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All intensity data in a powder XRD pattern can be used to provide useful results for the interpretation of the mineralogical variability of geological samples. Simple statistical methods using Bonferroni's theorem permit the recognition of areas usually associated with mineral peaks where sample patterns are different at a predetermined level of confidence. Intensity/frequency histograms reveal subtle differences in low intensity regions of the XRD patterns that are also indicative of sample variability. These procedures facilitate the comparison of samples and may reduce the total analytical error because the weight percent determination can be eliminated.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase plant nutrient uptake and chemical defense production, both of which can improve plants’ ability to resist insect herbivory. Cover crops—non-commercial species planted in between cash crops in a crop rotation—can naturally alter both soil nutrients and AMF. We tested whether different cover crop species alter AMF colonization, plant nutrient status and plant–insect interactions in a subsequent maize crop. Cover crop species were either non-mycorrhizal, non-leguminous (canola, forage radish), mycorrhizal non-leguminous (cereal rye, oats), mycorrhizal leguminous (clover, pea) or absent (fallow). We measured the cascading consequences of cover crop treatment on maize root AMF colonization, maize growth and performance of an herbivorous insect (European corn borer) feeding on the maize. Maize AMF colonization was greater in plots previously planted with mycorrhizal (rye, oats) than non-mycorrhizal (canola, radish) cover crops or no cover crop (fallow). AMF colonization was linked to increased plant phosphorous and nitrogen, and maize growth increased with low plant N:P. Induced jasmonic acid pathway plant defenses increased with increasing maize growth and AMF colonization. European corn borer survivorship decreased with lower plant N:P, and insect development rate decreased with increased induced plant defenses. Our data describe a cascade in which cover crop species selection can increase or decrease mycorrhizal colonization of subsequent maize crop roots, which in turn impacts phosphorus uptake and may affect herbivory resistance in the maize. These results suggest that farmers could select cover crop species to manage nutrient uptake and pest resistance, in order to amend or limit fertilizer and pesticide use.
Because of the national conversation about her status as a role model, the former First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) presents an opportunity to analyze an Obama effect—particularly, the idea that Michelle Obama's prominence as a political figure can influence, among other things, citizens’ impressions of black women in America. Using evidence from the 2011 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation/Washington Post survey, we demonstrate that Michelle Obama's status as a role model operates as a “moderated mediator”: it transmits the effect of the former FLOTUS’ media activities to respondents’ racial attitudes, and the degree to which role model status functions as a mediating variable differs by race (and, to a lesser degree, by gender). Thus, our research provides both a theoretical and an empirical contribution to the Obama-effect literature.
Objectives: We assessed trends in the incidence, prevalence, and post-diagnosis mortality of parkinsonism in Ontario, Canada over 18 years. We also explored the influence of a range of risk factors for brain health on the trend of incident parkinsonism. Methods: We established an open cohort by linking population-based health administrative databases from 1996 to 2014 in Ontario. The study population comprised residents aged 20–100 years with an incident diagnosis of parkinsonism ascertained using a validated algorithm. We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence, prevalence, and mortality of parkinsonism, stratified by young onset (20–39 years) and mid/late onset (≥40 years). We assessed trends in incidence using Poisson regression, mortality using negative binomial regression, and prevalence of parkinsonism and pre-existing conditions (e.g., head injury) using the Cochran–Armitage trend test. To better understand trends in the incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism, we adjusted for various pre-existing conditions in the Poisson regression model. Results: From 1996 to 2014, we identified 73,129 incident cases of parkinsonism (source population of ∼10.5 million), of whom 56% were male, mean age at diagnosis was 72.6 years, and 99% had mid/late-onset parkinsonism. Over 18 years, the age- and sex-standardized incidence decreased by 13.0% for mid/late-onset parkinsonism but remained unchanged for young-onset parkinsonism. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence increased by 22.8%, while post-diagnosis mortality decreased by 5.5%. Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appreciably explain the declining incidence of mid/late-onset parkinsonism. Conclusion: Young-onset and mid/late-onset parkinsonism exhibited differing trends in incidence over 18 years in Ontario. Further research to identify other factors that may appreciably explain trends in incident parkinsonism is warranted.
