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Specialised rehabilitation units offer inpatient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation for individuals with severe and enduring mental illness. A cornerstone of therapy is the work in the community through further education and community organisations. However, coronavirus restrictions have meant that such external supports are no longer available for the duration of the crisis. This has led to opportunities for developing new ways of offering rehabilitation within hospital environments. This article describes some of the new initiatives developed. The benefits of the lockdown for service users are also discussed. Many found the cessation of visits from family members with whom they had an ambivalent relationship helpful. The lockdown improved relationships between patients on the unit and encouraged a greater feeling of community. The lockdown has also emphasised the importance of team self-awareness and an awareness of the nature of the treatments offered.
This presentation describes and analyses patient characteristics and service usage over one year of a cohort of people with a diagnosis of severe mental illness across England, including contacts with primary and secondary care and continuity- of-care.
Data were collected from primary care patient notes (n=1150) by trained nurses from 64 practices in England, covering all service contacts from 1st April 2008 to 31st March 2009.
The estimated national rate of patients seen only in primary care was 31.1% and rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were 56.8% and 37.9%. Patients had 7,961 consultations within primary care and 1,993 contacts with mental health services (20% of the total). Of those seen in secondary care, 61% had at most two secondary care contacts recorded in primary care notes. Median consultation rates with GPs were lower than have been reported for previous years and were only slightly above the general population. Relational continuity in primary care was poor for 21% of patients (Modified Modified Continuity Index =< 0.5), and for almost a third of new referrals to mental health services the primary care record contained no information on the referral outcome.
Primary care is centrally involved in the care of people with serious mental illness, but primary care and cross- boundary continuity is poor for a substantial proportion. Research is needed to determine the impact of poor continuity on patient outcomes, and above all, the impact of new collaborative ways of working at the primary/secondary care interface
Collaborative care is a community based intervention which typically consists of a number of components. The intervention aims to improve the physical and/or mental health and health care of people with a severe mental illness (SMI).
To explore how collaborative care is implemented.
To assess the effectiveness of collaborative care approaches in comparison to standard care for people with SMI who are living in the community.
A Cochrane Review: The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Specialised register was searched in April 2011. Fifty one experts in the field of SMI and collaborative care were also contacted.
We included one RCT (306 participants; US veterans with bipolar disorder I or II) in this review. The trial provides data for one comparison: collaborative care versus standard care The reanalysis of data from the one included study indicated that collaborative care significantly reduced psychiatric admissions at year 2 in comparison to standard care (N= 306, 1 RCT, RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.99). Direct intervention (all-treatment) costs of collaborative care at the three year follow up did not differ significantly from standard care,mean difference -$2981.00 (N= 306, 1 RCT95% CI $16934.93 to $10972.93).
One trial at moderate risk of bias suggests that collaborative care may significantly reduce psychiatric admissions. More large, well designed, conducted and reported trials may be required to determine the effects of collaborative care and help inform healthcare professionals and policy makers about the value of collaborative care for people with SMI
Approximately 74 ka, Toba caldera in Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted in one of the most catastrophic supereruptions in Earth's history. Resurgent uplift of the caldera floor raised Samosir Island 700 m above Lake Toba, exposing valuable lake sediments. To constrain sediment chronology, we collected 173 discrete paleomagnetic 8 cm3 cubes and 15 radiocarbon samples from six sections across the island. Bulk organic 14C ages provide an initial chronostratigraphic framework ranging from ~12 to 46 ka. Natural and laboratory magnetizations were studied using alternating field demagnetization. A generally well-defined primary magnetization is isolated using principal component analysis. Comparison of inclination, and to a lesser degree declination, across independently dated sections suggests paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) is recorded. Average inclination of −6° is more negative than a geocentric axial dipole would predict, but consistent with an eastward extension of the negative inclination anomaly observed in the western equatorial Pacific. The 14C- and PSV-derived age model constrains resurgent uplift, confirming faster uplift rates to the east and slower rates to the west, while suggesting that fault blocks moved differentially from each other within a generally trapdoor-type configuration.
