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Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is one of the most destructive biotic production constraints in mungbean. Development and introduction of resistant cultivars are considered as the most economical and eco-friendly option to manage YMD, for which availability of stable sources of resistance is a pre-requisite. A set of 14 mungbean genotypes including a susceptible check were evaluated for responses to YMD under natural infection across three seasons and under challenged inoculation in glasshouse for one season. None of the genotypes were immune to YMD and produced different degrees of response to MYMV in terms of yellow mosaic symptoms (YMS). Based on the delayed appearance of initial YMS, and lower estimates of per cent disease index and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) in response to natural infection and challenged inoculation, five genotypes namely AVMU 1698, AVMU 1699, AVMU 16100, AVMU 16101 and KPS 2 were identified as resistant to YMD. Failure of detection of MYMV through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using MYMV coat protein gene-specific primer and successful detection of the same through rolling circle amplification-PCR suggested latent infection of MYMV in resistant genotypes. The resistance response of the five genotypes could be attributed to enhanced activities of enzymes such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase and increased concentration of total phenols. These results are discussed in relation to strategies to breed mungbean for resistance to YMD.
Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to unravel the pattern transition and velocity field in the Taylor–Couette flow (TCF) of neutrally buoyant non-Brownian spheres immersed in a Newtonian fluid. With increasing Reynolds number (
) or the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, the bifurcation sequence in suspension TCF remains same as in its Newtonian counterpart (i.e. from the circular Couette flow (CCF) to stationary Taylor vortex flow (TVF) and then to travelling wavy Taylor vortices (WTV) with increasing
) for small particle volume fractions (
). However, at
, non-axisymmetric patterns such as (i) the spiral vortex flow (SVF) and (ii) two mixed or co-existing states of stationary (TVF, axisymmetric) and travelling (WTV or SVF, non-axisymmetric) waves, namely (iia) the ‘TVF
WTV’ and (iib) the ‘TVF
SVF’ states, are found, with the former as a primary bifurcation from CCF. While the SVF state appears both in the ramp-up and ramp-down experiments as in the work of Majji et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 835, 2018, pp. 936–969), new co-existing patterns are found only during the ramp-up protocol. The secondary bifurcation TVF
WTV is found to be hysteretic or sub-critical for
. In general, there is a reduction in the value of the critical Reynolds number, i.e.
, for both primary and secondary transitions. The wave speeds of both travelling waves (WTV and SVF) are approximately half of the rotational velocity of the inner cylinder, with negligible dependence on
. The analysis of the radial–axial velocity field reveals that the Taylor vortices in a suspension are asymmetric and become increasingly anharmonic, with enhanced radial transport, with increasing particle loading. Instantaneous streamline patterns on the axial–radial plane confirm that the stationary Taylor vortices can indeed co-exist either with axially propagating spiral vortices or azimuthally propagating wavy Taylor vortices – their long-time stability is demonstrated. It is shown that the azimuthal velocity is considerably altered for
, resembling shear-band type profiles, even in the CCF regime (i.e. at sub-critical Reynolds numbers) of suspension TCF; its possible role on the genesis of observed patterns as well as on the torque scaling is discussed.
Over the past three years, my colleagues and I have embarked on an exciting journey into electric-field control of magnetism, parts of which we describe in this article. What we present to you is something that we believe is extremely exciting from both a fundamental science and applications perspective, and has the potential to revolutionize our world. Needless to say, this will require a lot of new innovations, both in the fundamental science arena as well as translating scientific discoveries into real applications. We hope this article will help spur more research in electric-field control of magnetism within the broad materials community.
