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Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
Background: Post-craniotomy pain can be severe and undermanaged. While opioids are the mainstay treatment, they have the potential to interfere with neurological monitoring. The objectives of this review are: 1) to identify measures to provide opioid-free analgesia 2) to compare the effectiveness of non-opioid to opioid analgesia in post-craniotomy pain. Methods: A comprehensive search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases was conducted for RCTs evaluating the effect of opioid vs non-opioid pain control strategies in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. Results: The literature search yielded 462 citations, 5 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria for a total of 250 patients. Scalp infiltration/block was found to provide equivalent analgesia to morphine1 and fentanyl.2 Morphine was associated with slightly higher postoperative nausea and vomiting. Paracetamol was less likely to induce nausea and vomiting,3,4 but provided inadequate pain relief compared to nalbuphine,3 tramadol,3 morphine4 and sufentanil.4 Dexmedetomidine5 provided similar analgesia to remifentanil but did delay the time to first dose of rescue analgesia with similar side effects. Conclusions: Based on the limited number of RCTs comparing opioid to non-opioid techniques, no definite recommendations can be made with regards to the optimal management of post-craniotomy pain. Considerations should be made for use of multimodal analgesia-including adjuvant analgesics.
The meteoroid ablation is an important source of upper atmosphere metal atoms. Many meteoroids ablate between 70 - 110 km and form an ionized plasma trail which is detected by radar technique. It is also known that the ablation heights of the meteors depend on various factors such as velocity, mass, and its composition, etc. The meteor ablation height provides new opportunities to gather information on the neutral atmosphere in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In this study, we analysed the 11 years of meteor radar data (2005 - 2015), i.e., descending phase of solar cycle 23, and ascending phase of solar cycle 24, detected by all sky meteor radar at Thumba. We found that the solar activity influences the meteor ablation height, here, during the solar maxima meteor peak detection height rise to few hundred meters higher altitudes. We also examined the long term pattern of the meteor count rate which shows a decreasing trend and has good agreement with the sunspot number (SSN).
In the southeastern United States, Amaranthus, or pigweed species, have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies for the control of these species, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricultural issues at local, county, state, national, and global levels. Also, they allow users to combine different layers of geographic information to help them develop strategic plans to solve problems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in testing free and open-source GIS software for weed surveys. In this study, the free and open-source software QGIS was used to develop a geographic information database showing the distribution of pigweeds at the county level in the southeastern United States. The maps focused on the following pigweeds: Palmer amaranth, redroot pigweed, and tall waterhemp. Cultivated areas and glyphosate-resistant (GR) pigweed data were added to the GIS database. Database queries were used to demonstrate applications of the GIS for precision agriculture applications at the county level, such as tallying the number of counties affected by the pigweeds, identifying counties reporting GR pigweed, and identifying cultivated areas located in counties with GR pigweeds. This research demonstrated that free and open-source software such as QGIS has strong potential as a decision support tool, with implications for precision weed management at the county scale.
In the present paper, we analyzed the effects of magnetic field on the three dimensional flow of a nanofluid having the suspension of ferrous nano-particles within the framework of a non-uniformly thicked sheet in a slip flow regime. The sheet of variable thickness is assumed to be stretched in horizontal and transverse directions. The effects of thermophoretic forces and Brownian motion have also been incorporated into the governing equations. The RK-Fehlberg-integration scheme with shooting technique is employed to resolve the altered governing non-linear differential equations. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented and discussed for two cases namely uniform thickness stretching sheet UTSS (n = 1) and variable thickness stretching sheet VTSS (n ≠ 1), and skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and analyzed through tables. The results reveal that heat and mass transfer processes over slendering sheet matches with those over a flat sheet in the presence of slip flow regime.
Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultural airplanes in acquiring high-resolution images at low altitudes and low speeds. UAVs are more universal than agricultural aircraft, because the latter are used only in specific regions. We have developed and used UAV systems for red–green–blue digital and color–infrared imaging over crop fields to identify weed species, determine crop injury from dicamba at different doses, and detect naturally grown glyphosate-resistant weeds. This article presents remote sensing technologies for weed management and focuses on development and application of UAV-based low-altitude remote sensing technology for precision weed management. In particular, this article futher discusses the potential application of UAV-based plant-sensing systems for mapping the distributions of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible weeds in crop fields.
