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TiO2 nanomaterials with platelet or nanosheet morphologies can offer improved properties for photocatalytic applications, but established methods to produce them typically require structure-directing agents since anatase-phase TiO2 does not have a layered structure. In the present work, the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets by the chemical oxidation of TiS2 nanosheets is demonstrated. Electrochemical exfoliation of bulk TiS2 into TiS2 nanosheets, followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 14 h is performed. The results show that polycrystalline TiO2 nanosheets with the anatase structure are formed, and that the nanosheet morphology can still be maintained after the hydrothermal treatment. The TiO2 nanosheets show good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue, but the performance is negatively affected by the residual carbon black that was needed in the TiS2 electrode to enable electrochemical exfoliation. These results show that conversion of TiS2 nanosheets to TiO2 nanosheets is a promising synthetic strategy but highlights how the interfacial properties of the obtained materials could be affected by ancillary components in the preparation method.
Dual relativistic effects in compact radio sources are discussed, and as an illustrative example we try to show that the observed features of the knot C4 in 3C345 (superluminal motion, superluminal expansion, apparent diameter and flux variation etc.) can be interpreted simultaneously.
Spatiotemporal analysis is an important tool to monitor changes of tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology, identify high-risk regions and guide resource allocation. However, there are limited data on the contributing factors of TB incidence. This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of TB incidence and its associated factors in mainland China during 2005–2013. Global Moran's I test, Getis-Ord Gi index and heat maps were used to examine the spatial clustering and seasonal patterns. Generalized Linear Mixed Model was applied to identify factors associated with TB incidence. TB incidence presented high geographical variations with two main hot spots, while a generally consistent seasonal pattern was observed with a peak in late winter. Furthermore, we found province-level TB incidence increased with the proportion of the elderly but decreased with Gross Demographic Product per capita and the male:female ratio. Meteorological factors also influenced TB incidence. TB showed obvious spatial clustering in mainland China and both the demographic and socio-economic factors and meteorological measures were associated with TB incidence. These results provide the related information to identify the high-risk districts and the evidence for the government to develop corresponding control measures.
The E2F transcription factor family is distributed widely in eukaryotes and has been well studied among mammals. In the present study, the E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4) gene was isolated from fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi and sequenced. E2F4 comprised a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 264 amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (Transetta DE3), and anti-E2F4 antibodies were prepared. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant homology to an E2F4-like protein from Bombyx mori L. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that E2F4 expression was highest in the integument, followed by the fat body, silk glands, and haemocytes. The expression of E2F4 was upregulated in larvae challenged by bacterial (Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus), viral (nuclear polyhedrosis virus), and fungal (Beauveria bassiana) pathogens. These observations indicated that E2F4 is an inducible protein in the immune response of A. pernyi and probably in other insects.
A series of catalytic reactions has been performed in our laboratory using olivine-type silicates (OTS) and SiC as catalysts for the conversion of carbon-containing molecules (such as acetylene, CO and methanol) to small organic molecules (C2H4, C3H3, CH3O) and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experimentally, small-to-medium-sized gas-phase compounds such as PAHs, reaction intermediates and hydrocarbon compounds were detected in situ using the time-of-light mass-spectrometry technique. Solid deposition on the catalyst surface was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis techniques. Our laboratory results show that the conversion of acetylene to PAHs, the CO disproportionation reaction for producing CO2 and carbon deposition (graphitic and carbon nanostructures), and also the transformation of methanol to hydrocarbon compounds can easily be achieved with OTS as a catalyst. Furthermore, the conversion of acetylene to PAHs could also be achieved by SiC as the catalyst. It is proposed that these catalytic reactions mimic similar chemical processes in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs).
We present the optical emission line properties of a sample of 155 bright X-ray selected ROSAT Seyfert 1 type AGN. The measured properties are gathered for correlation analysis. The strong correlations between Hβ redshift, flux ratios of Fe II to Hβ broad component and [O III] to Hβ narrow component are found.