Violent hazing has been a longstanding issue within African American, collegiate fraternities and sororities, otherwise known as black Greek‐letter organizations (BGLOs). This article investigates how and what hazing victims know about their hazing experiences. Additionally, the article examines how victims' knowledge of hazing may hold serious implications for tort defense doctrines like assumption of risk and comparative fault. Specifically, the authors conduct two studies—one quantitative and the other qualitative—to find that not only are BGLO pledges aware that their pledge experiences are likely to involve mental and physical hazing, but that they believe such experiences will likely continue throughout the entirety of their induction process. Moreover, appreciation for hazing experiences is often captured in the fraternal chants, greetings, and songs they learn or create, which together reflects some understanding of danger and risk. The authors contend that these elements of black “Greek” hazing culture may serve as evidence of assumption of risk or comparative fault.
The Acrididæ are characterised by a very uniform karyotype. With a few exceptions, the species so far studied contain 23 chromosomes in the male, which are very similar in size and structure. Attempts to deduce the probable mechanism of speciation within the Acrididæ were restricted only to metrical studies of chromosomes. Recently, however, Coleman (1943) has established in two species the subterminal position of the primary constriction or centromere and the variation in the length of the two arms in different chromosomes of the same karyotype. In the present paper additional evidence is presented which shows a linear differentiation of some chromosomes of the Acrididæ. Furthermore, in view of the fact that chromosome behaviour during meiosis is a more reliable criterion of ascertaining linear differentiation, the meiosis was studied in three genera.
Three species belonging to three different genera were studied. They are Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker, Oxya sp. and Phlœoba sp. The former two belong to the sub-family Catantopinæ and the latter one to Acrididæ. Adult male specimens have been captured from the field adjoining the Biological Departments, Calcutta University, mostly in the months of August and September 1943–44. The testes were dissected out in Ringer's solution (cold-blooded formula) and fixed in Medium Flemming, Belling's, and Kahle's fixatives. The two latter were very suitable for smear preparations. Sections were cut at 25 to 30 micra in thickness and stained in iodine-crystal violet and in Heidenhain's hæmatoxylin. A 2 per cent, solution of safranin also gave good results. Squash preparations were stained by Feulgen's method. Diplotene stages in Phlœoba were studied from temporary aceto-carmine preparations.
Visual vertigo is defined as a condition in which there is worsening or triggering of vestibular symptoms in certain visual environments. Previous studies have associated visual vertigo with an increased prevalence of underlying white matter lesions on brain imaging.
This study evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain from a cohort of patients with visual vertigo, and compared the outcomes to an age- and gender-matched group of healthy volunteers.
Results and conclusion
White matter lesions were observed in 17.9 per cent of the patient group and in 16.3 per cent of the control group. The prevalence of white matter lesions in the patient group was not too different to that expected based on age.
To investigate discrepancies in dose calculation algorithms used for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans.
Methods and materials
In total, 30 patients lung SBRT treatment plans, initially generated using BrainLab Pencil Beam (BL_PB) algorithm for 10 Gy×5 Fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) were included in the study. These plans were recalculated using BrainLab Monte Carlo (BL_MC), Eclipse AAA (EC_AAA), Eclipse Acuros XB (EC_AXB) and ADAC Pinnacle CCC (AP_CCC) algorithms. Dose volume histograms of PTV were used to calculate dosimetric and radiobiological quality indices, and equivalent dose to 2 Gy per fraction using linear-quadratic-linear model. The BL_MC algorithm is considered gold standard tool to compare PTV parameters and quality indices to investigate dose calculation discrepancies of abovementioned plans.
BL_PB overestimates doses that may be due to inability of the algorithm to properly account for electron scattering and transport in inhomogeneous medium. Compared with BL_MCNO plans, the EC_AAA and EC_AXB yield lower homogeneity indices and overestimate the dose in the penumbra region, whereas AP_CCC plans were comparable for small PTV (≈8 cc) and had significant difference for large PTV.
