and marketing professionals. The SEP has given environmental scientists, decision makers, citizen stakeholders, and land and water managers a powerful set of tools to analyse, integrate knowledge, and propose adoption of solutions to important local to global problems.
This book is a guide to doing a new kind of psychological research that focuses on the purposes rather than the causes of behavior. The research methods described here are based on a theory of behaviour called Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) that views organisms as purposeful rather than mechanical systems. According to PCT, purposeful behaviour involves acting to control perceptual input variables. Thus, understanding the purposeful behaviour of living organisms is a matter of determining the perceptual variables they are controlling when they are carrying out various behaviors. This book outlines research methods that determine what perceptual variables an organism is controlling, how it controls those variables, and why. It also describes methods for studying how an organism develops the ability to control different perceptions and how consciousness might be involved in this process.
Self-determination theory is a generalized theory of behavior that focuses on motivation quality and psychological need satisfaction as preeminent behavioral determinants. The theory distinguishes between autonomous and controlled forms of motivation. Autonomous motivation reflects willingly engaging in behaviors for self-endorsed reasons, whereas controlled motivation reflects engaging in behavior for externally or internally pressured or controlled reasons. Satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is necessary for optimal functioning and well-being, and influences the form of motivation, autonomous or controlled, experienced by individuals when acting. Autonomous motivation is consistently related to sustained behavior change and adaptive outcomes. Interventions to promote autonomous motivation have targeted psychological need support provided by social agents (e.g., leaders, managers, teachers, health professionals), particularly autonomy need support. Interventions using need-supportive techniques have demonstrated efficacy in promoting autonomous motivation, behavior change, and adaptive outcomes. Research has identified behaviors displayed, and language used, by social agents, or communicated by other means, that support autonomous motivation. Autonomy-support training programs have been developed to train social agents to promote autonomous motivation and behavior change. Future research needs to examine the unique and interactive effects of specific autonomy-support techniques, provide further evidence for long-term efficacy, and examine “dose” effects and long-term efficacy.
Considerable and continuing interest has been shown in the thin film transducer fabrication for surface acoustic waves (SAW) in the past few years. Due to the high degree of miniaturization, compatibility with silicon integrated circuit technology, simplicity and ease of design, this new technology has played an important role in the design of new devices for communications and signal processing. Among the commonly used piezoelectric thin films, ZnO generally yields superior electromechanical properties and is expected to play a leading role in the development of SAW devices.
As a continuation of our previous studies of cercarial ultrastructure: furcocercous, longifurcate-pharyngeate cercariae identified as Alaria sp. were harvested from infected snails (Heliosoma sp.) collected near Chico, CA.
Cercariae were fixed in 2.5% Sorensen's phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde, and then 1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dehydrated in ethanol, and flat-embedded in Spurr's resin.
Both the body (Fig. 1) and the tail had pronounced filamentous surface coats. Spines were numerous on syncytial body tegument (Fig. 1) and tail furcae, but absent on the tail stem.
The circular and longitudinal muscles of the body (Fig. 1), circular and radial muscles of the ventral sucker, and excretory bladder muscles (Fig. 2) all had a "non-striated" appearance which is characteristic of slowly contracting fibers. The latter finding contrasts with the "striated" nature of oral sucker muscles in Cryptocotyle lingua. Tail muscles were striated like those of Cotylurus (another closely related furcocercous, strigeoid cercaria).
A single radiocarbon date derived from the Buhl burial in south-central Idaho has frequently been used as a data point for the interpretation of the Western Stemmed Tradition (WST) chronology and technology because of the stemmed biface found in situ with the human remains. AMS dating of bone collagen in 1991 produced an age of 10,675 ± 95 14C BP, immediately postdating the most widely accepted age range for Clovis. The Buhl burial has been cited as evidence that stemmed point technology may have overlapped with Clovis technology in the Intermountain West. We discuss concerns about the radiocarbon date, arguing that even at face value, the calibrated date has minimal overlap with Clovis at the 95.4% range. Furthermore, the C:N ratio of 3.69 in the analyzed collagen is outside of the typical range for well-preserved samples, indicating a postdepositional change in carbon composition, which may make the date erroneously older or younger than the age of the skeleton. Finally, the potential dietary incorporation of small amounts of anadromous fish may indicate that the burial is younger than traditionally accepted. For these reasons, we argue that the Buhl burial cannot be used as evidence of overlap between WST and Clovis.
This chapter examines how Eighth Amendment standards banning disproportionately severe penalties could and should take account of traditional purposes of punishment, in particular, retributive and non-retributive (crime-control) goals and limitations.
To assess the utility of an automated, statistically-based outbreak detection system to identify clusters of hospital-acquired microorganisms.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
The study included 43 hospitals using a common infection prevention surveillance system.
A space–time permutation scan statistic was applied to hospital microbiology, admission, discharge, and transfer data to identify clustering of microorganisms within hospital locations and services. Infection preventionists were asked to rate the importance of each cluster. A convenience sample of 10 hospitals also provided information about clusters previously identified through their usual surveillance methods.