The study of a possible connection between magnetic activity and orbital period variation in close binaries is a very interesting work. Recently, the orbital periods of four chromospherically active binaries, ER Vul, UV Psc, AR Lac and BH Vir, are analyzed. It is discovered that the orbital periods of UV Psc and BH Vir oscillate with periods of 61 and 9.12 years, and the orbital periods of ER Vul and AR Lac show periodic variations with periods of 31 and 47 years respectively while they undergo secular decrease. The mechanisms that could explain the changes in the orbital periods of the four systems have been studied. The period variation of UV Psc may be caused by the cyclical magnetic activity in the primary component, and the magnetic activity in secondary component of AR Lac can explain its periodic component in the orbital period changes. For the other two systems, BH Vir and ER Vul, the cyclical magnetic activity in one or both of the components can explain the cyclical orbital period changes of BH Vir and the periodic component in the changes of the orbital period of ER Vul. These results suggest that the periods of the orbital period oscillations in the four systems may be the magnetic activity cycles.
We present three epochs of VSOP observations of the BL Lac object 2007+777 at 5 GHz. Compared with the ground-based VLBA data, the space baselines with HALCA clearly reveal a more detailed and finer source structure. Mainly based on the quite uniform and circular UV-coverages of the VLBA, and using a new cross-selfcalibration method, we have found evidence for weak structural changes on a timescale of two weeks in the core region of this intraday variable source. The physical causes for these variations are discussed.
The high energy gamma-ray flares observed in PKS 0528+134 are interpreted in terms of the external inverse Compton scattering (EICS) mechanism. The evolutional relationship between the gamma-ray flares and the associated mm-radio outbursts is investigated. The TeV/X-ray flare detected in May of 1994 from Mrk 421 is interpreted in terms of the SSC mechanism and it is shown that it may be due to the acceleration of relativistic electrons with an initially flat energy spectrum (N(E)∝E−s with s~1.5), rather than just a flattening of the high energy tail in the electron energy distribution of the source in the quiescent state.
The existence of black holes with masses of about one billion solar masses in quasars at redshifts z > 6 presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the early Universe. Here we report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z = 6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with at z > 6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes at cosmic dawn. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.
Electroretinogram (ERG) studies identified a new mouse line with a normal a-wave
but lacking the b-wave component. The ERG phenotype of this new allele,
nob7, matched closely that of mouse mutants for
Grm6, Lrit3, Trpm1, and
Nyx, which encode for proteins expressed in depolarizing
bipolar cells (DBCs). To identify the underlying mutation, we first crossed
nob7 mice with Grm6nob3 mutants and measured the ERGs in offspring. All the offspring lacked the
b-wave, indicating that nob7 is a new allele for
Grm6: Grm6nob7. Sequence analyses of Grm6nob7 cDNAs identified a 28 base pair insertion between exons 8 and 9, which
would result in a frameshift mutation in the open reading frame that encodes the
metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (Grm6). Sequencing both the
cDNA and genomic DNA from exon 8 and intron 8, respectively, from the
Grm6nob7 mouse revealed a G to A transition at the last position in exon 8. This
mutation disrupts splicing and the normal exon 8 is extended by 28 base pairs,
because splicing occurs 28 base pairs downstream at a cryptic splice donor.
Consistent with the impact of the resulting frameshift mutation, there is a loss
of mGluR6 protein (encoded by Grm6) from the dendritic tips of
DBCs in the Grm6nob7 retina. These results indicate that Grm6nob7 is a new model of the complete form of congenital stationary night
blindness, a human condition that has been linked to mutations of
The influence of TiO2 addition to LF refining slag on Ti-stabilized stainless
steel was evaluated using a vacuum induction furnace at 1873 K. The effect of
CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 basic slags with different TiO2 contents on the titanium loss,
aluminum loss and total oxygen content in the steel was studied. It was observed that the
oxidation rate of Ti first decreases and then increases with the increase in the content
of TiO2 in slag and
reaches the minimum when 8%TiO2 is added to the slag. However, the change in the
oxidation rate of Al shows the opposite tendency. The total oxygen in the molten steel
remains unchanged with time when 8%TiO2 is added to the slag, and the total oxygen of the
others increases monotonically with time. The activities of TiO2 and Al2O3 from the calculation of the ion
and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) in the initial slag present the same change
tendency, and both first increase and then decrease with the gradual increase in
TiO2 in the slag
and reach the maximum when 8%TiO2 is added to the slag. The results of a kinetic analysis
showed that the rate-determining step of the oxidation of Ti in the steel is the mass
transfer on the slag side, and the rate-determining step of the oxidation of Al in the
steel is the mass transfer on the metal side.
