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Prolonged survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment may lead to these surfaces transmitting this pathogen to others. We sought to determine the effectiveness of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection system in reducing the load of SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
Chamber slides and N95 respirator material were directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and were exposed to different durations of PX-UV.
For hard surfaces, disinfection for 1, 2, and 5 minutes resulted in 3.53 log10, >4.54 log10, and >4.12 log10 reductions in viral load, respectively. For N95 respirators, disinfection for 5 minutes resulted in >4.79 log10 reduction in viral load. PX-UV significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
With the potential to rapidly disinfectant environmental surfaces and N95 respirators, PX-UV devices are a promising technology to reduce environmental and personal protective equipment bioburden and to enhance both healthcare worker and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
Research shows that mental demands at work affect later-life cognitive functioning and dementia risk, but systematic assessment of protective mental work demands (PMWDs) is still missing. The goal of this research was to develop a questionnaire to assess PMWDs.
The instrument was developed in accordance with internationally recognized scientific standards comprising conceptualization, pretesting, and validation via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principal component analysis (PCA), and multiple regression analyses.
We included 346 participants, 72.3% female, with an average age of 56.3 years.
Item pool, sociodemographic questions, and cognitive tests: Trail-Making Test A/B, Word List Recall, Verbal Fluency Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Reading Minds in the Eyes Test.
CFAs of eight existing PMWD-concepts revealed weaker fit indices than PCA of the item pool that resulted in five concepts. We computed multivariate regression analyses with all 13 PMWD-concepts as predictors of cognitive functioning. After removing PMWD-concepts that predicted less than two cognitive test scores and excluding others due to overlapping items, the final questionnaire contained four PMWD-concepts: Mental Workload (three items, Cronbach’s α = .58), Verbal Demands (four, Cronbach’s α = .74), Information Load (six, Cronbach’s α = .83), and Extended Job Control (six, Cronbach’s α = .83).
The PMWD-Questionnaire intends to assess protective mental demands at the workplace. Information processing demands and job control make up the primary components emphasizing their relevance regarding cognitive health in old age. Long-term follow-up studies will need to validate construct validity with respect to dementia risk.
We consider Stavskaya’s process, which is a two-state probabilistic cellular automaton defined on a one-dimensional lattice. The state of any vertex depends only on itself and on the state of its right-adjacent neighbour. This process was one of the first multicomponent systems with local interaction for which the existence of a kind of phase transition has been rigorously proved. However, the exact localisation of its critical value remains as an open problem. We provide a new lower bound for the critical value.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
Previously, we showed the usefulness of the REF scale to assess referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001; 2009) although it isn’t specific for patients with psychotic disorders (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
This instrumental work aims to replicate the exploratory factor analysis about the Referential Thinking Scale (REF scale) already developed by Lenzenweger et al. (1997) to examine its multidimensionality.
Participants: The analyzed sample consisted of 193 participants (67.36% women, mean 28.36 years old, SD = 10.35), of whom 131 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language. This questionnaire consists of 34 items that assess the frequency of referential thinking on a dichotomic scale (true/false). We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation.
The principal-components factor analysis method led to 5 factors that explain 37.35% of variance for the rotated solution. Because of inter-factors correlations are small, we considered these factors as being independent. The five factors were labeled as: Laughter, Commentaries (it accounted for 8.92% of variance); Guilt (it accounted for 8.77% of variance); Causal Explanations (it accounted for 7.17% of variance); Songs, Newspapers, Books (it accounted for 6.44% of variance); and Attention, Appearance (it accounted for 6.04% of variance).
It's obtained the five factors isolated in previous studies (Lenzenweger et al., 1997; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001). However, the multidimensionality of the REF scale must be viewed with caution because of a small percentage of explained variance.
Kernberg's classification of personality disorders (1987) differentiates psychic organization according to the severity: neurotic, borderline and psychotic. Lenzenweger et al. (2001) used a reduced version of IPO with 57 items developed by Kernberg and Clarkin (1995).
Objectives and hypothesis
IPO was applied in a sample of patients and a control group. We expected to find an adequate reliability and validity of the inventory. Scales adequately distinguish content borderline, neurotic and psychotic.
Participants: 288 subjects (64.9% women), 116 patients attended to private clinical practice from February 2007 to September 2009. 172 control subjects matched by sex, social class and sincerity (EPI).
Transversal design, a measure collective in the comparison group and individual in patients ones. A group of patients was selected for the retest (n = 88).
Instruments. We applied IPO, the BPRS, MCMI-II and MIPS. Diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR.
Internal consistency (Cronbach) was adequate for the three scales: .83; .90 and .89. The testretest reliability was correct for a mean interval of 44 days (.78; .81; .78). The validity analyses differed between diagnostic groups in Axis I (p< .05), but not in the clusters of personality (p>.05). No differences in BPRS with scale of borderline, but yes with neurotic and psychotic ones. The MCMI-II was properly differentiated by the three scales of the IPO.
The IPO is an useful scale with reliability and validity. The main drawback concerns certain aspects of the borderline scale.
Previously (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) we analysed the multidimensionality of Referential Thinking Scale, obtaining similar results to original research of Lenzenweger et al. (1997) but warning about the construction of subscales.
In this study we intended to analyse if the REF Scale is a good indicator to differentiate the two subtypes of paranoia “Bad Me” and “Poor Me” (Trower & Chadwick, 1995).
Participants: We analyzed data from a different sample of previous studies with 326 participants (64.11% women, mean age 30.8, SD = 10.84), of whom 212 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, of which we deleted two items because of psychometric criteria, resulting 32 dichotomic items. We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation, retaining two factors.
Two factors explained 31.32% of the variance (rotated solution). We interpreted factor through factor loadings higher than .42. Factor 1 accounted for 18.28% of the variance and it's associated with referential laughter, commentaries and guilt. Factor 2 accounted for 13.05% of the variance and it's associated with referential concerns related to the media.
Since the inter-factor correlation is moderate (.44) and there are no relevant clinical differences about the content between the two factors, the REF scale is a one-dimensional measure. Therefore, two big factors don’t emerge from the REF scale related to referential concerns about laughter-commentaries and guilt that correspond to “Poor Me” and “Bad Me”, respectively.
In previous works we demonstrated the utility of the REF scale for the assessment referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) although it wasn't specific for patients with psychotic disorder (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We analyzed the psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the REF scale. We compared the differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology. In the patient group we will not obtain differences in referential-thinking between diagnosis types of Axis I, Axis II, or patients with diagnoses on both axes.
Participants: 120 subjects, 70 patients attending a private center of clinic psychology, 64.3 % women, mean age = 35.21 (SD = 10.5) and 50 controls selected from the normal population, 54 % women, mean age = 33.48 (SD = 10.83).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
We reached adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha= .90, split-half reliability= .83 and .82). The test-restest reliability was significant (mean interval of 44 days). There are significant differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology (t=3.8; p=.001). There are significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses (F=3.99; p=.001).
The REF scale has adequate psychometric properties (reliability and validity). It discriminated between patients and no-patients, and between the different types of diagnoses, especially for those who suffer psychotic disorders.
Un échec de traitement peut entraîner diverses conséquences à la fois pour le patient souffrant de schizophrénie mais aussi en terme de santé publique (arrêt du traitement, hospitalisation, addiction, arrestation/incarcération) [1–3]. Cette étude a comparé en vraie vie, les délais avant échec au traitement des patients souffrant de schizophrénie ayant des antécédents d’incarcération, traités soit par palmitate de paliperidone (PP) ou par des antipsychotiques oraux (APO).
Paliperidone Research In Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) est une étude en ouvert, prospective, randomisée, d’une durée de 15 mois, comparant le PP une fois par mois aux APO chez des sujets atteints de schizophrénie, avec des antécédents d’incarcération (NCT01157351). Les sujets ont été randomisés (1:1) en deux groupes :
– PP à doses flexibles (78–234 mg) administrées une fois par mois ou à ;
– l’un des 7 APO couramment prescrits par l’investigateur.
Le critère de jugement principal était le délai avant échec du traitement (défini comme arrestation/incarcération, hospitalisation, suicide, arrêt du traitement ou supplémentation par manque d’efficacité ou mauvaise tolérance et/ou besoin d’intensifier les soins psychiatriques) évalué par la méthode de Kaplan-Meier.
Un total de 450 sujets ont été inclus (sexe masculin = 86,3 %). Le délai avant échec du traitement était significativement plus long avec le PP par rapport aux APO (médiane = 416 vs 226 jours avant arrêt du traitement ou supplémentation ; Rapport de risque [IC95 %] = 1,43 [1,09, 1,88] ; p = 0,011). Les taux d’échecs du traitement étaient de 39,8 % avec le PP et de 53,7 % avec les APO. Des résultats similaires ont été observés pour le délai avant hospitalisation ou arrestation/incarcération (médiane ≥ 450 vs 274 jours ; rapport de risque [IC95 %] = 1,43 [1,06, 1,93] ; p = 0,019). Les événements indésirables les plus fréquents (PP vs APO, ≥ 10 %) étaient : douleur au site d’injection (18,6 % vs 0 %) ; insomnie (16,8 % vs 11,5 %) ; prise de poids (11,9 % vs 6,0 %) ; akathisie (11,1 % vs 6,9 %) ; anxiété (10,6 % vs 7,3 %).
Le traitement mensuel par PP injectable retarde significativement le délai de survenue d’un large éventail de conséquences négatives de la schizophrénie en vie réelle.
In previous works we used the REF scale of referential thinking as criterion of therapeutic evolution (Benítez-Hernández et al., 2006; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
Objectives and hypotheses
We designed a group therapy of social skills for monitoring and modification of the referential thinking. We predict a decrease of referential thinking (frequency and intensity) both in pretest and posttest measures for each session, as in the progress of the all sessions as a whole.
Participants: 5 women from 24 to 38 years old with the diagnoses: Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and history of Sexual Abuse; generalized Social Phobia; Avoidance Personality Disorder; Bipolar I Disorder; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Avoidance Personality Disorder. It's employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series) of REF measurement (frequency and intensity) at a weekly interval. C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data, t (paired samples) and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line.
#1: frequency-posttest (p=.01).
#2: intensity-pretest (p =.01); intensity-posttest, C =.663 (p< .01).
#3: intensity-pretest, C =.772 (p< .01), intensity-posttest, C =.681 (p< .01).
#4: frequency-pretest, C =.695 (p< .01), frequency- posttest, C =.74 (p< .01).
#5: frequency-pretest and frequency-posttest (p>.01).
Preliminary analysis indicates an improvement of referential thinking in the frequency and intensity both intra and inter-sessions. More therapy sessions are needed to reflect a change statistically significant.
In previous works we found that REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) is a stable and reliable measure (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
In this study we assess the sensitivity of REF scale to detect the disorganization of patient's mental state longitudinally.
Participants: It's a 35-year-old man diagnosed with Schizotypal Personality Disorder. He had a psychotic breakdown and he is being treated with haloperidol. The psychological intervention is cognitive type.
Design, materials and procedure: We used an experimental adaptation of the REF-scale. This self-applied scale consists of 34 items that evaluate the referential thinking in Likert format. We employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series). C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line. We included 103 measures registered at an interval of 3 days.
It's observed a significant declining trend in the whole of the measures both intensity and frequency from the beginning of therapy. However, we observed a significant declining trend in intensity but not in frequency when we analyzed the data from the 50th measurement, which was the period during which the patient got worse.
It's confirmed again that the REF-scale is a stable and reliable measure. It's able to detect changes in the patient's evolution of the referential thinking from the beginning of therapy. In addition, the REF-scale is sensitive detecting decompensations in patients. Therefore, we conclude REF scale is a useful measure for the subsequent decision-making therapeutic.
We created an experimental adaptation of the REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997), in a Likert format for discriminate between frequency and intensity of referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if the Likert format of the REF discriminates between controls and patients, and also in patients with different diagnoses. We predict that there will be differences in frequency and intensity between patients and controls.
Participants: 108 subjects, 40 patients from a private center of clinical psychology, 55% women, mean age = 35.70 (SD = 12.42) and 68 controls selected from the normal population, 50% women, mean age = 36.35 (SD = 12.99).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
No differences in referential thinking between patients and controls with Likert format in frequency (t = 1.496, P = 1.14), although there were differences in intensity (t = 2.30, p =.023). No significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses with the Likert format (X2 = 6.63, p =. 249).
The Likert format of the REF scale adequately discriminates between patients and controls in intensity but not in frequency. This format doesn't discriminate between different diagnoses. The Likert format induces and overestimates the response.
To analyze psychiatric symptoms in relation to a case of Hallervorden-Spatz disease (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) or pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration - familial brain degeneration with iron deposition in brain).
Pubmed revision on behaviour alteration and its relation to brain iron accumulation. Review of patient medical records, including image studies.
A 52-year-old female with diagnosis of mental retardation and psychosis was treated and followed since 1999. Severe behaviour alteration motivated hospital admission in 2009. Over the last two years, the patient had developed progressive dementia, choreoathetosis, mutism, ideomotor apraxia, urinary and fecal incontinence, and corticospinal signs.
A brain MRI (2008) revealed iron deposits in basal ganglia, hypointensity with an area of central hyperintensity (“eye-of-the-tiger”-sign) in both globus pallidi on T2. Based on clinical and MRI findings a diagnosis of Hallervorden Spatz Disease was made.
Classic form of the disease is characterized by early onset and rapid progression, culminating in early death. Atypical disease, as in our case report, has a later onset and more slowly progressive course.
Systemic chelating agents have not proved beneficial. Treatment remains symptomatic. Our patient has experienced a favourable response to low-dose trazodone and quetiapine.
At times, behavioral changes may predate neurologic manifestations, whereas at other times disturbances in mental status and physical functioning may coexist. Among patients with NBIA, those with atypical disease are much more likely to have psychiatric symptoms with cognitive decline. These features present in our case report usually make a difficult and late diagnosis and treatment.