BL_PB algorithm overestimates PTV doses than BL_MC calculated doses. The EC_AAA, EC_AXB and AP_CCC algorithms calculate doses within acceptable limits of radiotherapy dose delivery recommendations.
The meridional circulation of the Sun is observationally found to vary with the solar cycle, becoming slower during the solar maxima. We explain this by constructing a theoretical model in which the equation of the meridional circulation (the φ component of the vorticity equation) is coupled with the equations of the flux transport dynamo model. We find that the Lorentz force of the dynamo-generated magnetic fields can slow down the meridional circulation during the solar maxima in broad conformity with the observations.
The polar magnetic field of the Sun is a manifestation of certain aspects of the dynamo process and is a good precursor for predicting a sunspot cycle before its onset. Although actual synoptic measurements of this field exist only from the mid-1970s, it has now been possible to determine its evolution from the beginning of the twentieth century with the help of various proxies. The recently developed 3D kinematic dynamo model can study the build-up of the Sun’s polar magnetic field more realistically than the earlier surface flux transport model.
Neurodevelopmental impairment is increasingly recognised as a potentially disabling outcome of CHD and formal evaluation is recommended for high-risk patients. However, data are lacking regarding the proportion of eligible children who actually receive neurodevelopmental evaluation, and barriers to follow-up are unclear. We examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure to attend neurodevelopmental follow-up clinic after infant cardiac surgery.
Survivors of infant (<1 year) cardiac surgery at our institution (4/2011-3/2014) were included. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated in neurodevelopmental clinic attendees and non-attendees in univariate and multivariable analyses.
A total of 552 patients were included; median age at surgery was 2.4 months, 15% were premature, and 80% had moderate–severe CHD. Only 17% returned for neurodevelopmental evaluation, with a median age of 12.4 months. In univariate analysis, non-attendees were older at surgery, had lower surgical complexity, fewer non-cardiac anomalies, shorter hospital stay, and lived farther from the surgical center. Non-attendee families had lower income, and fewer were college graduates or had private insurance. In multivariable analysis, lack of private insurance remained independently associated with non-attendance (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, p=0.01), with a trend towards significance for distance from surgical center (adjusted odds ratio 2.86, p=0.054 for ⩾200 miles).
The majority of infants with CHD at high risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction evaluated in this study are not receiving important neurodevelopmental evaluation. Efforts to remove financial/insurance barriers, increase access to neurodevelopmental clinics, and better delineate other barriers to receipt of neurodevelopmental evaluation are needed.
Children with single-ventricle disease experience high mortality and complex care. In other life-limiting childhood illnesses, paediatric palliative care may mitigate maternal stress. We hypothesised that early palliative care in the single-ventricle population may have the same benefit for mothers. In this pilot randomised trial of early palliative care, mothers of infants with prenatal single-ventricle diagnoses completed surveys measuring depression, anxiety, coping, and quality of life at a prenatal visit and neonatal discharge. Infants were randomised to receive early palliative care – structured evaluation, psychosocial/spiritual, and communication support before surgery – or standard care. Among 56 eligible mothers, 40 enrolled and completed baseline surveys; 38 neonates were randomised, 18 early palliative care and 20 standard care; and 34 postnatal surveys were completed. Baseline Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Index scores exceeded normal pregnant sample scores (mean 13.76±8.46 versus 7.0±5.0 and 46.34±12.59 versus 29.8±6.35, respectively; p=0.0001); there were no significant differences between study groups. The early palliative care group had a decrease in prenatal to postnatal State-Trait Anxiety Index scores (−7.6 versus 0.3 in standard care, p=0.02), higher postnatal Brief Cope Inventory positive reframing scores (p=0.03), and a positive change in PedsQL Family Impact Module communication and family relationships scores (effect size 0.46 and 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, these data show that mothers of infants with single-ventricle disease experience significant depression and anxiety prenatally. Early palliative care resulted in decreased maternal anxiety, improved maternal positive reframing, and improved communication and family relationships.
