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The polymorphism rs1006737 within the CACNA1C gene is associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and variations in brain morphology and function of subcortical regions. Here we sought to investigate the influence of CACNA1C polymorphism on key subcortical brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of BD.
Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 41 euthymic patients with BD and 40 healthy controls, who were also genotyped for the CACNA1C rs1006737 polymorphism. The effect of diagnosis, genotype and their interaction was examined in predefined volumes of interest in the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and amygdala extracted using SPM5.
Carriers of the CACNA1C rs1006737 risk allele showed increased grey matter density in the right amygdala and right hypothalamus irrespective of diagnosis. An interaction between genotype and diagnosis was observed in the left putamen which was smaller in BD patients carrying the risk allele than in healthy controls.
The CACNA1C rs1006737 polymorphism influences anatomical variation within subcortical regions involved in emotional processing.
To study the reliability of two depression assessment scales, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Psychomotor Retardation Scale, 30 patients with depression according to Feighner's criteria were evaluated, by two groups of raters: 5 were trained psychiatrists or psychologists, and 6 were untrained raters. The experiment lasted three months. The patients were recorded on video-tape by two psychiatrists who did not take part in the experiment, during pre-designed interviews. Each scoring was discussed by the trained group but not by the untrained group. The Kappa test and the sign-test were used for the statistical analysis of global and itemized results, respectively. Intraclass coefficient Q3 was applied to global scores. With regard to global scores, there was no significant difference among the members of the trained group, who scored higher than those of the untrained group; a significant difference between some of the untrained raters, induced a significant difference with the trained group. With regard to each item of both scales, reliability appeared to be slight to moderate, and there was no significant difference between trained and inexpert raters. These results are discussed and modifications are proposed to improve the consistency of the two scales. The authors emphasize the necessity for therapeutic trials to be conducted with permanent groups of assessors who continue training even outside of trial procedures.
Although Malta is historically linked with the zoonosis brucellosis, there had not been a case of the disease in either the human or livestock population for several years. However, in July 2013 a case of human brucellosis was identified on the island. To determine whether this recent case originated in Malta, four isolates from this case were subjected to molecular analysis. Molecular profiles generated using multilocus sequence analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat for the recent human case isolates and 11 Brucella melitensis strains of known Maltese origin were compared with others held on in-house and global databases. While the 11 isolates of Maltese origin formed a distinct cluster, the recent human isolation was not associated with these strains but instead clustered with isolates originating from the Horn of Africa. These data was congruent with epidemiological trace-back showed that the individual had travelled to Malta from Eritrea. This work highlights the potential of using molecular typing data to aid in epidemiological trace-back of Brucella isolations and assist in monitoring of the effectiveness of brucellosis control schemes.
Amiodarone can induce severe hyperthyroidism that justifies its withdrawal and the introduction of antithyroid drugs. Continuing amiodarone use, failure to control hyperthyroidism and poor clinical progress may require thyroidectomy. This study aimed to evaluate patients’ post-operative development and mid-term outcome after thyroidectomy for amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis.
Prospective case series.
Tertiary care centre.
Subjects and methods:
We prospectively collected cases of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis requiring thyroidectomy due to failure of antithyroid treatment, despite amiodarone discontinuation. Post-thyroidectomy complications were compared immediately, 30 days and one year post-operatively, and also for scheduled versus emergency surgery cases.
Of 11 total cases, nine scheduled thyroidectomy cases had no morbidity after elective surgery. Two cases required emergency surgery for multiple organ failure and cardiac problems. Immediate post-operative complications (mostly haemodynamic) occurred in both cases (emergency vs routine surgery, p = 0.018).
In such cases, pre-operative medical treatment is vital to limit peri- and post-operative complications, but surgery should not be delayed if the haemodynamic status deteriorates. Surgery, with careful anaesthesia, is the cornerstone of the treatment.
Development of metallic glasses is hindered by the difficulties in manufacturing bulk parts. We report on the preparation of glassy alloys using the spark plasma sintering of gas atomized powders. The Zr57Cu20Al10Ni8Ti5 alloy processed has a high glass forming ability. Densification is obtained at the glass transition temperature (390 °C) under high pressure (≈500 MPa). Systematic study of the effect of powder particles size and sintering time is performed through structural and thermal analyses. Local and partial devitrification of the amorphous alloy is detected, resulting from local temperature overshoots. From these analyses, an approach of the spark plasma sintering mechanism of metallic glasses is proposed.