We identified 230 clusters in 43 hospitals involving Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Half of the clusters progressed after initial detection, suggesting that early detection could trigger interventions to curtail further spread. Infection preventionists reported that they would have wanted to be alerted about 81% of these clusters. Factors associated with clusters judged to be moderately or highly concerning included high statistical significance, large size, and clusters involving Clostridioides difficile or multidrug-resistant organisms. Based on comparison data provided by the convenience sample of hospitals, only 9 (18%) of 51 clusters detected by usual surveillance met statistical significance, and of the 70 clusters not previously detected, 58 (83%) involved organisms not routinely targeted by the hospitals’ surveillance programs. All infection prevention programs felt that an automated outbreak detection tool would improve their ability to detect outbreaks and streamline their work.
Automated, statistically-based outbreak detection can increase the consistency, scope, and comprehensiveness of detecting hospital-associated transmission.
Adverse programming of adult non-communicable disease can be induced by poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the periconception period has been identified as a vulnerable period. In the current study, we used a mouse maternal low-protein diet fed either for the duration of pregnancy (LPD) or exclusively during the preimplantation period (Emb-LPD) with control nutrition provided thereafter and postnatally to investigate effects on fetal bone development and quality. This model has been shown previously to induce cardiometabolic and neurological disease phenotypes in offspring. Micro 3D computed tomography examination at fetal stages Embryonic day E14.5 and E17.4, reflecting early and late stages of bone formation, demonstrated LPD treatment caused increased bone formation of relative high mineral density quality in males, but not females, at E14.5, disproportionate to fetal growth, with bone quality maintained at E17.5. In contrast, Emb-LPD caused a late increase in male fetal bone growth, proportionate to fetal growth, at E17.5, affecting central and peripheral skeleton and of reduced mineral density quality relative to controls. These altered dynamics in bone growth coincide with increased placental efficiency indicating compensatory responses to dietary treatments. Overall, our data show fetal bone formation and mineral quality is dependent upon maternal nutritional protein content and is sex-specific. In particular, we find the duration and timing of poor maternal diet to be critical in the outcomes with periconceptional protein restriction leading to male offspring with increased bone growth but of poor mineral density, thereby susceptible to later disease risk.
Changed spatial configurations at sowing have been investigated as a strategy to minimize interspecific competition and improve the establishment and persistence of multi-species plantings in pastures, but the impact of this practice on the soil microbiome has received almost no previous research attention. Differences in populations of bacteria and fungi in the surface 10 cm of soil in the third year following pasture establishment were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Populations were compared on, and between, drill rows sown to either the perennial grass phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.), perennial legume lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or the annual legume subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Results showed that soil microbial abundance and diversity were related to plant distribution across the field at the time of sampling and to soil chemical parameters including total carbon (C), mineral nitrogen (N), pH, and available phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulfur (S). Despite the 27-month lag since sowing, pasture species remained concentrated around the original drill row with very little colonization of the inter-row area. The abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal populations were consistently greater under drill rows associated with higher total C concentrations in the surface soil compared with the inter-row areas. Our results showed that the pH and available nutrients were similar between the subterranean clover drill row and the inter-row, suggesting that soil microbial populations were not impacted directly by these soil fertility parameters, but rather were related to the presence or absence of plants. The abundance of bacteria and fungi were numerically lower under phalaris rows compared to rows sown to legumes. The richness and diversity of fungal populations were lowest between rows where lucerne was planted. Possible explanations for this observation include a lower C:N ratio of lucerne roots and/or a lack of fibrous roots at the soil surface compared to the other species, illustrating the influence of contrasting plant types on the soil microflora community. This study highlights the enduring legacy of the drill row on the spatial distribution of plants well into the pasture phase of a cropping rotation and discusses the opportunity to enhance the microbiome of cropping soils on a large scale during the pasture phase by increasing plant distribution across the landscape.
Although trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) is the frontline treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one-third of patients are treatment non-responders. To identify neural markers of treatment response to TF-CBT when participants are reappraising aversive material.
This study assessed PTSD patients (n = 37) prior to TF-CBT during functional magnetic brain resonance imaging (fMRI) when they reappraised or watched traumatic images. Patients then underwent nine sessions of TF-CBT, and were then assessed for symptom severity on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. FMRI responses for cognitive reappraisal and emotional reactivity contrasts of traumatic images were correlated with the reduction of PTSD severity from pretreatment to post-treatment.
Symptom improvement was associated with decreased activation of the left amygdala during reappraisal, but increased activation of bilateral amygdala and hippocampus during emotional reactivity prior to treatment. Lower connectivity of the left amygdala to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and right insula, and that between the left hippocampus and right amygdala were also associated with symptom improvement.
These findings provide evidence that optimal treatment response to TF-CBT involves the capacity to engage emotional networks during emotional processing, and also to reduce the engagement of these networks when down-regulating emotions.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
Although it is well-known that infanticide (murder of child< 1year) is typically for young women and libericide (murder of child≥1year) for older melancholic women, comprehensive differences between these two kinds of murderers remain little-known. Our objective was to describe their demographic, clinical and criminological differences.
