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The combination of aortopulmonary window, interruption of the aortic arch, and anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare and complex congenital cardiac malformation. Despite good prenatal care in our case, this cardiac anomaly was not detected prior to birth. Untreated infants who do not undergo surgical correction have a mortality rate of 70% in their first year, and 30% will die within the first 3 months of life.
In this study, a hybrid dual drug-loaded hydroxyapatite-oxidized dextran methacrylate core–shell nanocarrier was formulated and explored for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and methotrexate (MTX) to bone cancer. The synthesized nanocarrier was well characterized by different techniques. In vitro drug release studies in both acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 7.4) conditions showed sequential release of MTX followed by DOX in a sustained manner for 10 days. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity studies performed using drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) on fibroblast L929 cells and osteosarcoma MG63 cells (OMG63) showed that the NPs were highly biocompatible and showed concentration-dependent toxicity. Gene expression studies in OMG-63 cells exhibited the upregulation of caspase-3 and BAX which confirmed the apoptosis induced by dual drug-loaded NPs. The nanocarrier is expected to be a potential bone void filling material, as well as a platform for sequential delivery of DOX and MTX for the treatment of bone cancer.
The optimal management of symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot in neonates and younger infants with unfavourable anatomy is unclear and is further constrained by resource limitations in low and middle income countries.
Retrospective medical record review of infants with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing corrective or palliative procedures between January 2016 and June 2019.
The study included 120 infants; of whom 83 underwent primary complete repair, four underwent surgical palliation, and 33 underwent catheter-based palliation, including balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (n = 18), right ventricular outflow tract stenting (n = 14), and stenting of the patent arterial duct (n = 1). Infants undergoing catheter-based procedures were younger in age (median 32 days; inter-quartile range (IQR) 7–144 versus 210 days; IQR 158–250), with lower baseline saturation (65 ± 12% versus 87 ± 7%) and had smaller pulmonary artery z-scores compared to the complete repair cohort. Follow-up was available for 31/33 (94%) infants (median 7 months [IQR 4–11]) who underwent trans-catheter palliation; 12 underwent complete repair, 10 are well, awaiting repair, eight required further palliation (catheter: 6; surgical: 2), and one died post-discharge from non-cardiac causes.
Catheter-based palliation is a safe and effective alternative in infants with tetralogy of Fallot who are at high risk for primary surgical repair.
The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial randomised neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to a shunt strategy but otherwise retained standard of care. We aimed to describe centre-level practice variation at Fontan completion.
Centre-level data are reported as median or median frequency across all centres and range of medians or frequencies across centres. Classification and regression tree analysis assessed the association of centre-level factors with length of stay and percentage of patients with prolonged pleural effusion (>7 days).
The median Fontan age (14 centres, 320 patients) was 3.1 years (range from 1.7 to 3.9), and the weight-for-age z-score was −0.56 (−1.35 + 0.44). Extra-cardiac Fontans were performed in 79% (4–100%) of patients at the 13 centres performing this procedure; lateral tunnels were performed in 32% (3–100%) at the 11 centres performing it. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (nine centres) ranged from 6 to 100%. Major complications occurred in 17% (7–33%). The length of stay was 9.5 days (9–12); 15% (6–33%) had prolonged pleural effusion. Centres with fewer patients (<6%) with prolonged pleural effusion and fewer (<41%) complications had a shorter length of stay (<10 days; sensitivity 1.0; specificity 0.71; area under the curve 0.96). Avoiding deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and higher weight-for-age z-score were associated with a lower percentage of patients with prolonged effusions (<9.5%; sensitivity 1.0; specificity = 0.86; area under the curve 0.98).
Fontan perioperative practices varied widely among study centres. Strategies to decrease the duration of pleural effusion and minimise complications may decrease the length of stay. Further research regarding deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is needed to understand its association with prolonged pleural effusion.
In the rice–wheat (RW) systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, conservation tillage practices, including zero-tillage (ZT), are being promoted to address emerging problems such as (1) shortages of labor and water, (2) declining factor productivity, (3) deterioration of soil health, and (4) climate change. Despite multiple benefits of ZT, weed control remains a major challenge to adoption, resulting in more dependence on herbicides for weed control. Alternative management strategies are needed to reduce dependence on herbicides and minimize risks associated with their overuse, including evolution of herbicide resistance. The objectives of this review are to (1) highlight and synthesize research efforts in nonchemical weed management in ZT RW systems and (2) identify future weed ecology and management research needs to facilitate successful adoption of these systems. In ZT RW systems, crop residue can play a central role in suppressing weeds through mulch effects on emergence and seed predation. In ZT rice, wheat residue mulch (5 t ha−1) reduced weed density by 22 to 76% and promoted predation of RW weeds, including littleseed canarygrass and barnyardgrass seeds. For ZT wheat, rice residue mulch (6 to 10 t ha−1) in combination with early sowing reduced emergence of littleseed canarygrass by over 80%. Other promising nonchemical approaches that can be useful in suppressing weeds in ZT RW systems include use of certified seeds, weed-competitive cultivars, stale seedbed practices, living mulches (e.g., sesbania coculture), and water and nutrient management practices that shift weed–crop competition in favor of the crop. However, more research on emergence characteristics and mulching effects of different crop residues on key weeds under ZT, cover cropping, and breeding crops for weed suppression will strengthen nonchemical weed management programs. Efforts are needed to integrate multiple tactics and to evaluate long-term effects of nonchemical weed management practices on RW cropping system sustainability.