Cognitive and affective complaints are common in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but few studies have used psychometric testing to document these symptoms and their response to parathyroidectomy. The current study sought to clarify the nature of cognitive and affective impairments in PHPT and changes postparathyroidectomy. One hundred eleven patients with PHPT underwent neuropsychological evaluation prior to parathyroidectomy with 68 returning for an early postsurgical evaluation. Changes in cognition were assessed using practice effect corrected reliable change indices. Biochemical and anesthesia variables were compared between groups who improved and declined. In a subset of patients, assessment revealed a significant pattern of cognitive slowing, reductions in psychomotor speed, memory impairment, and depression prior to parathyroidectomy. Postsurgical evaluations revealed a trend for improvements on timed tests and depression but a decline in memory. Older patients responded less well to surgical intervention, as did patients who experienced more dramatic changes in biochemical status following surgery. Cognitive changes early postparathyroidectomy are characterized by improved information processing speed and decline in verbal memory, with younger patients more likely to recover during this acute phase. The need for longer-term follow-up studies and increasing utilization of neuropsychological assessments in this population are discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 1002–1011.)
The SOPHIE Consortium started a large program of exoplanets search and characterization in the Northern hemisphere with the new spectrograph SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. The objectives of this program are to characterize the zoo of exoplanets and to bring strong constraints on their processes of formation and evolution using the radial velocity technique. We present here new SOPHIE measurements of the transiting planet host star XO-3. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint for a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration. This result requires confirmation by additional observations.
Exoplanet search programs need to study how to disentangle radial-velocity (RV) variations due to Doppler motion and the noise induced by stellar activity. We monitored the active K2V HD 189733 with the high-resolution SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France). We refined the orbital parameters of HD 189733b and put limitations on the eccentricity and on a long-term velocity gradient. We subtracted the orbital motion of the planet and compared the variability of activity spectroscopic indices (HeI, Hα, Ca II H&K lines) to the evolution of the RV residuals and the shape of spectral lines. All are in agreement with an active stellar surface in rotation. We used such correlations to correct for the RV jitter due to stellar activity. This results in achieving a high precision on the orbital parameters, with a semi-amplitude: K=200.56±0.88m⋅s−1 and a derived planet mass of MP=1.13±0.03 MJup.
L’objectif de cette étude est de faire le point sur l’irradiation du patient dans le domaine de la radiologie dentaire. Les avancées technologiques en imagerie médicale amènent des perspectives intéressantes quant aux possibilités de réduction des doses. Dans ce travail, les doses délivrées aux patients lors d’examens intra-oraux, panoramiques et tomographiques, ont été évaluées sur quelques installations. La dose au patient est généralement estimée en utilisant des indicateurs dosimétriques, tels que le kerma dans l’air à la surface d’entrée du patient (KASE) et le produit kerma surface (PKS). Ces valeurs sont facilement mesurables et permettent d'évaluer la dose efficace pour un patient standard. Le PKS a été mesuré pour un système intra-oral analogique muni de films de sensibilité D et E/F, ainsi que pour une installation munie d’un détecteur numérique. Afin d’évaluer les doses en radiographie panoramique, le PKS a également été déterminé pour des orthopantomogrammes (OPGs) de différentes générations. Finalement, les doses délivrées aux patients lors d’examens tomographiques en implantologie ont été évaluées à l’aide des mesures du produit kerma longueur (PKL) et de l'indice de dose en tomodensitométrie (CTDIw) pour deux types d’installation : un tomodensitomètre muni des fonctions Dentascan et un système dédié basé sur la technique DVT (Digital Volume Tomography). L'utilisation d’un film E/F au lieu d’un film D permet de réduire le PKS d’un facteur 2 avec une légère augmentation du bruit de l’image. Les systèmes numériques permettent une réduction additionnelle de la dose d’un facteur 6 mais avec une dégradation importante de la résolution spatiale (passage de la FTM à 50 % de 13 mm–1 à 5 mm–1). Le PKS mesuré sur les OPGs a démontré que l’ancien système génère une dose trois fois plus élevée qu'un système plus récent. Le système de tomographie dédié permet de réduire la dose au patient d’un facteur 18 en comparaison avec un système CT Dentascan.