In-depth analysis of eclipsing binary (EB) observational data collected for several decades can inform us about a lot of astrophysically interesting processes taking place in the systems. We have developed a wide-ranging method for the phenomenological modelling of eclipsing binary phase curves that enables us to combine even very disparate sources of phase information. This approach is appropriate for the processing of both standard photometric series of eclipses and data from photometric surveys of all kind. We conclude that mid-eclipse times, determined using the latest version of our “hi-fi” phenomenological light curve models, as well as their accuracy, are nearly the same as the values obtained using much more complex standard physical EB models.
A non-destructive neutron scattering method was developed to precisely measure the uptake of total hydrogen in nuclear grade Zircaloy-4 cladding. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zircaloy-4 specimens and hydrogen gas. By controlling the initial hydrogen gas pressure in the vessel and the temperature profile, target hydrogen concentrations from tens of ppm to a few thousands of ppm have been successfully achieved. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method (VHE), by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Small angle incoherent neutron scattering (SAINS) were performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Our study indicates that a very small amount (≈ 20 ppm) hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes for a wide range of hydrogen concentration by a nondestructive method. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor, which is determined by calibration process with direct chemical analysis method on the specimen. This scale factor can be used for future test with unknown hydrogen concentration, thus provide a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.
From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal ‘flagship’ species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions.
Large electrocaloric (EC) effects in ferroelectric polymers and in ferroelectric ceramics have attracted great attention for new refrigeration development which is more environmental friendly and more efficient and thus could be an alternative to the existing vapor-compression refrigerators which consume large energy and release large amount of green house gas. However in the past, all EC effects investigations have been focused on solid state dielectrics. It is interesting to ask whether a large EC effect can also be realized in dielectric fluids. A dielectric fluid with large EC effect could lead to new design of cooling devices with simpler structures than these based on solid state EC materials, for example, they can be utilized as both the refrigerant and heat exchange fluid. Here we present that a large EC effect can be realized in the liquid crystal (LC) 5CB near it's nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition. The LC 5CB possesses a large dielectric anisotropy which can induce large polarization change from the isotropic phase to the nematic phase near the N-I transition. An isothermal entropy change of more than 23 Jkg-1K-1 was observed near 39 oC that is just above the N-I transition.
The advantages and limitations of image guidance systems for endoscopic sinus surgery are unclear. We report our experience and present a meta-analysis of the evidence.
We performed a retrospective analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery procedures performed with versus without image guidance. A total of 355 cases was included. Primary outcomes included complication rates and time to revision surgery. A literature search was conducted to enable identification and analysis of studies of similar comparisons.
Within 1.5 years of the index sinus surgical procedure, the risk of revision surgery was significantly higher for patients treated with non-assisted versus computer-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery (p = 0.001). Meta-analysis did not indicate a reduction in complications or revision surgery procedures with the use of image guidance systems, although the majority of included studies showed a non-significant reduction in revision surgery.
Our study offers some evidence that computer-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery may delay residual disease and reduce the requirement for revision surgery. Although this finding was not borne out in the meta-analysis, the majority of identified studies demonstrated a trend towards fewer revision procedures after computer-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery. This type of surgery may offer other advantages that are not easily measurable.
Orbital-period variations of the neglected W UMa-type binary star, NY Lyr, were analyzed based on two newly determined eclipse times together with the others compiled from the literature. A cyclic oscillation with a period of 82.1 yr and an amplitude of 0.0247 d was discovered to be superimposed on a continuous period increase (dP/dt = +1.33 × 10−7 d yr−1). After the long-term period increase and the large-amplitude cyclic oscillation were removed from the O–C diagram, the residuals suggest that there is another small-amplitude period oscillation (A4 = 0.0053 d, P4 = 19.4 years) in the orbital period changes. As in the cases of AH Cnc and AD Cnc, both the continuous period increase and the two cyclic period oscillations make NY Lyr an interesting system to study in the future. In order to understand the evolutionary state of the binary system, new photometric and spectroscopic observations and a careful investigation on those data are needed.