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Some of the greatest successes in infectious disease control rest on empirically grounded models of human and livestock infections. In contrast, disease control in wildlife has not always been as successful. Timely translation of knowledge into proposed management actions remains a challenge in several wildlife disease systems, one of which is pneumonia management in bighorn sheep throughout the North American West. Although pneumonia was recognised as a major impediment to bighorn sheep conservation >80 years ago, a series of challenges stymied the management decision-making process. Despite past obstacles, recent advances from long-term, intensive studies of marked individual sheep have motivated new interest in research-driven strategies for disease management in this system. The system provides an unusual opportunity to study an emerging pathogen disproportionately impacting immature animals through infections that originate from asymptomatically infected adult hosts. We tell the story of bighorn sheep pneumonia, emphasising the obstacles that historically hindered decision-making, the biological or logistical constraints underlying each decision point, and the particular empirical insights that clarified each constraint.
Nearly thirty years since the collapse of the Soviet Union, we have got used to seeing the Bolshevik Revolution as the prelude to a failed political experiment, albeit one that lasted a remarkably long time. But why do we see it as a failure? After all, the Soviet Union was a vast empire regarded as the military equal of the United States, feared and hated by successive US presidents, whose influence extended far beyond Soviet borders to include regimes in Africa, South East Asia, Central and South America. Had Mikhail Gorbachev not been removed in 1991, and had the Soviet system been able to reform itself into something like the form of communism we see today in China, no one would regard those seventy-plus years of Soviet power as a failure at all. What is meant by failure, in truth, is not really military or economic failure so much as a failure to sustain and uphold the ideals of equality and social justice that originally drew so many to the communist cause. The haemorrhaging of members from the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) in 1956, for instance, was a result of widespread feelings of shock and disgust after Nikita Khrushchev's revelations at the Twenty-First Party Conference that year, at which he delivered his so-called ‘secret speech’ condemning Stalin's regime. For those who left the CPGB, and other communist parties across Western Europe, it was painful to realize that what they had for decades dismissed as ‘anti-Soviet propaganda’ had in fact been accurate reportage. Most shocking of all was learning that the mass arrests and disappearances of the 1930s, and even the show trials of prominent Politburo and party members, were not proportionate, if regrettable, responses to plots to murder Stalin and overthrow Soviet power at all, but rather Stalinist crimes of epic and tragic proportions. Right up to the end of the Communist regime in Russia, reports of political and religious repression, the continued use of the Gulag system, confinement and forced treatment of dissidents in mental hospitals, literary and other cultural censorship continued to filter through the Iron Curtain.
The shallow subsurface of Groningen, the Netherlands, is heterogeneous due to its formation in a Holocene tidal coastal setting on a periglacially and glacially inherited landscape with strong lateral variation in subsurface architecture. Soft sediments with low, small-strain shear wave velocities (VS30 around 200 m s−1) are known to amplify earthquake motions. Knowledge of the architecture and properties of the subsurface and the combined effect on the propagation of earthquake waves is imperative for the prediction of geohazards of ground shaking and liquefaction at the surface. In order to provide information for the seismic hazard and risk analysis, two geological models were constructed. The first is the ‘Geological model for Site response in Groningen’ (GSG model) and is based on the detailed 3D GeoTOP voxel model containing lithostratigraphy and lithoclass attributes. The GeoTOP model was combined with information from boreholes, cone penetration tests, regional digital geological and geohydrological models to cover the full range from the surface down to the base of the North Sea Supergroup (base Paleogene) at ~800 m depth. The GSG model consists of a microzonation based on geology and a stack of soil stratigraphy for each of the 140,000 grid cells (100 m × 100 m) to which properties (VS and parameters relevant for nonlinear soil behaviour) were assigned. The GSG model serves as input to the site response calculations that feed into the Ground Motion Model. The second model is the ‘Geological model for Liquefaction sensitivity in Groningen’ (GLG). Generally, loosely packed sands might be susceptible to liquefaction upon earthquake shaking. In order to delineate zones of loosely packed sand in the first 40 m below the surface, GeoTOP was combined with relative densities inferred from a large cone penetration test database. The marine Naaldwijk and Eem Formations have the highest proportion of loosely packed sand (31% and 38%, respectively) and thus are considered to be the most vulnerable to liquefaction; other units contain 5–17% loosely packed sand. The GLG model serves as one of the inputs for further research on the liquefaction potential in Groningen, such as the development of region-specific magnitude scaling factors (MSF) and depth–stress reduction relationships (rd).