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is prevalent in south-east Asian countries including India. Breeding and introduction of grain protein-rich varieties of legumes such as dolichos bean is considered as cost-effective approach to combat PEM. Exploitation of genetic variability within germplasm accessions (GAs) and/or breeding populations is the short-term strategy for identification and delivery of protein-rich dolichos bean cultivars to cater to the immediate needs of the farmers and target population. A set of 118 dolichos bean genotypes consisting of 96 GAs and 20 advanced breeding lines (ABLs) and two released varieties (RVs) was field evaluated in augmented deign for dry grain yield per plant and their grain protein contents were estimated. The grain protein content among the genotypes ranged from 18.82 to 24.5% with a mean of 21.73%. The magnitude of estimates of absolute range, standardized range, and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) for grain protein content was higher among GAs than those among ABLs + RVs. However, average grain protein contents of GAs were comparable to those of ABLs + RVs. Nearly 50% of the genotypes (mostly GAs) had significantly higher grain protein content than those of RVs, HA 3 and HA 4. The grain protein contents of the genotypes were poorly correlated with grain yield per plant. These results are discussed in relation to strategies to breed grain protein-rich dolichos bean cultivars.
Association mapping (AM), an alternative method of quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery, exploits historic linkage disequilibrium (LD) present in natural populations. AM is effective in self-pollinated crops such as Dolichos bean as LD extends over longer genomic distance driven-by low rate of recombination and thereby requiring fewer markers for exploring marker-traits associations. A core set of Dolichos bean germplasm consisting of 64 accessions was evaluated for nine quantitative traits (QTs) during 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons and genotyped using 234 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Substantial diversity was observed among the core set accessions at loci controlling QTs and 95 of the 234 SSR markers were found polymorphic. The structure analysis and low magnitude of fixation indices suggested weak population structure, which in-turn indicated the low possibility of false discovery rates in the marker-QTs association. The marker allele's scores were regressed onto phenotypes at nine QTs following general linear model and mixed linear model for exploring marker-QTs associations. Significantly higher number of SSR markers was found associated with genomic regions controlling nine QTs. A few of the markers such as KT Dolichos (KTD) 200 for days to 50% flowering, KTD 273 for fresh pod yield per plant and KTD 130 for fresh pods per plant explained ≥10% of the trait variations. The study could also identify a few SSR markers such as KTD 273, KTD 271 and KTD 130 linked to multiple traits. These linked SSR markers are suggested for validation for their use in marker-assisted Dolichos bean improvement programmes.
We present here the observations of solar jets observed on April 04, 2017 from NOAA active region (AR) 12644 using high temporal and spatial resolution AIA instrument. We have observed around twelve recurring jets during the whole day. Magnetic flux emergence and cancellation have been observed at the jet location. The multi-band observations evidenced that these jets were triggered due to the magnetic reconnection at low coronal null–point.
The coronal field typically reorganizes itself to attain a force-free field configuration. We have evaluated the power law index of the energy distribution f(E) = f0E−α by using a model of relaxation incorporating different profile functions of winding number distribution f(w) based on braided topologies. We study the radio signatures that occur in the solar corona using the radio data obtained from the Gauribidanur Radio Observatory (IIA) and extract the power law index by using the Statistic-sensitive nonlinear iterative peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm. We see that the power law index obtained from the model is in good agreement with the calculated value from the radio data observation.
The flora of Laos remains one of the least known within the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. A floristic inventory was carried out in Phou Hin Poun National Biodiversity Conservation Area, an under-explored area of the Khammouane Limestone. This study provides a list of 27 taxa that are additions to the most recent country checklists. The Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Myrtaceae are the families with the highest species number. In this list, four species are endemic to Indochina (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam): Cynometra dongnaiensis Pierre, Jasminum vidalii P.S.Green, Memecylon chevalieri Guillaumin and Pothos gigantipes Buchet ex P.C.Boyce. These results illustrate the paucity of our knowledge of the region surveyed and of the flora of Laos in general.
India occupies 2nd position in the world with a total fruit production of 42 million tonnes. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit production in India is 1.3 million tonnes. After extraction of juice from fruit, around 25-30% of the processed fruit is left as waste containing skins and seeds, called as papaya pomace. Generally this goes as a waste causing environmental pollution and if utilized properly will contribute to national economy and reduce pollution effect. Available information on chemical composition and utilization of papaya skins in feeding growing pullets (Fouzder et al., 1999) indicate the potential value of papaya pomace for animal feeding. In view of paucity of information on papaya pomace utilization in animal feeding, an attempt was made to study the effect of inclusion of varying levels of papaya pomace in concentrate mixtures on the nutrient utilization in native male buffaloes.