We present radial-velocity measurements for three solar-type stars (HD 127506, HD 174457 and HD 185414) hosting low-mass companions. The measurements were obtained with the ELODIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.93–m telescope at Observatoire de Haute–Provence (CNRS, France) within the frame of the OHP-ELODIE Planet Search Programme. The inferred minimum masses of the detected companions are in the substellar mass range. Combining ELODIE radial-velocity data and HIPPARCOS astrometric data, the inclination angles of the orbital planes of HD 127506 and HD 174457 have been derived providing us with the de-projected masses of the companions: m2 = 44MJup for the companion of HD 127506 and m2= 0.13M⊙ for the companion of HD 174457. Moreover, using adaptive optics measurements, we show that HD 174457 is probably a (F8V + M7V + M3-4V) triple system. To date, only a minimal orbital solution is available for HD 185414.
We present results obtained with different adaptive optics systems
(ADONIS, PUEO, NAOS), in either imaging or coronagraphic modes, in the
frame of several surveys aimed at searching for very low mass stars
and substellar objects around nearby M dwarfs as well as in young
closeby associations. For the M dwarfs of the solar neighborhood, we
have obtained a very accurate mass-luminosity relation that we can
compare to the prediction of recent stellar structure models. We also
present multiplicity statistics of M dwarfs (binary fraction, period
and mass ratio distribution), which are crucial constraints for
stellar formation scenarii. We also discuss results obtained on two
young closeby associations, MBM12 and Tucana-Horologium.
We present our radial-velocity data for HD 190228. The measurements were obtained with the ELODIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence. A 1100-day periodic low-amplitude radial-velocity signal is detected revealing the presence of a planetary companion with a minimum mass of 5 MJup.
We present results based on a 6 year survey of a solar vicinity M-dwarf sample. We have obtained their multiplicity rate and orbital elements for the binaries. Such results could give us keys for a better understanding of stellar formation.
We present new accurate masses at the bottom of the main sequence as well as an improved empirical mass-luminosity relation for very low mass stars in the visible and near infrared. Masses were obtained by combining very accurate radial velocities and adaptive optics images of multiple stars obtained at different orbital phases.
Yttrium implanted and unimplanted various reference steels were oxidized at 700 °C,
under controlled atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure: 0.04 Pa), for 24 h to observe the yttrium
implantation and the addition element effects on steel high temperature oxidation behaviours.
Yttrium implantation effects on reference steels were characterized using analytical and
structural techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Reflection High
Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Glancing Angle X-ray
Diffraction (GAXRD). Yttrium implanted and unimplanted reference steel oxidation behaviours
were observed by thermogravimetry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. Our results
clearly show that yttrium implantation and high temperature oxidation induced the formation of
several yttrium mixed oxides which closely depend on the reference steel addition elements.
Moreover, these yttrium mixed oxides seem to be responsible for the improved reference steel
oxidation resistance at high temperature.
Modulation by two temporal frequencies differentiates visual processing at the fundamentals (1Fs), second harmonics (2Fs), and second-order intermodulation components (IMCs), the latter created neurally as the sum or difference of the two modulation frequencies. Steady-state VEPs were recorded while stereo-normal adults viewed luminance or grating stimuli modulated by up to three temporal frequencies under dichoptic, monocular, or ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions arranged using liquid crystal light shutters. In Experiment 1, modulation of luminance by a single temporal frequency produced strong 1F and 2F VEP components, but modulation of gratings produced only 2Fs. Modulation by two temporal frequencies resulted in IMCs, often in the absence of evoked activity in the EEC at the 1Fs. IMCs were generally larger during pattern as compared to luminance modulation. Amplitudes of 1Fs and IMCs were smaller, but 2Fs were larger, during dichoptic as compared to ordinary viewing. Although the 2F to a single modulation presented to one eye was not reduced when a second frequency was added to the opposite eye, monocular IMCs were diminished when a frequency was added to the opposite eye. We conclude that 2Fs and IMCs are associated with different neural substrates. Results are consistent with a two pathway model with one pathway having a nonlinear filter prior to binocular combination, the other pathway having a nonlinearity following binocular linear summation. Implications of these data for binocular function are discussed.
We present a preliminary report on radial–velocity and infrared interferometric observations, with emphasis on the newly resolved nearby sources Gl 609.2 and Gl 804. We briefly discuss their low–mass companions, their luminosities, and their individual masses inferred from the combined solution of their spectroscopic and visual orbits.
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