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Previous studies (e.g. Cia et al. 1998) have shown that modification of body composition of the prepubertal gilt has effects on responsiveness of gilts to exogenous gonadotrophin. Growing pigs are able to select a diet from different foods differing in protein:energy ratio (Dalby 1998); however there is little evidence of what effect the conflicting nutritional demands of growth and reproduction have on diet selection. The objectives of the experiment were to quantify the effects of choice feeding on responsiveness of gilts to exogenous gonadotrophin (Cia et al. 1998) and to investigate the effect of protein source on diet selection as Jones et al.(2000) have observed selection by breeding gilts against a high protein diet containing fishmeal.
We report various recent observations of molecules in circumstellar envelopes of late type stars, mainly possible proto-planetary nebulae at various stages of evolution, and supergiants, including.
First observation of SO2 (Lucas et al. 1986) in five stars and SO in one. S O 2 is particularly strong in OH 231.8+4.2 (OH 0739-14) and OH 26.5+0.6, where one of its lines is the strongest non-maser line observed in these envelopes (Guilloteau et al. 1986).
We present the concept of a novel facility dedicated to massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. The telescope has a very wide field Cassegrain focus optimised for fibre feeding. With a Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 degrees diameter and a 11.4m pupil, it will be the largest etendue telescope. The large focal plane can easily host up to 16.000 fibres. In addition, a gravity invariant focus for the central 10 arc-minutes is available to host a giant integral field unit (IFU). The 3 lenses corrector includes an ADC, and has good performance in the 360-1300 nm wavelength range. The top level science requirements were developed by a dedicated ESO working group, and one of the primary cases is high resolution spectroscopy of GAIA stars and, in general, how our Galaxy formed and evolves. The facility will therefore be equipped with both, high and low resolution spectrographs. We stress the importance of developing the telescope and instrument designs simultaneously. The most relevant R&D aspect is also briefly discussed.
Tic disorders are moderately heritable common psychiatric disorders that can be highly troubling, both in childhood and in adulthood. In this study, we report results obtained in the first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of tic disorders. The subjects are participants in surveys at the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and the NTR biobank project. Tic disorders were measured with a self-report version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Abbreviated version (YGTSS-ABBR), included in the 8th wave NTR data collection (2008). DNA methylation data consisted of 411,169 autosomal methylation sites assessed by the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (HM450k array). Phenotype and DNA methylation data were available in 1,678 subjects (mean age = 41.5). No probes reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.2 × 10−7). The strongest associated probe was cg15583738, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 8 (p = 1.98 × 10−6). Several of the top ranking probes (p < 1 × 10−4) were in or nearby genes previously associated with neurological disorders (e.g., GABBRI, BLM, and ADAM10), warranting their further investigation in relation to tic disorders. The top significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) terms among higher ranking methylation sites included anatomical structure morphogenesis (GO:0009653, p = 4.6 × 10−15) developmental process (GO:0032502, p = 2.96 × 10−12), and cellular developmental process (GO:0048869, p = 1.96 × 10−12). Overall, these results provide a first insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of tic disorders. This first study assesses the role of DNA methylation in tic disorders, and it lays the foundations for future work aiming to unravel the biological mechanisms underlying the architecture of this disorder.
In this paper, the design and test of a single-chip RF pulse-width modulator and driver (PWMD) aimed at exciting a high-power class-E GaN high-power stage at 435 MHz is described. For the required buffer size, avoiding potential ringing of the pulses within the buffer structure presents a major challenge in the design process. Therefore, a smaller test chip capable of driving capacitive loads of up to 5 pF was initially designed, fabricated, and tested. An approach based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations was used to validate the test results and offers excellent simulation accuracy. Based on the results obtained for test chip an enlarged PWMD chip capable of driving a 40 W high-power stage has been designed and tested on passive loads representing the targeted final stage.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the purine levels of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. A total of 12 healthy lambs were divided into two groups, composed of 6 animals each: Group A represented the healthy animals (uninfected), while in Group B the animals were infected with 15 000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the purine analysis (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum. On day 15 PI a significant (P<0·05) increase in the levels of ATP and inosine was observed in the infected animals, unlike the levels of ADP, adenosine, xanthine and uric acid which were reduced. On day 45 PI a significant (P<0·05) increase in the ATP and xanthine levels in infected animals was observed, contrasting with reduced levels of ADP and uric acid. Finally, on day 75 PI an increase occurred in the levels of ATP, adenosine and hypoxanthine in infected lambs, concomitant with a reduction in the levels of ADP and uric acid (P<0·05). These changes in purine levels may influence the inflammatory process and the pathological events.
The Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is an ongoing time-series, near-infrared (IR) survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent portion of the inner disk, covering 562 square degrees of the sky, using ESO's VISTA telescope. The survey has provided superb multi-color photometry in 5 broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, and Ks), leading to the best map of the inner Milky Way ever obtained, particularly in the near-IR. The main part of the survey, which is focused on the variability in the Ks-band, is currently underway, with bulge fields observed between 34 and 73 times, and disk fields between 34 and 36 times. When the survey is complete, bulge (disk) fields will have been observed up to a total of 100 (60) times, providing unprecedented depth and time coverage in the near-IR. Here we provide a first overview of stellar variability in the VVV data.
Although usually thought of as external environmental stressors, a significant heritable component has been reported for measures of stressful life events (SLEs) in twin studies.
We examined the variance in SLEs captured by common genetic variants from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 2578 individuals. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) was used to estimate the phenotypic variance tagged by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also performed a GWAS on the number of SLEs, and looked at correlations between siblings.
A significant proportion of variance in SLEs was captured by SNPs (30%, p = 0.04). When events were divided into those considered to be dependent or independent, an equal amount of variance was explained for both. This ‘heritability’ was in part confounded by personality measures of neuroticism and psychoticism. A GWAS for the total number of SLEs revealed one SNP that reached genome-wide significance (p = 4 × 10−8), although this association was not replicated in separate samples. Using available sibling data for 744 individuals, we also found a significant positive correlation of R2 = 0.08 in SLEs (p = 0.03).
These results provide independent validation from molecular data for the heritability of reporting environmental measures, and show that this heritability is in part due to both common variants and the confounding effect of personality.
National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) will be a 3-GeV 792 m circumference third generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance and extremely high brightness. There will be a total of 90 multipole storage ring girders supporting the vacuum chambers, multipole magnets and various pieces of ancillary equipment. A major effort is being made to meet the stringent assembly and alignment requirements for the girder assemblies using relatively few and removable positioning fixtures. Girder assembly and alignment will be accomplished in four phases. Each of these phases will be described along with the fixtures required.
Changes in bulk composition are known to affect both radiation-induced segregation and microstructural development, including void swelling in austenitic stainless steel. In this work, three alloys (designations corresponding to wt%) have been studied: Fe-18Cr-8Ni alloy (bulk composition corresponding to 304 stainless steel), Fe-18Cr-40Ni (bulk composition corresponding to 330 stainless steel), and Fe-16Cr-13Ni (bulk composition corresponding to 316 stainless steel). Following irradiation with high-energy protons, the change in hardness and microstructure (void size distribution and grain boundary composition) due to irradiation was investigated. Increasing the bulk nickel concentration decreases void swelling, increases matrix hardening, and increases grain boundary chromium depletion and nickel enrichment. The analysis shows that decreases in lattice parameter and shear modulus due to radiation- induced segregation (RIS) correlate with decreased void swelling and a decreased susceptibility to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Traditional thinking on IASCC assumed RIS was a contributing factor to cracking. It may, however, be that properly controlled RIS can be used to mitigating cracking.
Aluminum films containing solid Xe precipitates have been subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope. High-resolution images have been recorded on videotape in order to monitor the changes to the system resulting from the passage of electrons through the film. Inspection of the video recordings reveals that complex, rapid processes occur under the electron beam. These include shape changes, the creation and movement of extended defects within the Xe lattice, movement of small clusters, coalescence of neighboring clusters and the apparent melting and resolidification of the Xe. An interpretation of many of the observations is presented in terms of the interaction of the nanoclusters with defects created in the aluminum by the high-energy electrons.
As part of a broad effort to understand the mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessels steels, irradiation hardening and microstructural evolution in simple model Fe-0.9Cu-1.0Mn, Fe-0.9Cu and Fe alloys irradiated with 3.2 MeV protons at 300°C are compared to the corresponding changes in hardening produced by neutron irradiation over a similar dose range of 0.0004 to 0.015 dpa. In the case of the proton irradiated samples, Vickers hardness was measured at a 25 g load and the microstructures were characterized using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In spite of the much higher dpa rate for protons (3 × 10−7 dpa/s compared to neutron rates of about 10−9 to 10−10 dpa/s) as well as very different primary recoil spectra, the observed hardening-dose response is very similar in both cases. The large increase in hardness in the alloys with 0.9% copper, and the SAXS data are consistent with precipitation of coherent copper-rich features accelerated by irradiation enhanced diffusion, as well as a much smaller contribution presumably from defect clusters that do not require the presence of copper.
A novel approach in tensile testing of cementitious composites using the ASCERA® hydraulic tensile tester is described. The test specimens are cylindrical bars. Steel pistons are adhesively bonded on either end of the specimens and inserted in a pressure chamber. The pressure is increased until the specimen is pulled apart by the hydraulic pressure exerted on the pistons.
Advantages of this method are: large volume under load, self-alignment to minimize externally applied bending moments, and determination of the rupture stress exactly at the fracture initiation point.
Glass reinforced cementitious composites were tested. Results are discussed with respect to curing time and fiber volume fraction. The tensile strength values obtained by hydraulic testing are compared to values obtained by traditional uniaxial tensile strength tests. A biaxial model is adopted to verify the results.
Three different zeolites (analcime, natrolite, and zeolite-Y) were irradiated with 200 keV and 400 keV electrons. All zeolites amorphized under a relatively low electron fluence. The transformation from the crystalline-to-amorphous state was continuous and homogeneous. The electron fluences for amorphization of the three zeolites at room temperature were: 7.0× 1019 e/cm2 (analcime), 1.8×1020 e/cm2 (natrolite), and 3.4×1020 e/cm2 (zeolite-Y). The different susceptibilities to amorphization are attributed to the different channel sizes in the structures which are the pathways for the release of water molecules and Na+. Natrolite formed bubbles under electron irradiation, even before complete amorphization. Analcime formed bubbles after amorphization. Zeolite-Y did not form bubbles under irradiation. The differences in bubble formation are attributed to the different channel sizes of the three zeolites. The amorphization dose was also measured at different temperatures. An inverse temperature dependence of amorphization dose was observed for all three zeolites: electron dose for amorphization decreased with increasing temperature. This unique temperature effect is attributed to the fact that zeolites are thermally unstable. A semi-empirical model was derived to describe the temperature effect of amorphization in these zeolites.
Ion beam mixing of Cu/Mo multilayer samples and demixing of Cu-Mo alloy samples were examined as functions of temperature and ion mass. Even at liquid nitrogen temperature, the mixing of one component in other was very small under 1.0 MeV Kr irradiation. The maximum solubility was about 10%. Irradiation of homogeneous Cu-Mo alloys under the same conditions, moreover, led to phase separation. These conclusions were deduced from bulk X-ray diffraction measurements and corroborated by EXAFS examination. The maximum solubility obtained by irradiating multilayer samples occurred at about 600 K. At lower or higher temperature, the solubility of Cu in Mo-rich phase was lower. A model based on the ballistic difflusion explains these results.
The influence of the irradiation temperature Tirr on the development of disordered zones produced at displacement cascades in Ni3A1 by heavy-ion irradiation with 50 keV Ta+ and 300 keV Ni+ ions has been investigated. The normalised number density (yield) of disordered zones for 300 keV Ni+ irradiation showed a sharp fall between Tirr= 373 K and 573 K. For 50 keV Ni+ irradiation there was a similar fall between 573 K and 673 K. The mean diameters of the disordered zones produced by 300 keV Ni+ ions decreased by about 2 nm between room temperature and 573 K, and there was a tendency for larger zones to become more regular in shape. For 50 keV Ta+ ions, a similar trend was observed between 573 K and 873 K. An annealing experiment confirmed that disordered zones produced at lower temperatures were stable up to a temperature of about 673 K, showing that these trends cannot be due to thermal annealing of disordered zones. The experimental results are consistent with an increased tendency for reordering at the peripheries of disordered zones, due to the increased lifetimes of thermal spikes at higher irradiation temperatures.
Single variable experiments are being conducted to study effects of H/He/dpa on properties based on isotopically tailored alloys. 54Fe has been used to prepare an isotopically tailored duplicate of the commercial steel F82H, and a small number of TEM disks have been irradiated in order to study radiation embrittlement. From single disk specimens, mechanical properties were obtained using a shear punch technique that produces a 1 mm blank from the 3 mm disk, and microstructural information was obtained from the 1 mm blanks thinned to electron transparency.