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With the latest configuration, the Ti:Sa laser system ARCTURUS (Düsseldorf University, Germany) operates with a double-chirped pulse amplification (CPA) architecture delivering pulses with an energy of 7 J before compression in each of the two high-power beams. By the implementation of a plasma mirror system, the intrinsic laser contrast is enhanced up to
on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds, before the main peak. The laser system has been used in various configurations for advanced experiments and different studies have been carried out employing the high-power laser beams as a single, high-intensity interaction beam (
), in dual- and multi-beam configurations or in a pump–probe arrangement.
We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780 hospitalisations, 228 (12.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The median (range) length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 3 (1–27) days. An increase of 1 month of age was associated with a decreased risk of ICU admission (rate ratio (RR) 0.94; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.91–0.98) and with a decrease in LOS (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). Associations between RSV, influenza, ADV positivity and ICU admission and LOS were significantly modified by age. Children <5 months old were at the highest risk from RSV-associated severe outcomes, while children >8 months were at greater risk from influenza-associated ICU admissions and long hospital stay. Children with ADV had increased LOS across all ages. In the first 2 years of life, the effects of different viruses on ALRI severity varies with age. Our findings help to identify specific ages that would most benefit from virus-specific interventions such as vaccines and antivirals.
The solar active region (AR) 12192 was one of the most flare productive region of solar cycle 24, which produced many X-class flares; the most energetic being an X3.1 flare on October 24, 2014 at 21:10 UT. Customarily, such events are believed to be triggered by magnetic reconnection in coronal magnetic fields. Here we use the vector magnetograms from solar photosphere, obtained from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager (HMI) to investigate the magnetic field topology prior to the X3.1 event, and ascertain the conditions that might have caused the flare. To infer the coronal magnetic field, a novel non-force-free field (NFFF) extrapolation technique of the photospheric field is used, which suitably mimics the Lorentz forces present in the photospheric plasma. We also highlight the presence of magnetic null points and quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the magnetic field topology, which are preferred sites for magnetic reconnections and discuss the probable reconnection scenarios.
Magnetic reconnections (MRs) for various magnetic field line (MFL) topologies are believed to be the initiators of solar eruptive events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Consequently, important is a thorough understanding and quantification of the MFL topology and their evolution which leads to MRs. Contemporary standard is to extrapolate the coronal MFLs using equilibrium models where the Lorentz force on the coronal plasma is zero everywhere. In tandem, a non-force-free-field (NFFF) extrapolation scheme has evolved and allows for a Lorentz force which is non-zero only at the photosphere but asymptotically vanishes with height. The paper reports magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)- simulations initiated by NFFF extrapolation of the coronal MFLs for a flare producing active region NOAA 11158. Interestingly, quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which facilitate MRs are detected in the extrapolated MFLs and, here the paper makes an attempt to asses the role of QSLs in the flare onsets.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.
An analysis is carried out to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer characteristics of an electrically conducting dusty non-Newtonian fluid, namely, the upper convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a stretching sheet. The stretching velocity and the temperature at the surface are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the origin. Using a similarity transformation, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the model problem are transformed into coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and the equations are solved numerically by a second order finite difference implicit method known as the Keller-box method. Comparisons with the available results in the literature are presented as a special case. The effects of the physical parameters on the fluid velocity, the velocity of the dust particle, the density of the dust particle, the fluid temperature, the dust-phase temperature, the skin friction, and the wall-temperature gradient are presented through tables and graphs. It is observed that, Maxwell fluid reduces the wall-shear stress. Also, the fluid particle interaction reduces the fluid temperature in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the results obtained for the flow and heat transfer characteristics reveal many interesting behaviors that warrant further study on the non-Newtonian fluid flow phenomena, especially the dusty UCM fluid flow phenomena.
Many patients with human immunodeficiency virus present with atypical features. Early indicators of human immunodeficiency virus are scarce and hence most affected patients are diagnosed in the later stages of the disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. Salivary gland disease usually develops before acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and is sometimes the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Salivary gland lesions include benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid gland, which are seen in 3–6 per cent of patients. Many of the reported lesions are diagnosed on routine examination.
This review aimed to highlight the association between parotid gland benign lymphoepithelial cyst and human immunodeficiency virus infection, in order to aid early diagnosis and management of the disease.
Human immunodeficiency virus testing is recommended for patients with benign lymphoepithelial cysts, as this can often be the first indication of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts are important diagnostic and prognostic indicators in human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Leucaena leucocephala is cultivated at close spacings that do not permit intercropping. This has been a discouraging factor for small landholders who need regular income to establish leucaena plantations and benefit from the rapidly expanding market for wood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from August 2001 to January 2006, to study the effect of reducing tree density and modifying tree geometry on the growth of leucaena and productivity of intercrops. The inter-row spacing of 1.3 m in farmers' practice was increased up to 13 m to examine whether wide-row planting and grouping of certain rows would facilitate extended intercropping without sacrificing wood yield. Tree density treatments tried were 1.3 × 1.3 m, 3 × 0.75 m, 3 × 1 m, 5 × 0.8 m and 3 × 2 m which gives densities of 5919, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 trees ha−1, respectively. Tree geometry treatments tested were 7 × 1 m paired row spacing (7 × 1 PR), 10 × 1 m triple row spacing (10 × 1 TR), and 13 × 1 m four rows (13 × 1 FR) with a constant tree population of 2500 trees ha−1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was the intercrop. While changes in tree density affected diameter at breast height (DBH) significantly, modification of tree geometry did not affect tree height and DBH. Marketable wood and dry biomass productivity was highest with 3 × 0.75 m spacing, and reducing tree density and alteration of tree geometry reduced the biomass considerably. In 2001, 2002 and 2003 seasons, respectively, tree spacing at 3 m produced mean yields of 97, 23 and 11% of the sole crop cowpea yield whereas modified tree geometry treatments produced mean yields of 97, 61 and 20% of sole crop yield. The widest spacing (13 × 1 FR) recorded 95, 73 and 30% of the sole crop yields during 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. Net returns from intercropping of leucaena in 3 × 0.75 m spacing was 36% higher than that of the farmers' practice. Although wider tree geometry treatments recorded lower net returns, they provided higher intercrop yields and returns in the first two years of plantation establishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that in regions where annual rainfall is around 1000 mm, leucaena can be planted at a spacing of 3 × 0.75 m for improving intercrop performance, higher tree productivity and returns.
The relative contributions of psychosocial stress and psychiatric morbidity to suicide are a subject of debate.
To determine major risk factors for suicide in rural south India.
We used a matched case–control design and psychological autopsy to assess 100 consecutive suicides and 100 living controls matched for age, gender and neighbourhood.
Thirty-seven (37%) of those who died by suicide had a DSM–III–R psychiatric diagnosis. Alcohol dependence (16%) and adjustment disorders (15%) were the most common categories. The prevalence rates for schizophrenia, major depressive episode and dysthymia were 2% each. Ongoing stress and chronic pain heightened the risk of suicide. Living alone and a break in a steady relationship within the past year were also significantly associated with suicide.
Psychosocial stress and social isolation, rather than psychiatric morbidity, are risk factors for suicide in rural south India.
Between February and March 1981 an epidemic of hepatitis occurred in Kolhapur City, Maharashtra State, India. Approximately 1200 cases of jaundice were reported; more than 300 patients were hospitalized and three died. The epidemiological investigations showed a distinct concentration of cases in municipal ward E of the city. Investigations of the ward E water supply system disclosed gross contamination of raw water with sewage at source. The serological studies revealed that the aetiological agent responsible for this epidemic was neither hepatitis A virus nor hepatitis B virus but was likely to have been due to a non-A, non-B hepatitis virus.
The onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia in early childhood is considered a key feature of ataxiatelangiectasia (A-T), accompanied by ocular apraxia, telangiectasias, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation.
We describe the clinical features and course of three Mennonite children who were diagnosed with A-T following the completion of therapy for lymphoid malignancies.
Prior to cancer therapy, all had non-progressive atypical neurological abnormalities, with onset by age 30 months, including dysarthria, dyskinesia, hypotonia and/or dystonia, without telangiectasias. Cerebellar ataxia was noted in only one of the children and was mild until his death at age eight years. None had severe infections. All three children were “cured” of their lymphoid malignancies, but experienced severe adverse effects from the treatments administered. The two children who received cranial irradiation developed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the brain, an association not previously described, with fatal outcomes.
The range of neurological presentations of A-T is broad. Ataxia and telangiectasias may be minimal or absent and the course seemingly non-progressive. The diagnosis of A-T should be considered in all children with neuromotor dysfunction or peripheral neuropathy, particularly those who develop lymphoid malignancies. The consequences of missing the diagnosis may be dire. Radiation therapy and radiomimetic drugs should be avoided in individuals with A-T.
Effect of graded levels of high-glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal as substitute of soya-bean meal (SBM) in broiler rabbit diets was studied. Forty weaning rabbits of Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant breed were randomly allocated to one of four experimental diets containing mustard meal (MM) 0, 80, 160 and 245 g/kg. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. MM had 54.8 mg total glucosinolates (TGLSs) per g dry matter (DM). Diets had TGLS 3.8, 8.4 and 11.98 mg/g DM in 80, 160 and 245 g MM diets, respectively. MM-incorporated diets had higher digestible and linearly (P < 0.01) higher metabolisable energy (ME) content. However, the effect on total tract apparent digestibility of DM, and crude protein was quadratic. Average daily gain (ADG) reduced (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing MM levels in diet, still 80 and 160 g MM diets had similar ADG compared to that of SBM diet. Caecum weight reduced linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels in diet. The pH of caecal content ranged between 5.85 and 6.19, total N between 1.19 and 1.48 (g per 100 g) and total volatile fatty acids between 4.7 and 5.8 mmol per 100 g, and they were not statistically different. NH3-N ranged between 31.2 and 39.0 mg per 100 ml, and reduced linearly (P < 0.05) while trichloroacetic acid-precipitable nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.01, ranged between 114 and 247 mg per 100 ml) with increasing MM levels in diet. Blood haemoglobin, packed cell volume and lymphocytes were higher (quadratic effects, P < 0.05) on 245 MM diet, whereas white blood cell count reduced linearly (P < 0.01). Serum aspartate aminotransferase increased linearly (P < 0.01) while alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and red blood cell counts were not affected by MM. Serum Cu, Na and K content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels. Liver Cu concentration showed quadratic (P < 0.05) increase. Rabbits tolerated 8.4 mg TGLS per g diet (160 g MM per kg) during active growth without any apparent effect on health and growth. It is concluded that MM can replace up to 66% SBM protein in rabbit feeding, whereas complete replacement of SBM with MM reduced feed intake and ADG by 23% and 13%, respectively. Further studies are required to confirm these inclusion levels and glucosinolate tolerance of rabbits.
During late Pliocene times, extrabasinally derived acidic volcanic ashes were deposited as distal pyroclastic fallout in upland interfluvial–lacustrine settings in the northwestern part of the Siwalik basin. These ash beds occur as a bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstones in the Jammu region of India. We located and described 12 outcrops of this conspicuous, geographically widespread bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone association at the same stratigraphic level, coincident with the Gauss–Matuyama boundary at 2.48 Ma. This bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone association represents a stratigraphic marker horizon in the diachronous and sporadic vertebrate fauna-yielding Siwalik strata. The claystone, siltstone, and sandstone units and embedded bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone beds represent a coarsening-upward sequence reflecting deposition in lacustrine proximal and distal bottomsets, pro-delta foresets, and mouth-bar facies capped by fluvial topsets. This study reports a chain of four contemporaneous, palaeo-lake basins at this stratigraphic level, which ranged in length from 2 to 7 km.