Difficult terrain and inclement weather limit our knowledge of large predators, such as the tiger Panthera tigris, in the Himalayas. A lack of empirical data on large carnivores can lead to mismanagement of protected areas and population declines. We used non-invasive genetic and remote sensing data to inform the management of such high-altitude protected areas. We used the tiger as a focal species to investigate prey preference and habitat suitability in India's Buxa Tiger Reserve, which encompasses several eco-geographical regions in the Himalayan and subtropical zones. During 2010–2013, 909 faecal samples were collected, of which 372 were confirmed, using genetic analysis, to be of tiger origin. Fourteen prey species/groups were identified in 240 tiger faecal samples, largely dominated by goats Capra spp. (26.59%), rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta (22.22%) and cattle Bos spp. (20.63%). Considering only the wild prey species for which survey data are available, however, and frequency of occurrence of prey in faecal samples, hog deer Axis porcinus, sambar deer Rusa unicolor and spotted deer Axis axis were the most preferred prey species. Using faecal sample locations to examine the relationship between tiger presence and environmental features indicated that the niche for tigers is narrower than the available protected area: c. 62% of core protected area is suitable, of which only 17% is highly suitable for tigers. Tigers prefer dense vegetation, open forests, riverine vegetation and areas close to water sources. Faecal sample-based studies have the potential to generate data that can help us understand the ecology of elusive carnivore species inhabiting high-altitude landscapes.
Background: Surgery to remove dumbbell nerve sheath tumors (NST) is complex, and is accompanied by significant operative and perioperative challenges. Historically, resection of dumbbell NST required large operations involving opening the chest and laminectomy, often accompanied by instrumentation. We describe a case series of 5 patients who underwent single stage thorascopic-guided resection of dumbbell schwannoma at our institution. Methods: 5 cases presented consisted of moderate to large NST, which contained intraforaminal components. Tumor location ranged from T3-T9, with most tumors spanning 2-3 vertebral bodies. Presentation ranged from discomfort/pain (most common) to one presentation of neurologic deficit with difficulty with ambulation. Results: Thorascopic assisted resection accomplished gross total resection in 4 of the 5 cases. In all cases there was no significant neurologic deficit, although one patient reported transient numbness following the operation and all patients made significant improvement post operatively. The length of stay for these cases ranged from 1-6 days. Conclusions: Thorascopic assisted resection of dumbbell NST can be performed safely and with good outcomes by using the corridor the tumor produces. This approach reduces the need for instrumentation, length of stay and post operative complication rates relative to traditional approaches. To perform this approach effectively, good co-operation between the neurosurgeon and thoracic surgeon needs to be present.
Background: Iatrogenic dural tear a complication of spinal surgery with significant morbidity and cost to the healthcare system. The optimal management is unclear, and therefore we aimed to survey current practices among Canadian practitioners. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to members of the Canadian Neurological Surgeon’s Society designed to explore methods of closure of iatrogenic durotomy. Results: Spinal surgeons were surveyed with a 55% response rate (n=91). For pinhole sized tears there is a trend toward sealant fixation(36.7%). Medium and large sized tears are predominantly closed with sutures and sealant(67% and 80%, respectively). Anterior tears are managed using sealant alone(48%). Posterior tears are treated with a combination of sutures and sealant(73.8%). Nerve root tears are treated with either sealant alone(50%). Most respondents recommended bed rest for at least 24 hours in the setting of medium(73.2%) and large(89.1%) dural tears. Conclusions: This study elucidates the areas of uncertainty with regard to iatrogenic dural tear management. There is disagreement regarding management of anterior and nerve root tears, pin-hole sized tears in any location of the spine, and whether patients should be admitted to hospital or on bed-rest following a pin-hole sized dural tear. There is a need for a robust comparative research study of dural repair strategies.
Rarely has the policy of an individual government attracted as wide attention throughout the world as the racial policy of South Africa. It has been discussed in several organs of the United Nations, in specialized agencies of the United Nations, and in several other international and regional intergovernmental organizations; in the Parliament of many countries; and in numerous non-governmental organizations. A number of countries have broken diplomatic, consular and trade relations with South Africa or refrained from establishing such relations. Actions protesting apartheid have involved hundreds of thousands of people outside Africa. The publications and documents on apartheid fill a good-sized library.
The paper describes the dynamic ice-structure interaction study of monopod platforms (fixed type) which are of considerable interest to the off-shore oil industry in cold regions. In view of the scantiness of continuous ice-force records, artificial-force records are generated from available small-scale field ice-force records using stochastic concepts. The method, based on the similarity between the fluctuating parts of randomly varying ice-force records and the seismic records uses a non-stationary random process obtained from filtering a shot noise through a second-order filter. The dynamic response analysis of a monopod structure located at Cook Inlet, Alaska, is carried out by hybridizing the relevant sub-routines of the computer programmes, SAP IV (Structural Analysis Programme) and EATSW (Earthquake response of Axisymmetric Tower Structures surrounded by Water). The work includes a study of the influence of soil properties on the frequencies and responses, and a comparison between the responses of fixed and elastically supported (by the soil foundation) monopod platforms.