We report magneto-dielectric anomaly of the multiferroic (Bi0.95Nd0.05)(Fe0.97Mn0.03)O3 (BNFM) ceramic near Néel temperature. The ceramic pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that most of the peaks shifted slightly towards higher Bragg’s angle compared to those of pure BiFeO3 and also confirmed the formation of rhombohedral phase. It also suggests that the small chemical substitution of Nd and Mn atoms at Bi and Fe sites of BiFeO3 (BFO) perovskite respectively does not alter the crystal structure. Temperature and frequency dependent dielectric response indicate large dielectric anomaly at 620 K, slightly below the known Néel temperature of BFO. The enhancement in dielectric properties of BNFM ceramic was observed as compared to BFO due to suppression of oxygen vacancies by the doping. Temperature dependent dielectric response in conjunction with Raman and thermo-analytical data show that the BNFM sample presents significant magneto-dielectric response around Néel temperture TN ∼ 620 K.
A detailed analysis of leakage current density-gate voltage measurements of gate stacks composed of PLD grown ultra thin films of LaGdO3 (LGO) on p-type silicon substrates with 8.4 Å EOT is presented. Temperature dependent leakage measurements revealed that forward bias current was dominated by Schottky emission over trap assisted tunneling below 1.2 MV/cm and quantum mechanical tunneling above this field. The physical origin of the reverse bias current was found to be a combination of Schottky emission and trap assisted tunneling. Low leakage current densities in the range from 2.3×10-3 to 29×10-3 A/cm2 were recorded for films with EOT from 1.8 to 0.8 nm, that are at least four or more orders below the ITRS specifications and its SiO2 competitors.
The UBVRI photometric follow-up of SN 2011fu has been initiated a few days after the explosion, shows a rise followed by steep decay in all bands and shares properties very similar to that seen in case of SN 1993J, with a possible detection of the adiabatic cooling phase at very early epochs. The spectral modeling performed with SYNOW suggests that the early-phase line velocities for H and Fe ii features were ~ 16000 km s−1 and ~ 14000 km s−1, respectively. Studies of rare class of type IIb SNe are important to understand the evolution of the possible progenitors of core-collapse SNe in more details.
Highly oriented and epitaxial bilayers of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on two different substrates (100) - MgO and -LaAlO3 (LAO) respectively. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced that layered structure was formed without any secondary phase. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images shown change in the grain size and surface roughness with change of the substrate. Room temperature magnetization-field (M-H) exhibited well-shaped magnetization hysteresis loops, good saturation and low coercivity. The electrical properties of hetrostructure exhibited high remnant polarization (30-54 μC/cm2) and dielectric constant (400-1700) depending upon the different substrate and temperature deposition of FM layer. Frequency dependent change in dielectric constant and loss were observed above metallic ferromagnet to insulator paramagnet transition temperature. It is important to note that the frequency dependent dielectric anomalies are attributed to the change in metallic nature of LSMO bottom electrode and also the bilayer.
Asymmetric superlattices (SLs) with ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) as constitutive layers were fabricated on conducting LaNiO3 (LNO) coated (001) oriented MgO substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The crystallinity, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the SLs were studied over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The structure exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at 300K, and ferroelectric behavior over a range of temperatures between 100K and 300K. The dielectric response as a function of frequency obeys normal behavior below 300 K, whereas it follows Maxwell–Wagner model at elevated temperatures. The effect of ferromagnetic LSMO layers on ferroelectric properties of the SL indicated strong influence of the interfaces. The asymmetric behavior of ferroelectric loop and the capacitance-voltage relationship suggest development of a built field in the SLs due to high strain across the interfaces.
