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A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment.
The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people’s lives.
Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area.
Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222–231)
This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) loaded with gold (Au) as noble metal, acts as
an efficient photocatalyst that has been extensively investigated for water
splitting processes. In this paper, we report on the microstructure of atomic
layer deposited titanium dioxide and the crystallinity modification of the
material using energetic electron beam irradiation. A rapid high-energy electron
beam induced crystallization of the nanostructures has been observed
in-situ inside a High-Resolution Transmission Electron
Microscope (HRTEM). The systematic crystallization of the nanomaterial occurring
under the electron beam irradiation (300 KV) indicates the transformation of the
near amorphous material into a mixture of two nuances of TiO2
polymorphs, namely rutile and anatase. We believe that this transformation will
enhance the efficiency of water splitting process, as the mixed phases of rutile
and anatase are known to possess better optical properties than the individual
polymorphs of TiO2. This finding may be of particular interest in
developing appropriate heat treatment methods for these nanostructures dedicated
to water splitting to increase their efficiency.
Effect of Gd substitution at Y-site on the structural and magnetic properties of Y1-xGdxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared by conventional solid state reaction method has been studied. The structural study using X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal structure with P63cm space group for all the samples. The average particle size for all the samples lies in the range of 30-40 nm as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The change in a and c lattice parameters confirm the substitution of Gd at Y-site. Magnetization versus temperature measurements show enhanced magnetic moment and an increase in Neel temperature with Gd-doping. Spin glass behavior is observed at low temperature in all the samples. Exchange bias effect has been observed at 5 K after field cooling the samples which is ascribed to the formation of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties of Gd-doped samples has also been observed.
The water driven crop growth model AquaCrop was evaluated for predicting the yield of kharif maize (i.e. maize sown in the monsoon season) under future water availability scenarios. Future climatic data were generated using the climate data generator ClimGen, which was parameterized using 37 years (1972–2008) of historical data relating to the study area. The climatic data generated were used first in the CROPWAT model to estimate the irrigation schedule, which was then used in the validated AquaCrop model to predict grain yield for future years. Rainfall estimates generated by ClimGen for 2012 (739 mm) and 2014 (625 mm) resulted in yields of 1600 and 5670 kg/ha, respectively, under rainfed situation during these 2 years with full fertilization levels. This variation may be attributed to the depths of rainfall events and their distribution during the entire growing season in general and sensitive growth stages in particular pertaining to the same sowing date (22 July) in both years. Nonetheless, the use of ClimGen, CROPWAT and AquaCrop models can be standardized as a model-linking protocol to estimate future maize yield and irrigation water requirements for sustainable production and as an adaptation measure to climate change.
Sialic acid, being a biologically active compound, is recognised as an important component of milk and milk products. Almost all the sialic acid estimation protocols in milk require prior hydrolysis step to release the bound sialic acid followed by its estimation. The objective of this work was to estimate sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetric assay which does not require a prior hydrolysis step thus decreasing the estimation time. The recovery of added sialic acid in milk was 91·6 to 95·8%. Sialic acid in milk was found to be dependent on cattle breed and was in the range of 1·68–3·93 g/kg (dry matter basis). The assay was further extended to detect adulteration of milk with sweet whey which is based on the detection of glycomacropeptide (GMP) bound sialic acid in adulterated milk. GMP is the C-terminal part of κ-casein which is released into the whey during cheese making. For detection of adulteration, selective precipitation of GMP was done using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA concentration in milk was first raised to 5% to precipitate milk proteins, especially κ-casein, followed by raising the TCA concentration to 14% to precipitate out GMP. In the precipitates GMP bound sialic acid was estimated using fluorimetric method and the fluorescence intensity was found to be directly proportional to the level of sweet whey in adulterated milk samples. The method was found to detect the presence of 5% sweet whey in milk.
A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
In spite of emerging evidence about the vital role of GDF9 in determination of oocyte competence, there is insufficient information about its regulation of oocyte-specific expression, particularly in livestock animals. Because of the distinct prominence of buffalo as a dairy animal, the present study was undertaken to isolate and characterize GDF9 cDNA using orthologous primers based on the bovine GDF9 sequence. GDF9 transcripts were found to be expressed in oocytes irrespective of their follicular origin, and shared a single transcription start site (TSS) at –57 base pairs (bp) upstream of ATG. Assignment of the TSS is consistent with the presence of a TATA element at –23 of the TSS mapped in this study. Localization of a buffalo-specific minimal promoter within 320 bp upstream of ATG was consolidated by identification of an E-box element at –113bp. Presence of putative transcription factor binding sites and other cis regulatory elements were analyzed at ~5 kb upstream of TSS. Various germ cell-specific cis-acting regulatory elements (BNCF, BRNF, NR2F, SORY, Foxh1, OCT1, LHXF etc.) have been identified in the 5′ flanking region of the buffalo GDF9 gene, including NOBOX DNA binding elements and consensuses E-boxes (CANNTG). Presence of two conserved E-boxes found on buffalo sequence at –520 and –718 positions deserves attention in view of its sequence deviation from other species. Two NOBOX binding elements (NBE) were detected at the –3471 and –203 positions. The fall of the NBE within the putative minimal promoter territory of buffalo GDF9 and its unique non-core binding sequence could have a possible role in the control of the core promoter activity.
Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II® cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.
Agricultural crop management decisions often require data on hydraulic properties of soils. Little information is available on hydraulic properties of clay soils that are impounded by rainwater (known as ‘Haveli’ lands) every year during the monsoon season in large tracts of Madhya Pradesh in India. Estimating hydraulic properties using global pedotransfer functions (PTFs) is one possible way to collect such information. Rules in the widely used global PTF Rosetta were executed to obtain estimates of two important hydraulic properties, namely soil water retention characteristics (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). SWRC estimates obtained with maximum input (particle size distribution, bulk density, field capacity and permanent wilting point) in Rosetta were relatively closer to the laboratory-measured data as compared with the estimates obtained with lower levels of input. Root mean square error (RMSE) of estimates ranged from 0·01 to 0·05 m3/m3. Hierarchical PTFs to predict Ks from basic soil properties were derived using statistical regression and artificial neural networks. Evaluation of these indicated that neural PTFs were acceptable and hence could be used without loss of accuracy.
A method for the estimation of urea in milk using ammonia electrode is described. Urea is first degraded by urease enzyme into ammonium ion and carbon dioxide at neutral pH. The ammonium ion is then converted into ammonia at alkaline pH. A linear inverse relationship was observed between logarithmic concentration of ammonia or urea and electrode response. Repeatability, expressed as a coefficient of variation, was 1·77% at a level of 8·92 mm-urea in milk. The method was validated in milk samples spiked with between 2×10−3 and 10×10−3m-urea and recovery of added urea was quantitative. Whereas, preservative sodium azide at 0·5 g/l or 2 g/l level did not affect results, lower values of urea concentration in presence of Bronopol at 0·5 g/l were observed. Urea levels in milk samples estimated by this method were comparable to standard enzymatic method. The method is simple, fast and is not prone to interference from other milk constituents.
One ppm molybdenum produced the greatest height, fresh and dry weight per plant; number, fresh and dry weight of leaves; diameter, length, fresh and dry weight of stem; length, fresh and dry weight of roots; yield and yield-attributing characters (height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of curd), and N content of component parts of cauliflower plants (curd, leaf, stem and root). The lowest values for these characters were obtained in the control (nil Mo). Reducing and non-reducing sugars and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) were favourably enhanced (0·5 ppm Mo). The lowest values for sugars and ascorbic acid were observed under 1·0 ppm and nil Mo respectively. The quadratic response curve was drawn in terms of fresh weight of curd and rates of molybdenum application.
Thirty-nine patients with a variety of diseases, including essential tremor, Parkinsonߣs Disease, olivopontocerebellar degeneration, ataxia telangiectasia, and cervical cord injury with action tremor, were evaluated for the effect of one ounce of absolute alcohol ingestion. Tremor significantly subsided in 61.9% of E.T.; 46.6% of P.D.; one patient with A.T.; and one patient with C6 lesion. The tremor became worse in one patient with O.P.C.D. Twenty of these patients were treated with propranolol, an average dose of 92 mgm. per day, and re-evaluated three to six months later. All those who improved on alcohol improved on propranolol and the one whose tremor accentuated with alcohol had a similar response to propranolol. It is concluded that the tremorilytic effect of alcohol is neither specific for, nor limited to, essential tremor and is of no value in differentiating various neurological disorders which manifest as action tremor. It is recommended that one ounce of absolute alcohol by mouth be used as an office procedure to predict the response of patientsߣ tremor to propranolol.
In a recent paper, Sato  has shown that for every Gaussian measure n on a real separable or reflexive Banach space (X, ‖ • ‖) there exists a separable closed sub-space X〵 of X such that and is the σ-extension of the canonical Gaussian cylinder measure of a real separable Hilbert space such that the norm is contiunous on and is dense in The main purpose of this note is to prove that ‖ • ‖ x〵 is measurable (and not merely continuous) on .
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