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Human trafficking is a crime and a human rights violation that involves various and simultaneous traumatic events (sexual and physical violence, coercion). Yet, it is unknown how the patterning of violence and coercion affects the mental health of female and male trafficking survivors.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using a sample of 1015 female and male survivors of trafficking who received post-trafficking assistance services in Cambodia, Thailand or Vietnam. We assessed symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Violence was measured with questions from the World Health Organization International Study on Women's Health. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct patterns of violence and coercion in females and males. Novel multi-step mixture modelling techniques were employed to assess the association of the emergent classes with anxiety, depression and PTSD in females and males.
LCA identified two distinct classes of violence and coercion experiences in females (class I: severe sexual and physical violence and coercion (20%); class II: sexual violence and coercion (80%)) and males (class I: severe physical violence and coercion (41%); class II: personal coercion (59%)). Females in class I had a two-fold increase in the odds of anxiety (OR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.57–2.81) and PTSD (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.03–4.17) compared with females in class II, but differences in the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD were not significant when comparing males in class I to class II.
Specific patterns of violence and coercion provide a more in-depth understanding of the role of gender in the experience of violence and coercion and its association with mental health in survivors of trafficking. This information could be useful to target comprehensive mental health services for female and male trafficking survivors.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
Although there are reports of permineralised woods in Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in Mexico, there are few palaeobotanical studies based on coniferous stems. Four taxa of fossil wood from three localities in Mexico are described at the anatomical level and identified taxonomically based on detailed comparisons with woods of extant and fossil taxa. Agathoxylon gilii sp. nov. and A. jericonse sp. nov. are determined from the Todos Santos Formation (Upper Jurassic), in Chiapas; A. parrensis sp. nov. is described from the Las Encinas Formation (Palaeocene) in Coahuila; and Taxodioxylon cabullensis sp. nov. corresponds with material from the Packard Shale Formation in Sonora. Dominance of Araucariaceae and Cupressaceae in this region during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic is further supported by leaf records, but these materials may also represent other taxa, like Cheirolepidaceae, which may have araucarioid secondary xylem. Records of Brachyphyllum and/or Pagiophyllum, which may represent araucarioid or cheirolepidaceous taxa, and different cupressaceous leaves, have been collected in rocks of the same period in nearby formations. At present, the amalgamation of isolated organs to form one plant is uncertain and, thus, there is an open challenge to reconstruct the plants and better understand these extinct communities. The new fossil taxa will add to the diversity of extinct plants and conifer communities during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic in low-latitude North America.
Transparent cells in the vertebrate optical tract, such as lens fiber cells and corneal epithelium cells, have specialized proteins that somehow permit only a low level of light scattering in their cytoplasm. It has been shown that both cell types contain (1) beaded intermediate filaments as well as (2) α-crystallin globulins. It is known that genetic and chemical alterations to these specialized proteins induce cytoplasmic opaqueness and visual complications. Crystallins were described previously in the retinal Müller cells of frogs. In the present work, using immunocytochemistry, fluorescence confocal imaging, and immuno-electron microscopy, we found that αA-crystallins are present in the cytoplasm of retinal Müller cells and in the photoreceptors of rats. Given that Müller glial cells were recently described as “living light guides” as were photoreceptors previously, we suggest that αA-crystallins, as in other highly transparent cells, allow Müller cells and photoreceptors to minimize intraretinal scattering during retinal light transmission.
In this essay, we discuss the under-representation of women in leadership positions in global health (GH) and the importance of mentorship to advance women's standing in the field. We then describe the mentorship model of GROW, Global Research for Women. We describe the theoretical origins of the model and an adapted theory of change explaining how the GROW model for mentorship advances women's careers in GH. We present testimonials from a range of mentees who participated in a pilot of the GROW model since 2015. These mentees describe the capability-enhancing benefits of their mentorship experience with GROW. Thus, preliminary findings suggest that the GROW mentorship model is a promising strategy to build women's leadership in GH. We discuss supplemental strategies under consideration and next steps to assess the impact of GROW, providing the evidence to inform best practices for curricula elsewhere to build women's leadership in GH.
We describe the structure of the Ricci tensor on a locally homogeneous Lorentzian gradient Ricci soliton. In the non-steady case, we show that the soliton is rigid in dimensions 3 and 4. In the steady case we give a complete classification in dimension 3.
