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Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
Fast magnetic field annihilation in a collisionless plasma is induced by using TEM(1,0) laser pulse. The magnetic quadrupole structure formation, expansion and annihilation stages are demonstrated with 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field energy is converted to the electric field and accelerate the particles inside the annihilation plane. A bunch of high energy electrons moving backwards is detected in the current sheet. The strong displacement current is the dominant contribution which induces the longitudinal inductive electric field.
Soluble starch synthase II (SSII) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch and in rice it consists of three isoforms encoded by SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3. However, the genetic effects of various SSII alleles on grain quality have not been systematically characterized. In the present study, the japonica alleles on SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3 (SSIIa) loci from a japonica cultivar, Suyunuo, were respectively introgressed by molecular marker-assisted selection into a typical indica cultivar, Guichao2, through successive backcrossing, generating three sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Grain quality and starch property analysis showed that NIL-SSII-3j exhibited significant decreases in the following parameters: amylose content, average granule size, and setback viscosity and consistency; but increases in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, gelatinization temperature and relative crystallinity. Moreover, the proportion of short amylopectin chains and branching degree also increased when compared with those of NIL-SSII-3i (Guochao2). Similar effects were observed in NIL-SSII-1j, and certain alterations in the fine structure of starch (granule size) were revealed. However, NIL-SSII-2j did not exert significant effect on grain quality and starch properties. In brief, among the SSII gene family, the functional diversity occurred on SSII-1 and SSII-3, and not on SSII-2. Therefore, it appears that more attention should be directed to SSII-1 and SSII-3 loci for improving the eating and cooking quality of rice.
We report our preliminary results on the role of starbursts in LINERS by use of Wolf-Rayet galaxies as a tool. The essence of this approach lies in the different FIR-radio relation of WR galaxies from the pure AGN's.
We report the discovery of two new Wolf-Rayet galaxies: Mrk 1039, and F8208+2816. Two broad WR bumps at 5808Å and 4650Å indicate the presence of WCE and WNL star populations in these two sources. Comparison of the observed EW(HeII λ4686) and EW(CIV λ5808) with recent models of WR populations in young starbursts provide an indication that the stellar initial mass function in some WR galaxies might not be Salpeter-like.
Amongst relatively undisturbed spiral galaxies of type ≤ Sc barred morphology is unquestionably associated with powerful mid- and Far-IR emission. On the other hand, even amongst early type galaxies, those with LFIR/LB < 1/3 exhibit no association of high relative FIR luminosity with barred morphology, but some association of IR colors resembling those of star formation regions (SFRs). Amongst systems with LFIR/LB < 0.1 this ratio may be anti-correlated with barredness. It appears that enhanced IR emission from those galaxies whose star formation rate is currently elevated by the the bar translates them into the group with higher FIR-to-optical luminosity ratios. Depletion of extended nearnuclear gas and dust, once the bar has swept up the currently-available supplies, may reduce the fraction of the background stellar radiation field which can be converted to FIR radiation in the inner, most luminous parts of the galaxy. Thus, after the starburst has subsided, such galaxies may be less FIR-luminous than unbarred systems. Several uncertainties remain: it is still not clear whether barred morphology is a necessary condition for the generation of a starburst in an otherwise undisturbed galaxy, while evidence as to the effect of differing bar strengths is conflicting.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Large electrocaloric (EC) effects in ferroelectric polymers and in ferroelectric ceramics have attracted great attention for new refrigeration development which is more environmental friendly and more efficient and thus could be an alternative to the existing vapor-compression refrigerators which consume large energy and release large amount of green house gas. However in the past, all EC effects investigations have been focused on solid state dielectrics. It is interesting to ask whether a large EC effect can also be realized in dielectric fluids. A dielectric fluid with large EC effect could lead to new design of cooling devices with simpler structures than these based on solid state EC materials, for example, they can be utilized as both the refrigerant and heat exchange fluid. Here we present that a large EC effect can be realized in the liquid crystal (LC) 5CB near it's nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition. The LC 5CB possesses a large dielectric anisotropy which can induce large polarization change from the isotropic phase to the nematic phase near the N-I transition. An isothermal entropy change of more than 23 Jkg-1K-1 was observed near 39 oC that is just above the N-I transition.
Photoluminescence (PL) has been investigated in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) samples as a function of boron doping for films prepared by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. When the dark conductivity a is below about 10-5 S/cm, the PL spectra exhibit a shape which is close to that of the so-called band tail PL in undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) at 77 K. When a increases, the PL intensity decreases at 77 K. For samples with a on the order of 10-3 S/cm, the PL spectra show only a narrow, low energy PL band which peaks around 0.8–0.9 eV. In these samples, the PL at higher energy is essentially not observable. This trend is similar to that which occurs in doped a-Si:H. However, for higher doping levels (σ ∼ 1 S/cm) the PL in μc-Si:H, although very weak, exhibits a broad band which contains intensity at higher energies. The absorption spectra in these samples, as measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), show the same relationships with the corresponding PL spectra as do the PDS spectra in doped a-Si:H.
Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra at 77 K have been measured over the range 1.201.75 eV using the Ti sapphire cw tunable laser as the excitation source. Two undoped a-Si:H samples on rough substrates have been investigated. The first sample has a very high dangling bond (DB) density; the second one has low DB density. The PLE spectrum of photoluminescence (PL) at 0.8 eV for the first sample follows the shape of the absorption spectrum measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) at room temperature. This behavior can be understood within the context of the existing models as due to recombination through defects which produces PL centered around 0.8 eV. However the PLE spectrum of PL at 0.8 eV for the second sample drops very rapidly with decreasing energy for energies less than about 1.3 eV. This behavior, which differs dramatically from that of the absorption spectrum, is consistent with earlier results and suggests that the PL measured at 0.8 eV for the second sample may be largely due to a contribution of the tail of the PL band which peaks near 1.3 eV. The PLE spectra for PL at 1.0 eV and 1.1 eV for the second sample approach the PLE spectrum previously obtained using the integrated PL intensities.
Spontaneously laterally ordered (GaP)2/(InP)2 short period superlattices (SPS) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on nominal (100) GaAs substrates have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The samples studied included SPS comprising 110 pairs of (GaP)2/(InP)2 (total thickness σ90 nm) and multiquantum well structures in which quantum wells comprising 12 pairs of (GaP)2/(InP)2 SPS layers (thickness σ10 nm) are alternated with lattice-matched GaInP random alloy barrier layers. The 5K PL spectra include a σ1760 meV nearband edge band, and a much broader, lower energy (σ1670 meV) luminescence band that exhibits an unusual fatiguing behavior; its intensity diminishes monotonically during continuous illumination by the exciting light. This fatigued PL state is metastable at low temperatures. In the quantum well structure, although the relative intensity of the lower energy band is significantly weaker in comparison to the higher one, the fatiguing behavior still exists. However the fatiguing rate is slower in quantum well structures than that observed in the thick SPS film.
High resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching in methane-hydrogen (CH4/H2) plasmas have been used to fabricate InGaAs/InP open quantum well wires (QWW) with widths ranging from 200 to 40 nm and quantum dots (QD) with diameters ranging from 600 to 100 nm. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated in these nanostructures as a function of excitation intensity, wire width, and dot diameter. The peak emission of the dry-etched 40 nm wires is shifted to higher energies by about 2 meV as compared to 100 nm wires. This “open wire” result is consistent with results reported for buried InGaAs/InP wires of the same width. The blue-shift of the PL peak reaches 10 meV in QDs as their diameters decrease to 100 nm. The magnitude of the observed blue shift in the QDs is larger than the blue-shift predicted on the basis of quantum confinement for the same size dots.
Photoluminescence absorption spectroscopy or PLAS has been used to measure the below gap absorption in a-Si:H at 77 K. As the absorption probed by this technique is composed of contributions from the bulk and the surfaces of the a-Si:H, we have developed an improved sample structure to separate these two contributions. Two kinds of interface have been investigated: a-Si1−xNx:H/a-Si:H and a-Si1−xOx:H/a-si:H. For the studies ofa-Si1−xNx:H/a-Si:H.x, two samples have been employed. The first sample consisted of an a-Si1−xNx:H/a-Si:H/a-Si:H/a-Si1−xNx:H/NiCr layered structure; the second one had a similar structure except that the a-Si:H layer was interrupted periodically by two thin (100 A°) a-Si1−xNx:H layers to increase the contribution of the interface absorption. A shoulder of the absorption around 1.2 eV for the second sample, which was not found in the first one, is probably due to the interfaces between a-Si:H and a-Si1−xNx:H. All samples were light-soaked using an Ar+ laser (5145 A°). The increases in the absorption measured by PLAS at 77 K are essentially the same as the results of PDS at 300 K, which suggests that the interfaces do not contribute to the light-induced absorption.
We have studied GaN films grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates using different buffer layer structures. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties were measured using photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and catho-luminescence wavelength imaging (CLWI) method. It is found that the hexagonal pit-like defects in morphology are associated with the D-A/e-A transition band in the PL and CL spectra. The same correlation of morphology with optical properties is observed for the GaN films grown by selective area epitaxy (SAE). In addition, the possibility of improving optical quality by SAE is investigated. The SAE depth profile is simulated for the first time, and satisfactory results are obtained.