The indigenous poultry germplasm of Andaman & Nicobar Islands includes Nicobari fowl, Barred desi, Naked neck and Frizzle fowl, of which Nicobari fowl is the only native fowl of these Islands. The study of immune status is indirectly correlated with the disease resistance characteristics of the bird’s. The present study was conducted to know the primary humoral antibody response to Sheep RBC (SRBC) and their persistence in the immune system. However, for complete immunocompetence status, beside humoral responses the CMI and phagocytic responses are also to be considered.
Postel Nunatak in the Patuxent Range has been previously mapped as Nelson Limestone but there was no biostratigraphic support for that interpretation until now. We confirm that limestone exposures at Postel Nunatak are at least partly correlated with the Nelson Limestone of the Neptune Range, 160 km north-east, and are not correlative with the lower Cambrian Schneider Hills Limestone of the Argentina Range. Upper beds have yielded the trilobites Suludella? davnii Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972 and Solenopleura pruina Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972, which provide a basis for assignment to Cambrian Series 3 (late middle Cambrian), within the Drumian or lower Guzhangian stages. Limestone beds were deposited in a shallow marine setting, ranging from supratidal to lagoonal facies with rare subtidal intervals. These settings contrast with deeper water facies of the Neptune Range. Despite limitations in sampling density, isotopic analysis indicates that a greater than +2.5‰ shift in δ13C is consistent with δ13C trends documented for the Drumian Stage. Because the upper and lower contacts at Postel Nunatak are covered by snow and ice, the relationship with rocks mapped as the Patuxent Formation in the Patuxent Range remains uncertain, but part of it may belong to the Precambrian Hannah Ridge Formation.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
Black widows and redbacks are binary systems consisting of a millisecond pulsar in a close binary with a companion having matter driven off of its surface by the pulsar wind. X-rays due to an intrabinary shock have been observed from many of these systems, as well as orbital variations in the optical emission from the companion due to heating and tidal distortion. We have been systematically studying these systems in radio, optical and X-rays. Here we will present an overview of X-ray and optical studies of these systems, including new XMM-Newton and NuStar data obtained from several of them, along with new optical photometry.
The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) presents an exciting new capability for exploring the modulation properties of X-ray emitting neutron stars, including large area, low background, extremely precise absolute event time stamps, superb low-energy response and flexible scheduling. The Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination working group has designed a 2.5 Ms observing program to search for emission and characterize the modulation properties of about 30 known or suspected neutron star sources across a number of source categories. A key early goal will be to search for pulsations from millisecond pulsars that might exhibit thermal pulsations from the surface suitable for pulse profile modeling to constrain the neutron star equation of state. In addition, we will search for pulsations from transitional millisecond pulsars, isolated neutron stars, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), accretion-powered millisecond pulsars, central compact objects and other sources. We present our science plan and initial results from the first months of the NICER mission, including the discovery of pulsations from the millisecond pulsar J1231–1411.
We made observations of H2O masers in the LkHα 234 star forming region using the Japanese domestic VLBI network (J-Net). We first present spatial and velocity structures of the maser sources of C1 and C3 which are detected by Tofani et al.(1995). The distribution of H2O maser components in C1 shows an extent of 300×150 AU. On the other hand, it shows a compact and linear extent of 15×3 AU in C3, and its position angle (RA.=232 °) roughly agrees with that of the H2 jet (PA.=226 °). Moreover, the most blue-shifted and red-shifted maser components are located at both ends of the linear extent, indicating that this might be a very small jet ejected from the deeply embedded protostar. However, it is difficult to explain the distribution of intermediate velocity components by a simple jet model. We will discuss whether the H2O masers originate in a jet or a disk.
We present the results from a series of multi-epoch 22 GHz H2O maser surveys with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the VLA towards low-mass young stellar objects, including all the class 0 sources in the northern sky. Our Nobeyama 45 m survey is the deepest survey - down to an isotopic H2O luminosity of ∼ 10−13L⊙ - performed so far. From this survey, we obtained the following results. (1) Class 0 sources show high H2O maser activity: our derived detection rates are ∼ 38% for class 0, but only ∼ 4% for class I sources. (2) Activity of the H2O masers is more likely related to 100 AU scale ionized jets than to large scale molecular outflows.