Oxidative stress has been documented in chronic schizophrenia and in the first episode of psychosis, but there are very little data on oxidative stress prior to the disease onset.
This work aimed to compare serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in young individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis with a comparison healthy control group (HC).
Thirteen UHR subjects and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. Clinical assessment included the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), the Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I (SCID-I) or the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Activities of SOD and GPx were measured in serum by the spectrophotometric method using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.
After adjusting for age and years of education, there was a significant lower activity of SOD and lower GPX activity in the UHR group compared to the healthy control group (rate ratio [RR]=0.330, 95% CI 0.187; 0.584, p<0.001 and RR=0.509, 95% CI 0.323; 0.803, p=0.004, respectively). There were also positive correlations between GAF functioning scores and GPx and SOD activities.
Our results suggest that oxidative imbalances could be present prior to the onset of full-blown psychosis, including in at-risk stages. Future studies should replicate and expand these results.
Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, which has been reported worldwide. BLV has been found recently in human tissue and it could have a significant impact on human health. A possible hypothesis regarding viral entry to humans is through the consumption of infected foodstuffs. This study was aimed at detecting the presence of BLV DNA in raw beef and fresh milk for human consumption. Nested PCR directed at the BLV gag gene (272 bp) was used as a diagnostic test. PCR products were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Forty-nine per cent of the samples proved positive for the presence of proviral DNA. This is the first study highlighting the presence of the BLV gag gene in meat products for human consumption and confirms the presence of the viral DNA in raw milk, as in previous reports. The presence of viral DNA in food products could suggest that viral particles may also be found. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of infected viral particles, even though the present findings could represent a first approach to BLV transmission to humans through foodstuff consumption.
Investigating whether high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types tend to become grouped in a particular way and whether factors are associated with such grouping is important for measuring the real impact of vaccination. In total, 219 women proving positive for HPV as detected by real-time PCR were included in the study. Each sample was analysed for detecting and quantifying six viral types and the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Multiple correspondence analysis led to determining grouping patterns for six HR-HPV types and simultaneous association with multiple variables and whether viral load was related to the coexistence of other viral types. Two grouping profiles were identified: the first included HPV-16 and HPV-45 and the second profile was represented by HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-58. Variables such as origin, contraceptive method, births and pregnancies, educational level, healthcare affiliation regime, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and viral load were associated with these grouping profiles. Different socio-demographic characteristics were found when coinfection occurred by phylogenetically related HPV types and when coinfection was due to non-related types. Biological characteristics, the number of viral copies, temporality regarding acquiring infection and competition between viral types could influence the configuration of grouping patterns. Characteristics related to women and HPV, influence such interactions between coexisting HPV types reflecting the importance of their evaluation.
To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme.
A prospective case–control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients’ adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale – International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation.
Two groups were established: adherents (99 individuals) and non-adherents (21 individuals). There were differences between the groups regarding: sex (female-to-male ratio of 4.8:1 in adherents and 1.63:1 in non-adherents), age (higher in non-adherents) and voluntary movement posturographic test results (non-adherents had poorer scores).
The patients most likely to abandon a vestibular rehabilitation programme are very elderly males with low scores for centre of gravity balancing and limits of stability.
We are constructing the first complete unbiased control sample of the most isolated galaxies of the northern sky to serve as a template in the study of star formation and galaxy evolution in denser environments. Our goal is to compare and quantify the properties of different phases of the interstellar medium in this sample, as well as the level of star formation, both relevant parameters in the internal evolution of galaxies and strongly conditioned by the environment. To achieve this goal we are building a multiwavelength database for this sample to compare and quantify the properties of different phases of the ISM.
The gastropod Buccinanops globulosus is commonly used as a bioindicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination due to its high imposex incidence in maritime traffic areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate both oxidative stress in B. globulosus at three sites with different maritime activity, and imposex incidence in Nuevo Gulf, Argentina. Oxidative stress parameters in digestive glands, like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, reduced glutathione levels (GSH), and oxidative damage to lipids, estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) as well as imposex parameters (% imposex and female penis length (FPL)) were measured in females. Gastropods from the harbour area showed 100% imposex, the highest FPL and TBARs content, as well as GSH levels and SOD activity.
The different oxidative stress responses and high imposex incidence at the harbour site may indicate a negative effect on the organism's physiological state due to environmental pollution.
The bone-anchored hearing aid implantation technique is associated with post-operative skin reactions, which require conservative therapy and, in some cases, replacement of the abutment. Z-plasty is a technique that allows resection of the granulation tissue, thus ensuring that disease-free skin will be in contact with the abutment.
Use of the Z-plasty technique for resection of the peri-abutment granulation tissue is described. In the case presented herein, the episodes of skin reaction became very frequent and the patient was unable to use his bone-anchored hearing aid for 2 to 3 days a week. We opted for surgical treatment with Z-plasty for management of the skin complications.
Use of the Z-plasty technique is recommended for the management of skin reactions associated with bone-anchored hearing aid implantation.
Lithium ion batteries are becoming more important because of their high energy density and design flexibility. The capacity of these batteries is usually cathode limited; so, it follows that increasing the capacity of the cathode is essential to raise the performance of such batteries. In this work, fractal dimension study is used to understand the behavior of a Li2TiO3 made by mechanical milling, as a way to improve their uses in energy storage. Digital image analysis allows the study of fractal dimension; X-ray, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis were used to analyze changes on the surface of samples from the current results the distinctive characteristics of the surfaces for each sample may be obtained, making it possible to predict a future behavior of the samples. MATLAB software FRACLAB 2.03 developed by INRIA was used as a tool.
To evaluate the results of treatment of parotid pleomorphic adenoma, and the risk factors for secondary recurrence.
Materials and methods:
Single-centre, retrospective study of 32 patients with pleomorphic adenoma recurrence managed between 1988 and 2008.
The mean age at diagnosis of primary pleomorphic adenoma recurrence was 43.4 years. Twenty-eight per cent of patients had secondary recurrence; 32 per cent had undergone two or more surgical resections and external adjuvant radiotherapy. An age of less than 25 years was significantly associated with an earlier primary recurrence (p = 0.008). The most significant histopathological risk factor for secondary recurrence was the presence of a multifocal tumour (p = 0.019). Other histopathological criteria (i.e. cellularity and capsule rupture) were not significant. Radiotherapy was not associated with a decrease in recurrence. Nine per cent of patients progressed to malignancy. The main surgical complication was definitive facial palsy (14 per cent).
Pleomorphic adenoma recurrence requires surgery, with greatly increased risk to the facial nerve. Resection with clear surgical margins is required, especially in young patients with multifocal tumours. Radiotherapy may delay second recurrence in cases of multifocal tumour.
We summarize our research studies on the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanocrystals and their application to the growth of a variety of thin films, spanning the range from fully disordered amorphous up to fully ordered crystalline. All these films are deposited in a standard radio-frequency glow discharge system at low temperature (~200 °C). We show how the plasma synthesis of silicon nanocrystals, initially a side effect of powder formation, has become over the years an exciting field of research which has opened the way to new opportunities in the field of materials deposition and their application to optoelectronic devices. Our results suggest that epitaxy requires the melting/amorphization of the nanocrystals upon impact on the substrate, the subsequent epitaxial growth being favored on (100) c-Si substrates. As a consequence, the control of the impact energy is a critical aspect of the growth which will require new strategies such as the use of tailored voltage waveforms.
The radiation damage properties of synthetic pyrochlore-defect fluorite compounds containing lanthanides on the A-site and Ti, Zr, Sn, and Hf on the B-site have been studied extensively using Kr ion irradiation. Using statistical analysis, we show that the results can be quantified in terms of the critical temperature for amorphization, structural parameters, classical Pauling electronegativity difference, and defect energies. The best current model is able to predict the critical temperature to within about 80 degrees Kelvin. The model indicates that radiation tolerance is correlated with an increase in the X anion coordinate toward the value characteristic of the defect fluorite topology, a smaller unit cell dimension, and lower defect energies. Our analysis also demonstrates that radiation tolerance is promoted by an increase in the Pauling cation-anion electronegativity difference or, in other words, an increase in the ionicity of the chemical bonds. Of the two possible cation sites in ideal pyrochlore, the B-site cation appears to play the major role in bonding. This result is supported, for a subset of pyrochlore compounds, by ab initio calculations, which reveal a correlation between the Mulliken overlap populations of the B-site cation and the critical temperature.