We observed single pulses from PSR J0034-0721 (B0031-07) simultaneously at the MWA (185 MHz) and the GMRT (610 MHz). Correlation analyses reveal that the phase difference of the average profiles at the two frequencies differs from the phase difference observed between individual subpulses, indicating that the individual emission columns above the pulsar’s rotating carousel of sparks do not evolve in frequency in the same way that the global magnetosphere does. This hints at a possible departure from the dipolar field geometry in this pulsar’s emission region. Moreover, the discrepancy depends on the drift mode, suggestive of a way to constrain the emission heights associated with each drift mode.
Low-frequency pulsar observations are well suited for studying propagation effects caused by the interstellar medium (ISM). This is particularly important for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) that are part of high-precision timing applications such as pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which aim to detect nanoHertz gravitational waves. MSPs in the southern hemisphere will also be the prime targets for PTAs with the South African MeerKAT, and eventually with the SKA. The development of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and the Engineering Development Array (EDA) brings excellent opportunities for low-frequency studies of MSPs in the southern hemisphere. They enable observations at frequencies from 50 MHz to 300 MHz, and can be exploited for a wide range of studies relating to pulsar emission physics and probing the ISM.
The challenges of detecting and localising Fast Radio Bursts in real time can be met with the use of Phased Array Feeds. One such system, capable of creating up to 36 simultaneous beams, is currently being commissioned at the Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany following testing at the 64 m Parkes radio telescope. The PAFINDER (Phased Array Feed FRB Finder) pipeline will be used with this receiver to enable real–time single–pulse detection and localisation.
Studying the polarised properties of pulsars has a rich history giving unique geometric information about pulsars as well as testing the theories of pulsar emission physics. Performing such studies with the MWA has the attraction that the percentage of linear polarisation of many pulsars increases as the observing frequency decreases. Here we discuss the strategies being employed to verify the polarimetric response of the MWA’s high time resolution data.
The frequency dependence of normal pulsar radio emission is typically observed to be a power law, with some indications of a flattening or turnover at low frequencies (≲ 100 MHz). The spectrum of the Crab pulsar’s giant pulse emission has not been examined as closely. We conducted simultaneous wideband observations of the Crab pulsar, with the Parkes radio telescope and the Murchison Widefield Array, to study the spectral behaviour of its giant pulses. Our analysis shows that the mean spectral index of Crab giant pulses flattens at low frequencies, from −2.6 ± 0.5 between the Parkes bands, to −0.7 ± 1.4 between the lowest MWA subbands.
We analyzed a sediment core from the equatorial Arabian Sea, chronologically constrained by accurate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on selected planktonic foraminiferal species, for paleoproductivity variations corresponding to the variations in the Indian Ocean Equatorial Westerlies (IEW). The IEW in turn are positively correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), which is a measure of El Niño, Southwest monsoon (SWM), and east African rainfall (EAR). The productivity data show that Indian and east African rainfalls declined from 35,000 calendar yr BP up to the last glacial maximum (LGM), with the maximum El Niño frequency during the last glacial period. From ∼14,500 to ∼2000 calendar yr BP (i.e. core top), we find strengthening SWM and EAR along with declining El Niño frequency.
Public participation can not only contribute to improvement of decisions, but can also help in enhancing the capability of communities to solve problems and pursue common concerns. Arguably, a strong public participation in environmental governance could increase the commitment among stakeholders, which strengthens the compliance and enforcement of policies. Nevertheless, despite the critical importance of public participation in policy making, such involvements are not as effective as may be desired for logical conclusion and efficient implementation of policies. The near nonexistence of visualization tools at the disposal of the general public to aid in visual understanding of the problem is the major cause factor for the non-involvement and negligible influence of the populace in policy making. One such facility is being established at Wildlife Institute of India for visualizing the impacts of climate change on biodiversity of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR).