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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment. In a public healthcare system, wait times to see spine specialists and eventually access surgical treatment for CSM can be substantial. The goals of this study were to determine consultation wait times (CWT) and surgical wait times (SWT), and identify predictors of wait time length. Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network (CSORN) prospective and observational CSM study from March 2015 to July 2017 were included. A data-splitting technique was used to develop and internally validate multivariable models of potential predictors. Results: A CSORN query returned 264 CSM patients for CWT. The median was 46 days. There were 31% mild, 35% moderate, and 33% severe CSM. There was a statistically significant difference in median CWT between moderate and severe groups; 207 patients underwent surgical treatment. Median SWT was 42 days. There was a statistically significant difference in SWT between mild/moderate and severe groups. Short symptom duration, less pain, lower BMI, and lower physical component score of SF-12 were predictive of shorter CWT. Only baseline pain and medication duration were predictive of SWT. Both CWT and SWT were shorter compared to a concurrent cohort of lumbar stenosis patients (p <0.001). Conclusions: Patients with shorter duration (either symptoms or medication) and less neck pain waited less to see a spine specialist in Canada and to undergo surgical treatment. This study highlights some of the obstacles to overcome in expedited care for this patient population.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Parametrically forced gravity waves can give rise to high-velocity surface jets via the wave-depression cavity implosion. The present results have been obtained in circular cylindrical containers of 10 and 15 cm in diameter (Bond number of order
) in the large fluid depth limit. First, the phase diagrams of instability threshold and wave breaking conditions are determined for the working fluid used, here water with 1 % detergent added. The collapse of the wave-depression cavity is found to be self-similar. The exponent
of the variation of the cavity radius
, in the form
, is close to 0.5, indicative of inertial collapse, followed by a viscous cut-off of
. This supports a Froude number scaling of the surface jet velocity caused by cavity collapse. The dimensionless jet velocity scales with the cavity depth that is shown to be proportional to the last stable wave amplitude. It can be expressed by a power law or in terms of finite time singularity related to a singular wave amplitude that sets the transition from a non-pinching to pinch-off cavity collapse scenario. In terms of forcing amplitude, cavity collapse and jetting are found to occur in bands of events of non-pinching and pinching of a bubble at the cavity base. At large forcing amplitudes, incomplete cavity collapse and splashing can occur and, at even larger forcing amplitudes, wave growth is again stable up to the singular wave amplitude. When the cavity is formed, an impulse model shows the importance of the singular cavity diameter that determines the strength of the impulse.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
An epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of the mental and substance use disorders and ascertain patterns of mental health services utilisation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) with the aim of evaluating existing gaps and opportunities in the provision of mental health services.
This study was a cross-sectional, household survey of adults living within Vientiane Capital province, Lao PDR. We collected data on participant demographics, mental and physical health status, family history of mental illness and exposure to potential risk factors. It also collected data on mental health service utilisation patterns, types of health professionals and treatment being accessed, barriers to treatment and perceived need for care. The MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI v.6.0) was also administered to assess mental disorder prevalence.
Age- and sex-standardised current prevalence of any disorder was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 11.0–20.7). Alcohol dependence (5.5% (95% CI 3.2–9.6)), was the most prevalent followed by anxiety disorders (5.2% (95% CI 3.2–8.3)) and mood disorders (2.5% (95% CI 1.5–4.4)). 11.0% (95% CI 5.8–20.1) of participants with a mental and/or substance use disorder suffered from other comorbid disorders. A number of variables demonstrated significant effects in final logistic regression models, including family history, education and employment for mental disorders; and gender, numbers of hours worked per week and number of dependants for substance use disorders. Having a mental or substance use disorder was associated with an OR of 11.6 of suicidality over participants without a mental or substance use disorder (95% CI 2.8–58.5). Of the 101 participants who met criteria for a current mental or substance use disorder, only two (2.1% (95% CI 0.5–8.0)) had accessed services for their mental health in the past 12 months. No participants who had seen a health professional in the past 12 months reported getting as much help as they needed. The vast majority (89.2% (95% CI 76.5–95.4)) of participants meeting criteria for a current mental or substance use disorder reported that they had not experienced mental health problems in the past 12 months.
This study presents the first epidemiological estimates for a range of mental and substance use disorders in the general population of the most populous province in Lao PDR. A large treatment gap exists for mental and substance use disorders in Lao PDR. This research adds value for health care and has been an important precursor to developing informed and targeted mental health policy, services and health system reform in Lao PDR.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Preservation of seawater samples was tested for total inorganic carbon (∑CO2), stable carbon isotope (δ13C), and radiocarbon (14C) applications using foil bags and storage by refrigeration and freezing. The aim was to preserve representative samples with minimal storage effects but without using toxic methods such as mercuric chloride poisoning. Hydrolysis of samples to CO2 was based on existing methods. Results of IAEA-C2 standard used with deionized water stored in the foil bags showed complete reaction yields, 14C results within 2σ of the consensus value, and δ13C that were internally consistent, indicating that there were no procedural effects associated with the foil bags. 14C results were statistically indistinguishable across the storage times, for frozen and refrigerated seawater samples from a coastal site, Elie Ness, Fife, UK. The scatter of ∑CO2 concentrations and δ13C was within scatter observed in other studies for lake- and seawater samples preserved by acidification or using mercuric chloride. However, both ∑CO2 and δ13C were less variable for frozen samples compared with refrigerated samples. The foil bags are lighter, safer to transport, and similar in cost to glass bottles and allow sample collection in the field and transfer to the hydrolysis vessel without exposure of the sample to atmosphere. Storage of seawater samples in the foil bags was considered a reliable, alternative method to poisoning for ∑CO2, δ13C, and 14C, and freezing the samples is recommended for storage time beyond a week.
Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P<0.001). After 72 h of culture the percent of satellite cells expressing myogenin in RES was less than CON (P<0.01). There were no differences in the gene expression of Pax7, Myf5 or MyoD in isolated satellite cells at birth (P>0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the offspring, which may reduce the pool of myoblasts, decrease myoblast fusion and contribute to the poor postnatal muscle growth previously observed in these animals.
The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries.
In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature. Costs were analysed from societal and health system perspectives.
From the societal perspective, MHD cost Int$ 594 per person in the first year and Int$ 876 over 2 years. The cost per healthy day gained was Int$ 7.96 in the first year and Int$ 1.03 over 2 years – less than the agricultural minimum wage. The cost per disability-adjusted life year averted over 2 years was Int$ 13.1 and Int$ 727 from the societal and health system perspectives, respectively, on par with antiretrovirals for HIV.
MHD achieved increasing returns over time. The model appears cost-effective and equitable, especially over 2 years. Its affordability relies on multi-sectoral participation nationally and internationally.
A 51-year-old man presented with a 5-day history of progressive facial swelling, sensation of head fullness, increasing shortness of breath and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He denied chest pain, syncope or presyncope. Pastmedical history included mechanical aortic valve replacement 7 years prior and atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin. A clinical diagnosis of acute superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome was made. Portable chest radiograph showed a widened superior mediastinum. Computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a large type A aortic dissection almost completely effacing the SVC. Acute type A aortic dissection (AD) is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Patients typically present with acute onset of chest and/or back pain, classically described as “ripping” or “tearing.” SVC syndrome is rarely, if ever, mentioned as a presentation, as it is usually due to more chronic conditions. This case illustrates a rare incidence of type A AD actually presenting as SVC syndrome.
The Madras Red sheep, a native breed of Tamil Nadu in India, is known for its high-quality meat and skin. The present study was carried out in 652 flocks consisting of 16 173 sheep in 46 villages randomly selected from the breeding tract to characterize and evaluate Madras Red sheep under field conditions during the period from 2006 to 2009. The data on various sheep management practices viz. flock size, housing, feeding, breeding, disease, etc. were collected based on personal observation and information provided by the farmers. The body weight and different body measurements namely horn length, ear length, tail length, height at withers, chest girth, body girth, flank girth, elbow-pin length and poll–tail length were taken. The animals are found to be medium in size with well built body having a broad and deep chest. Most of the animals are red in colour which varied from tan to dark brown. The flock size varies from 20 to 50. The main breeding season is from July to September. In 62 percent of rams, the horns are medium sized and about 15–25 cm long. In about 4 percent of ewes, the horns are small and less than 15 cm. The ears are pendulous and the tail is medium in length. The mean body weights in age groups of 0–3, 3–6, 6–12 and >12 months of males were 9.20, 12.68, 14.31 and 24.33 kg, respectively, and they were 8.93, 13.08, 17.59 and 24.23 kg, respectively, in females. The animals have excellent feed conversion efficiency under extreme conditions with a high dressing percentage. Sheep farming forms a major source of livelihood for the farmers of the study area and the non-availability of good quality fodder was the major constraint in the farming system. The results of the present study revealed that there is a scope for increasing the productivity of this breed.
