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Conservation of animal genetic resources requires regular monitoring and interventions to maintain population size and manage genetic variability. This study uses genealogical information to evaluate the impact of conservation measures in Europe, using (i) data from the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) and (ii) a posteriori assessment of the impact of various conservation measures on the genetic variability of 17 at-risk breeds with a wide range of interventions. Analysis of data from DAD-IS showed that 68% of national breed populations reported to receive financial support showed increasing demographic trends, v. 51% for those that did not. The majority of the 17 at-risk breeds have increased their numbers of registered animals over the last 20 years, but the changes in genetic variability per breed have not always matched the trend in population size. These differences in trends observed in the different metrics might be explained by the tensions between interventions to maintain genetic variability, and development initiatives which lead to intensification of selection.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N = 414) from more than 40 US universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award programs and Prevention Research Centers.
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyī's al-Durr al-manthūr fī’l-tafsīr bi’l-maʾthūr is almost unique in presenting an exegesis based entirely on adīth material, taking tafsīr bi’l-maʾthūr to the extreme. Since al-Suyī cites a source, or multiple sources, for every single adīth that he includes in his collection, it is possible to gain some insight into his compositional method and the way in which he engages with source material. This article presents a statistical analysis of the sources in this exegesis, taking a sample of twenty-three sūras, including over 5,000 aādīth. The source data is analysed and shows that there is a discernible pattern in al-Suyī's use of sources and that there is much to learn from studying this source data in detail. Al-Suyī's hermeneutical method is closely aligned with those of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Kathīr, and this article will also examine the extent to which al-Durr al-manthūr can be viewed as the culmination of Ibn Taymmiyya's approach to tafsīr.
Swabs and water samples from a hospital water system were cultured for legionellae over an extended period. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, including outbreak associated strains, were isolated in small numbers from approximately 5% of these samples despite implementation of the current DHSS/Welsh Office regulations. No cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease were proven during the study. Physical cleaning and chemical sterilization of taps, and replacement of washers with ‘approved’ brands did not eradicate the organisms. Eradication of legionellae in hospital water supplies appears to be unnecessary in preventing nosocomial legionnaires' disease provided the current DHSS/Welsh Office recommendations are implemented.
Fifty-eight bottles of natural mineral water, taken from the point of sale, were bacteriologically examined. No coliforms or Aeromonas sp. were isolated from any sample. High total bacterial counts were found particularly in the still waters. Most of the organisms isolated in the total counts were Gram-negative rods, but Gram-positive organisms were also isolated. Gram-positive cocci were further identified, some of which were known human commensals suggesting contamination of the waters prior to bottling.
A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 °C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines.
Freshly harvested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. Moneymaker) seeds were osmotically primed for 8 d in −1.0 MPa PEG-6000 solution and dried to about 6% water content for storage. Such so–called ‘fresh PEG priming’ enhanced seed germination and improved seedling performance as compared with the untreated control. Fresh PEG priming neither alleviated seed dormancy nor promoted DNA replication as was the case when seeds were dried upon harvest and subsequently primed in PEG (normal PEG priming). However, the addition of 10 μM GA4+7 to the osmotic priming solution triggered replicative DNA synthesis of fresh-priming seeds and further enhanced the germination process. After 5 months of storage in ambient temperature conditions, fresh PEG-primed seeds maintained more positive effects gained from priming, whereas, normal PEG-primed seeds had lost the promoting effects on germination. Normal PEG-primed seeds were much more susceptible to controlled deterioration than fresh PEG-primed seeds. It is suggested that the advancement of germination is negatively correlated with seed storability. The mechanisms of seed priming in relation to nuclear replication activities and physical changes are discussed.
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