Drug substance abuse has been related with chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders that are thought to interfere in detoxification treatment and relapse induction. These disorders can persist after drug detoxification.
To describe sleep disorders refered by drug dependents patients in an inpatient detoxification unit.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from January 2005 to March 2009. The first night, patients were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire measure designed to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and drug use. Responses ranged from 1 to 7. The questionnaire measured the following:
a) insomnia before hospitalization;
b) patients’ beliefs about the relationship between insomnia and drug use;
c) insomnia in previous detoxifications;
d) patients’ worry about insomnia;
e) treatment of sleep disorder with benzodiazepines.
The study sample included 150 patients (75.3% men). 39% of the patients suffered from alcohol abuse, 34.67% from cocaine abuse, 22.67% from opiod abuse, 21% from cannabis abuse, 18% from benzodiazepine abuse, and 12.67% of patients were polydrug users.Lifetime prevalence of sleep disorders was 68.1%. 64% had suffered insomnia the months previous to detoxification. 80.1% of patients’ refered sleep disorders in relationship with substance abuse. 69.4% were worried about insomnia during detoxification. 75.4% of patients took benzodiazepines without prescription.
Sleep disorders in patients with drug abuse are frequent. A high prevalence of patients having worries about insomnia during the detoxification treatment and believing in a relationship between their sleep disorders and the drug abuse was found.
Present study shows the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients with severe mental illness in Mancha Centro health area. Furthermore, it is a descriptive approach to the current state of clinical assistance in the area.
Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected in a sample of 55 patients, 37 men and 18 women with severe mental illness, treated at the Mancha Centro Mental Health Centre. Using SPSS.15, analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables was made.
Average age was 39, 25 years +/− 8, 82; 72, 7% lived with their families and 85, 5% had the support of relatives. Main diagnosis were: psychotic disorder (81,2%) with high proportion of schizoaffective disorder; mood disorders (9,1%), personality disorders (5,5%) and OCD (3,6%). In the last two years, 25, 5% was admitted in a medium-stay psychiatric unit, 15% in a short- time stay psychiatric unit and, in the last six months, 4% came to emergency service. Patients with higher number of admissions and emergency consultations were those with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The average time of follow up was 10 years (+/− 6, 84), every 49, 45 days (+/− 19,1). 80% receive group therapy, 85,5% family intervention and 54,5% cognitive rehabilitation.
We found a profile of young man with significant family support, low number of admissions and emergency consultations. Results could be in relation to: geographical dispersion, emergency access difficulties and protective socio-cultural factors. Better knowledge about needs would allow a better assistance in the future.
In previous works, referential thinking was predicted by clinical and dispositional variables such as social anxiety or vulnerability to depression (Rodríguez-Testal, Senín-Calderón & Fernández-Jiménez, submitted to revision).
Objectives and hypotheses
We propose to find personality variables to characterize the emergence of referential thinking. We predict a greater referential thinking in subjects with a high sensitivity to punishment and higher scores on social anxiety.
Participants: 366 subjects selected from the general population, 66.6% women, mean age = 33.18 (SD = 12.79).
We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, GHQ-28 (Goldberg, 1996), SPSRQ (Torrubia et al., 2001) and The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
It was applied a cross-sectional design and a correlation method. All the analysis were accepted at p < .05.
The multiple linear regression analysis showed the importance of the clinical variable of depression, public self-consciousness, and sensitivity to reward and punishment as predictors of referential thinking (34% of the variance explained). The discriminant analysis according to scores in referential thinking was significant (Lambda = .87, p = .001). The combination of the above variables correctly classified 85.1% of cases.
Subjects more concerned about how they are perceived by others tend to a greater presence of self-references, although they don’t show a high score in social anxiety. Susceptibility to reward and high vulnerable to punishment are the personality variables that best predicted referential thinking.
Several studies have reported immune cellular and humoral dysfunction during depression. We specifically focused on the study of the monocyte as it has a key role in the activation of the immune response. To examine the association between severity of depressive symptoms and values of monocyte parameters (HLA-DR, CD35, phagocytic activity and vimentin filaments), we used a longitudinal design and assessed monocyte markers at intake and at follow-up 12 weeks after discharge from the hospital in 49 depressed patients. Seventy percent of patients showed pretreatment a marked monocyte dysfunction (82.5% had at least one parameter altered). After treatment, alterations in immunological variables were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with depression scores higher than 15. The findings indicate that the monocyte dysfunction is temporally associated with the state of depression. Before and after treatment the immunoreactive vimentin filaments significantly increased (P < 0.01) after incubation of monocytes with naloxone, suggesting that an increased opioid activity might account for the monocyte dysfunction.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.