Developmental language disorder (DLD) is common, yet the neurobiology of DLD is poorly understood. A key hypothesis suggests atypical functional lateralization of language, which might be accompanied structurally by a deficit in inter-hemispheric connectivity of language-related regions. Indeed, aberrations of the corpus callosum have been associated with language deficits in children with frank neurological lesions and/or born pre-term. In contrast, studies examining the corpus callosum in children with DLD remain elusive.
We aimed to expand this largely understudied field by comparing callosal morphology between 17 children with DLD and 17 typically developing children carefully matched for sex and age.
We analyzed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging data applying a well-validated computational approach, which captures the thickness of the corpus callosum with a high regional specificity at 100 equidistant points.
As shown in Fig. 1, we observed a significantly thinner corpus callosum, particularly in the splenium, in children with DLD compared to typically developing controls (DLD < CTL).
These findings indicating pronounced aberrations in the brain's largest whiter matter tract make an important contribution to an understudied field of research and support the theory that DLD is accompanied by atypical lateralization of language function.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Birth weight and early growth have been associated with later blood pressure. However, not all studies consistently find a significant reduction in blood pressure with an increase in birth weight. In addition, the relative importance of birth weight and of other lifestyle and environmental factors is often overlooked and the association is rarely studied in adolescents. We investigated early life predictors, including birth weight, of adolescent blood pressure in the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS). The GMS is a cohort of 1029 individuals born in 1999–2000 in Gateshead in Northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information were collected, including birth weight and measures of height and weight. Assessments of 491 returning participants at age 12 years included measures of body mass and blood pressure. Linear regression and path analysis were used to determine predictors and their relative importance on blood pressure. Birth weight was not directly associated with blood pressure at the age of 12. However, after adjustment for contemporaneous body mass index (BMI), an inverse association of standardized birth weight on systolic blood pressure was significant. The relative importance of birth weight on later systolic blood pressure was smaller than other contemporaneous body measures (height and BMI). There was no independent association of birth weight on blood pressure seen in this adolescent population. Contemporaneous body measures have an important role to play. Lifestyle factors that influence body mass or size, such as diet and physical activity, where interventions are directed at early prevention of hypertension should be targeted.
We explored whether supported (SJE) or coordinated joint engagement (CJE) between mothers recruited from the community and their 24-month-old children who were slow-to-talk at 18 months old were associated with child language scores at ages 24, 36, and 48 months (n = 197). We further explored whether SJE or CJE modified the concurrent positive associations between maternal responsive behaviours and language scores. Previous research has shown that SJE, maternal expansions, imitations, and responsive questions were associated with better language scores. Our main finding was that SJE but not CJE was consistently positively associated with 24- and 36-month-old expressive and receptive language scores, but not with 48-month-old language scores. SJE modified how expansions and imitations, but not responsive questions, were associated with language scores; the associations were evident in all but the highest levels of SJE. Further research is necessary to test these findings in other samples before clinical recommendations can be made.
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas contributes significantly to global aquaculture; however, C. gigas culture has been affected by ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) and variants. The dynamics of how the virus maintains itself at culture sites is unclear and the role of carriers, reservoirs or hosts is unknown. Both wild and cultured mussels Mytilus spp. (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids) are commonly found at C. gigas culture sites. The objective of this study was to investigate if Mytilus spp. can harbour the virus and if viral transmission can occur between mussels and oysters. Mytilus spp. living at oyster trestles, 400–500 m higher up the shore from the trestles and up to 26 km at non-culture sites were screened for OsHV-1 and variants by all the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommended diagnostic methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), histology, in situ hybridization and confirmation using direct sequencing. The particular primers that target OsHV-1 and variants, including OsHV-1 microVar (μVar), were used in the PCR and qPCR. OsHV-1 μVar was detected in wild Mytilus spp. at C. gigas culture sites and more significantly the virus was detected in mussels at non-culture sites. Cohabitation of exposed wild mussels and naïve C. gigas resulted in viral transmission after 14 days, under an elevated temperature regime. These results indicate that mussels can harbour OsHV-1 μVar; however, the impact of OsHV-1 μVar on Mytilus spp. requires further investigation.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been reported to rapidly reduce psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This has the potential to revolutionize treatment for schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SNP leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms and an improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) performance in patients with schizophrenia.