Single phase delafossite p-type CuFeO2 (CFO) semiconductor was synthesized in bulk by modified solid state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest single phase CFO at room temperature. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that the atomic ratio of Cu and Fe is 1:1. The XPS spectra showed two intense Cu 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 peaks at 932.5 eV and 952 eV suggesting Cu is in +1 state. The temperature dependent Raman spectra of CFO displayed two intense modes at 349 cm-1 and 690 cm-1 at room temperature that matched with other delaffosite structures. The temperature dependent Raman spectra showed significant shift in both Raman active modes to lower frequency side. We observed the disappearance of pure CFO Raman active modes above 750 K and the appearance of new peaks related to CuO compounds, indicating disintegration of CFO starting above 750 K which almost completed above 1100 K. The temperature dependent thermo-gravimetric analysis indicates change in CFO mass above 750 K with wide range of differential thermo-gravimetric slope suggests disintegration started above 750 K and completed at 1100 K. Raman spectra, XPS, and XRD of disintegrated CFO matched well with the Raman spectra, XPS and XRD of CuO and CuFe2O4 confirmed its disintegration above 750 K in air.
The multilayers of ferroelectric (FE) Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) and ferromagnetic (FM) CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films with 3, 5, and 9 layers having configurations PZT/CFO (PC) and CFO/PZT (CP) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition technique. We have investigated the effect of inter-diffusion at the interface of multilayers (MLs) and reversing the order of FE and FM layers in the multilayers configuration on the electrical/magnetic properties. The TEM of the films showed that the layer structure was not maintained and the inter-diffusion of the CFO into PZT and vice verse were observed at the interface of MLs. Both the PC and CP configurations of multilayer films exhibited pseudo FE hysteresis loop and proper FM hysteresis loops at room temperature. Reversing the multilayer configuration from CP to PC resulted in increasing the pseudo remanent polarization, however this behavior was not observed in magnetic properties. The frequency and temperature dependences of the impedance and modulus spectroscopy of the multilayer PC and CP films were studied in the ranges of 102 to 106 Hz and 200 to 650 K respectively. The electrical response of all multilayer films investigated could be resolved into two contributions. We attributed these to the grain and grain boundary effects in impedance and modulus formalism. We found that the difference between the grain and grain boundary capacitive effect decreased due to increase of the number of layers.
LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode material was prepared by sol-gel method and annealed at 850°C for 15 hrs. The prepared powder was coated with ZnO by dissolving zinc acetate in methanol and LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 powder was mixed in this solution followed by the continuous stirring for 4 hr. The LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The coin cell was fabricated using LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 as cathode materials, LiPF6, dissolved in EC/DMC (1:1 wt ratio) as electrolyte, and Li foil as anode. The cyclic voltammetric and charge-discharge characteristics were carried out for the coin cell using LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials. It was found that the ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials showed improved discharge capacity (∼146mAh/g) as compared to the pure LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (∼140mAh/g). The discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles was found to be about 94% and 97% for LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 and ZnO coated LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 cathode materials, respectively.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism has been associated with high altitude (HA) disorders as well as physical performance. We, however, envisage that the polymorphism may be associated with adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxia of altitude, thus facilitating physical performance. For this purpose, three unrelated adult male groups, namely (1) the Ladakhis (HLs), who reside at and above a height of 3600 m, (2) lowlanders, who migrated to Ladakh (MLLs), and (3) resident lowlanders (LLs), have been investigated. The HLs had significantly (p < 0.001) greater numbers of the II homozygotes and the ID heterozygotes than the DD homozygotes, the genotype distribution being 0.46, 0.43 and 0.11 for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. The MLLs comprised 60% II homozygotes, which was higher (p < 0.001) than the HLs (46%). In the LLs, the heterozygotes were greater (p < 0.001) in number than the II and DD homozygotes. The I allele frequency was 0.72 in the MLLs, 0.67 in the HLs and 0.55 in the LLs. Polymorphism study suggested that the II genotype could be associated with altitude adaptation, which might influence physical efficiency.
The effect of alternative preparation methods (copper mold casting, melt spinning, and mechanical attrition) on amorphization and properties of Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8 and Nd40Fe40Co5Al8B7 alloys has been investigated. For all differently prepared samples an amorphous phase is formed upon solidification or solid sate reaction. However, the samples prepared by different processing routes exhibit different transformation behavior in thermal analysis. The cast Nd57Fe20Co5Al10B8 rod exhibits crystallization at 790 K followed by melting at 810 K. Neither appreciable endothermic reaction due to a glass transition nor a supercooled liquid region have been observed. Mechanically alloyed powders and ball-milled prealloys reveal two exothermic DSC peaks in the range of 650-850 K. The J-H hysteresis loops of samples synthesized by different routes show that the unique atomic order responsible for hard magnetic properties can only be accessed at moderate cooling rate of the melt as realized in copper mold casting. Rapidly quenched ribbons, mechanically alloyed powders and ball-milled ingots do not show hard magnetic properties at room temperature. These results indicate that amorphous samples with different local atomic order can be prepared by different processing routes.
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