We collected 41 psychiatric expert examinations in criminal cases of child murder between 2000 and 2005 and compared, after sex-matching, those responsible for infanticide (n=16) and libericide (n=25).
Compared to perpetrators of infanticide, subjects responsible for libericide were older (24 and 33 respectively, p=0.012), and had a psychiatric history (35% versus 71%, p=0.005) and convictions for violence towards others (6% versus 29%, p=0.022). A the time of the crime, 77% of libericide perpetrators were suffering from a psychotic, depressive, cognitive or personality disorders while only 53% of perpetrators of infanticide were ill (p=0.024). Although there was no significant difference in regard of the circumstances of the act or the gender of the victim, we found that head trauma, suffocation and drowning were the most frequent means of infanticide while libericide perpetrators used more active methods such as shooting, strangulation and striking (p=0.007) in a dynamic of homicide-suicide. Finally, it has to be noted that the perpetrators of libericide were more often unfit to plead than the perpetrators of infanticide (p=0.067).
Our results confirm the relevance of Resnick's typology of child murders, distinguishing infanticide and libericide which different criminological dynamics are fundamental for medico-legal orientation and capacity to plead.
Around thirty of cases of public self-immolation occurred in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Lithuania between 1968 and 1972 in the background of protest movement against the Soviet ledinvasion. Rather than an act of a political protest, in a moment of absurdity of the existence, or a rational solution aimed to finish a desperate life situation, could a self-immolation also testify a suicidal behaviour and a failure of adaptation mechanisms of the victims concomitant a mental disorder?
We have selected and studied four most mediated cases of this period. Press articles available in English, French and Czech, biographical writings and czech archived data concerning Palach J. R. Kalanta, J. Zajic and R. Siwiec allowed us to retrospectively analyse the circumstances of the acting out, their apparent or hidden motivations and identify their suicidal risk factors.
All the four victims were men, young single students, aged between 18 and 21 years, excepted from R. Siwiec, aged 60 years. None had a psychiatric history or abuse of alcohol. All four, in the opposition of the communist system, were surrounded by a supporting family background. The public character of their act highlights the opposition against a totalitarian system and is questionning the possible intentionality of their behavior or the identification process of the young adults in post-adolescence.
Immolation by fire of Soviet opponents in Central Europe should be revised in the light of the likely depression and narcissistic vulnerabilities of these subjects.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended in treatment guidelines as an efficacious therapy for treatment-resistant depression. However, it has been associated with loss of autobiographical memory and short-term reduction in new learning.
To provide clinically useful guidelines to aid clinicians in informing patients regarding the cognitive side-effects of ECT and in monitoring these during a course of ECT, using complex data.
A Committee of clinical and academic experts from Australia and New Zealand met to the discuss the key issues pertaining to ECT and cognitive side-effects. Evidence regarding cognitive side-effects was reviewed, as was the limited evidence regarding how to monitor them. Both issues were supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors.
Meta-analyses suggest that new learning is impaired immediately following ECT but that group mean scores return at least to baseline by 14 days after ECT. Other cognitive functions are generally unaffected. However, the finding of a mean score that is not reduced from baseline cannot be taken to indicate that impairment, particularly of new learning, cannot occur in individuals, particularly those who are at greater risk. Therefore, monitoring is still important. Evidence suggests that ECT does cause deficits in autobiographical memory. The evidence for schedules of testing to monitor cognitive side-effects is currently limited. We therefore make practical recommendations based on clinical experience.
Despite modern ECT techniques, cognitive side-effects remain an important issue, although their nature and degree remains to be clarified fully. In these circumstances it is useful for clinicians to have guidance regarding what to tell patients and how to monitor these side-effects clinically.
To establish the social, clinical and forensic differences between murderers with schizophrenia and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and to compare their respective relationship with their victim.
We identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 14 murderers with schizophrenia from 210 forensic examinations of murderers, and compared their profiles with those of murderers without any mental disorder (n=73).
Murderers with schizophrenia are characterized by a specific socio-professional status (single, living alone and jobless). Previous psychiatric history was significantly more common in the schizophrenia group than in the group of persons without mental disorder, as it was the case as regards previous contact with the police.
Schizophrenic murderers generally commit, alone, a non-premeditated murder. They usually strangle their victim in a sudden attack, whereas murderers without any pathology usually premeditate their crime. 86% of perpetrators with schizophrenia have been in a delirium at the time they committed murder, among four main themes: persecution, thought insertion, mysticism and megalomania.
Victims of murderers with schizophrenia were family members in 21% of cases, acquaintances in 57% and a stranger in 14%. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the schizophrenia group than in the no mental disorder group (86% versus 77%, p=0,002).
The main difference between murderers with schizophrenia and murderers without any mental disorder is the psychopathology of the morbid process which underlies the homicide. The most schizophrenics’ homicide was more likely to be against intimates than strangers.