This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from 27 August 2014 to 10 February 2016 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02176044). Twenty patients with schizophrenia aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Baseline symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and SWM was assessed using the CANTAB computerized test. Participants received either an infusion of SNP (0.5 μg/kg per min for 4 h) or placebo and were re-assessed for symptoms and SWM performance immediately after the infusion, and 4 weeks later.
SNP did not lead to any reduction in psychotic symptoms or improvement in SWM performance compared to placebo.
Although this study was negative, it is possible that the beneficial effects of SNP may occur in patients with a shorter history of illness, or with more acute exacerbation of symptoms.
To evaluate the microbiologic effectiveness of the World Health Organization’s 6-step and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 3-step hand hygiene techniques using alcohol-based handrub.
A parallel group randomized controlled trial.
An acute care inner-city teaching hospital (Glasgow).
Doctors (n=42) and nurses (n=78) undertaking direct patient care.
Random 1:1 allocation of the 6-step (n=60) or the 3-step (n=60) technique.
The 6-step technique was microbiologically more effective at reducing the median log10 bacterial count. The 6-step technique reduced the count from 3.28 CFU/mL (95% CI, 3.11–3.38 CFU/mL) to 2.58 CFU/mL (2.08–2.93 CFU/mL), whereas the 3-step reduced it from 3.08 CFU/mL (2.977–3.27 CFU/mL) to 2.88 CFU/mL (−2.58 to 3.15 CFU/mL) (P=.02). However, the 6-step technique did not increase the total hand coverage area (98.8% vs 99.0%, P=.15) and required 15% (95% CI, 6%-24%) more time (42.50 seconds vs 35.0 seconds, P=.002). Total hand coverage was not related to the reduction in bacterial count.
Two techniques for hand hygiene using alcohol-based handrub are promoted in international guidance, the 6-step by the World Health Organization and 3-step by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study provides the first evidence in a randomized controlled trial that the 6-step technique is superior, thus these international guidance documents should consider this evidence, as should healthcare organizations using the 3-step technique in practice.
Ultrathin colloidal PbS nanosheets are synthesized using organometallic precursors with chloroalkane cosolvents, resulting in tunable thicknesses ranging from 1.2 nm to 4.6 nm. We report the first thickness-dependent photoluminescence spectra from lead-salt nanosheets. The one-dimensional confinement energy of these quasi-two-dimensional nanosheets is found to be proportional to 1/L instead of 1/L2 (L is the thickness of the nanosheet), which is consistent with results calculated using density functional theory as well as tight-binding theory.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) share considerable overlap in clinical features, genetic risk factors and co-occurrence among relatives. The common and unique functional cerebral deficits in these disorders, and in unaffected relatives, remain to be identified.
A total of 59 healthy controls, 37 SCZ and 57 PBD probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives (38 and 28, respectively) were studied using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Regional cerebral function was evaluated by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Areas with ALFF alterations were used as seeds in whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. We then tested whether abnormalities identified in probands were present in unaffected relatives.
SCZ and PBD probands both demonstrated regional hypoactivity in the orbital frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, as well as abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. SCZ probands showed greater and more widely distributed ALFF alterations including the thalamus and bilateral parahippocampal gyri. Increased parahippocampal ALFF was related to positive symptoms and cognitive deficit. PBD patients showed uniquely increased functional connectivity between the thalamus and bilateral insula. Only PBD relatives showed abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks seen in both proband groups.
The present findings reveal a common pattern of deficits in frontostriatal circuitry across SCZ and PBD, and unique regional and functional connectivity abnormalities that distinguish them. The abnormal network connectivity in PBD relatives that was present in both proband groups may reflect genetic susceptibility associated with risk for psychosis, but within-family associations of this measure were not high.