When women have a history of anorexia nervosa (AN), the advice given about becoming pregnant, and about the management of pregnancies, has usually been cautious. This study compared the pregnancy outcomes of women with and without a history of AN.
Women with a confirmed diagnosis of AN who had presented to psychiatric services in North East Scotland from 1965 to 2007 were identified. Those women with a pregnancy recorded in the Aberdeen Maternal and Neonatal Databank (AMND) were each matched by age, parity and year of delivery of their first baby with five women with no history of AN. Maternal and foetal outcomes were compared between these two groups of women. Comparisons were also made between the mothers with a history of AN and all other women in the AMND.
A total of 134 women with a history of AN delivered 230 babies and the 670 matched women delivered 1144 babies. Mothers with AN delivered lighter babies but this difference did not persist after adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy. Standardized birthweight (SBW) scores suggested that the AN mothers were more likely to produce babies with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [relative risk (RR) 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–2.13]. AN mothers were more likely to experience antepartum haemorrhage (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09–2.65).
Mothers with a history of AN are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The magnitude of these risks is relatively small and should be appraised holistically by psychiatric and obstetric services.
Assessing the relative success of serial strategies for increasing healthcare personnel (HCP) influenza vaccination rates is important to guide hospital policies to increase vaccine uptake.
To evaluate serial campaigns that include a mandatory HCP vaccination policy and to describe HCP attitudes toward vaccination and reasons for declination.
Retrospective cohort study.
We assessed the impact of serial vaccination campaigns on the proportions of HCP who received influenza vaccination during die 2006–2011 influenza seasons. In addition, declination data over these 5 seasons and a 2007 survey of HCP attitudes toward vaccination were collected.
HCP influenza vaccination rates increased from 44.0% (2,863 of 6,510 HCP) to 62.9% (4,037 of 6,414 HCP) after institution of mobile carts, mandatory declination, and peer-to-peer vaccination efforts. Despite maximal attempts to improve accessibility and convenience, 27.2% (66 of 243) of die surveyed HCP were unwilling to wait more than 10 minutes for a free influenza vaccination, and 23.3% (55 of 236) would be indifferent if they were unable to be vaccinated. In this context, institution of a mandatory vaccination campaign requiring unvaccinated HCP to mask during the influenza season increased rates of compliance to over 90% and markedly reduced the proportion of HCP who declined vaccination as a result of preference.
A mandatory influenza vaccination program for HCP was essential to achieving high vaccination rates, despite years of intensive vaccination campaigns focused on increasing accessibility and convenience. Mandatory vaccination policies appear to successfully capture a large portion of HCP who are not opposed to receipt of die vaccine but who have not made vaccination a priority.
Measurements and theory are presented examining the relationship between mobility and doping in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Mobility is found to increase super-linearly with doping and is comparable to models reported for other conjugated polymers. Schottky measurements have been used to calculate the doping density and bulk mobility of regioregular P3HT. Aluminium Schottky contacts showed signs of native oxide disrupting current flow through the device. This effect was observed to degrade further with the introduction of dopant into the polymer. Titanium devices show a general shift of the Schottky characteristic to higher current levels with increased dopant. Field effect mobility of P3HT films was also calculated using thin-film transistor (TFT) structures. The field effect mobility values were observed to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the bulk mobility value. The addition of dopant also increased gate leakage currents in TFT devices. The increased conductivity in doped polymer can increase off currents in the device; this is avoided by using Schottky contacts as the source and drain. Preliminary results on Schottky contact TFTs are also presented as well as a description of the operation of such a device.