The present study investigates the flow and heat transfer characteristics of blood carrying gold nanoparticles in a porous channel with moving/stationary walls in the presence of thermal radiation. Blood is considered as Newtonian fluid which is the base fluid and gold (Au) as nanoparticles. The governing equations are transformed into system of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The analytical solutions are obtained for the flow variables by employing homotopy analysis method (HAM). The analytical solutions are compared with the numerical solutions which are obtained by shooting technique along with Runge-Kutta scheme. It was noticed that there is a good agreement between analytical and numerical results. The influence of various parameters on velocity, temperature and heat transfer rate of gold-blood nanofluid has been discussed in detail. The temperature of the nanofluid increases with increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction. The heat transfer rate at the top wall increases with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction while it decreases for a given increase in radiation parameter.
A male child, with d-transposition of great arteries, a large perimembranous ventricular septal defect, multiple additional ventricular septal defects, small muscle-bound right ventricle, and severe pulmonary stenosis with confluent, moderate-sized branch pulmonary arteries, underwent an emergency right modified Blalock–Taussig shunt on day 15 of life and réparation à l’étageventriculaire procedure with ventricular septal defect closure with takedown of the Blalock–Taussig shunt at 2.5 years of age. On follow-up, he showed a moderate residual upper ventricular septal defect and multiple apical ventricular septal defects, mild mid-right pulmonary artery stenosis, free pulmonary regurgitation, and right ventricular dysfunction. Surgical re-intervention was deemed extremely risky, the upper muscular ventricular septal defect was closed using an 8-mm Amplatzer Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Occluder Device, and an 18 mm Amplatzer Multi-Fenestrated Septal Occluder – Cribriform was used for the multiple apical muscular ventricular septal defects. After 1 year, his right pulmonary artery stenosis worsened, for which right pulmonary artery angioplasty was carried out using an 8×20 mm cutting balloon followed by a 10×20 mm Tyshak II balloon. This is the only case reported for the paediatric age group using a cribriform septal occluder device for percutaneous closure of multiple apical ventricular septal defects.
Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly that can be asymptomatic or present with recurrent infections, respiratory symptoms, or rarely heart failure. Sequestration is classified as intralobar or extralobar on the basis of whether there is separation from normal lung tissue by its own visceral pleura. Classically, patients are treated with surgical resection. We present a case of multivessel, combined intralobar and extralobar pulmonary sequestration treated with transcatheter embolisation.
To compare the image-based three-dimensional treatment planning using AcurosTM BV and AAPM TG-43 algorithm for intracavitary brachytherapy of carcinoma cervix.
Materials and methods
Twenty-seven patients with cancer cervix, stage IIB or IIIB with vaginal involvement limited to the upper third of the vagina was included into the study. Intracavitary treatments with the patient in this study done with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging compatible ring applicator. Groupe European de Curietherapie and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommended doses to target volumes and organs at risk compared using dose volume histogram.
The mean value of Point ‘A’ dose was compared between AcurosTM BV and TG-43, which indicates 0·13% difference. The differences in the mean dose to gross tumour volume for various volumes are V100% 0·28%, V150% 1·22% and V200% 1·03%; all volumes showed small difference but statistical significant (p<0·05). The mean dose of high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) D90 using AcurosTM BV was 8·47 Gy, which was 1·63% less compared with TG-43. The mean point A dose using AcurosTM BV is 1·04 times the dose to D90 of mean HRCTV. The same difference was observed in comparison with TG43. D2cc and D0·1cc of the bladder, rectum and sigmoid showed a statistically significant difference (p<0·05) in comparison with TG-43.
The differences in dosimetric parameters between the AcurosTM BV and TG-43 proved to be statistically significant. The difference is very small, and they are clinically insignificant.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
Proliferating trichilemmal tumour (PTT) is a benign tumour originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. In rare instances, malignant transformation has been reported, evidenced by regional or distant metastases. Malignant transformation of PTT is often confused with squamous cell carcinoma. PTT usually occur as a solitary lesion on the scalp. It was first described as a proliferating epidermoid cyst by Wilson-Jones in 1966.
A female patient presented with a growing lesion on scalp in the right parietal region. She had already undergone excision for the same 8 months ago. The cyst was surgically removed and scalp was treated with electron therapy using a field dimension of 8×8 cm in 2011. Now, the patient is disease free with good quality of life.
Oncologists can consider electron therapy in management of PTT. This can improve cosmesis and quality of life of these patients.