Dementia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that interferes with multiple aspects of life, including cognition, daily functioning, and behavior. Despite the large heterogeneity in symptom development, these three domains are seldom studied simultaneously. This study investigates how trajectories of these domains are interrelated within individuals over time, and how they in turn are related to dementia severity and quality of life (QoL).
We used data from a longitudinal clinical cohort study, including 331 dementia patients. Cognitive status was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, daily functioning was measured with the disability assessment for dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) were scored using the neuropsychiatric inventory. We investigated the relationships in the time course of the various dementia domains using random effects multilevel models and parallel-process growth models.
Changes in cognition and daily functioning were highly correlated over time (r = 0.85, p < 0.01), as were changes in NPS and functioning (r = −0.60, p < 0.01), while changes in cognition and NPS were not (r = −0.20, p = 0.06). All three domains were strongly associated with dementia severity over time (p < 0.01). Decreased functioning and increased NPS were both associated with decreased QoL (β = 2.97, p < 0.01 and β = −2.41, p < 0.01, respectively), while cognition was not (β = 0.01, p = 0.93).
This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of dementia progression between individuals and between different dementia domains within individuals. To improve our understanding of dementia progression, future research should embrace a broader perspective encompassing multiple outcome measures along with the patient's profile, including neurological factors as well as physical, social, and psychiatric health.
Courts are centers of power, whether religious or political, which create cultural forms that represent these centers to themselves and to those outside them. The continuity of great courts contrasted with the peripatetic courts of India and Western Europe. In virtually every court, cultural production, both by and for members of the court, developed forms that sought to separate court culture from the rest of society. Western courts, like those of Japan, were but one center of cultural production, the other being major monastic foundations. Chinese and Japanese courts followed prescribed cycles of annual events through various rites, festivals, banquets, and ceremonies. The Chinese court formed the model for Eastern courts such as the Japanese, while the Byzantine, which had absorbed aspects of Persian courts before the Islamic conquest as had those of India, provided a model for Western Christian and Islamic courts, which in turn influenced each other.
Dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists may be effective medications for multiple substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no selective D3R antagonists are currently available for clinical testing. Buspirone, originally characterized as a 5-HT1A partial agonist and used as an anxiolytic, also binds to D3R and D4R with high affinity, with lower affinity to D2R, and interferes with cocaine reward. Here we used PET with [11C]PHNO (D3R-preferring radioligand), [11C]raclopride (D2R/D3R radioligand) and [11C]NNC-112 (D1R radioligand) to measure occupancy of oral and parenteral buspirone in the primate brain. Intramuscular buspirone (0.19 and 0.5 mg/kg) blocked both [11C]PHNO and [11C]raclopride binding to striatum, exhibiting high occupancy (50–85%) at 15 min and rapid wash-out over 2–6 h. In contrast, oral buspirone (3 mg/kg) significantly blocked [11C]PHNO binding in D3-rich regions (globus pallidum and midbrain) at 3 h, but had minimal effects on [11C]raclopride binding (28–37% at 1 h and 10% at 3 h). Buspirone did not block [11C]NNC-112. Our findings provide evidence that i.m. buspirone blocks D3R and D2R, whereas oral buspirone is more selective towards D3R blockade in vivo, consistent with extensive first pass metabolism and supporting the hypothesis that its metabolites (5- and 6′-hydroxybuspirone) merit evaluation for treating SUDs. They also indicate that for oral buspirone to achieve greater than 80% sustained D3R occupancy, as might be needed to treat addiction, higher doses (at least three-fold) than those used to treat anxiety (maximal 60 mg) will be required. Nonetheless, based on previous clinical studies, these doses would be safe and well tolerated.
To determine if children aged 1–6 years from non-Western immigrant families have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels than children from Western-born families and examine which factors influence this relationship.
Healthy children (n 1540) recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of non-Western immigrants were compared with those of children from Western-born families. Children from non-Western immigrant families were defined as those born, or their parents were born, outside a Western country. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify factors which might influence this relationship.
Median age was 36 months, 51 % were male, 86 % had ‘light’ skin pigmentation, 55 % took vitamin D supplements, mean cow's milk intake was 1·8 cups/d and 27 % were non-Western immigrants. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 83 nmol/l, with 5 % having 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l. Univariable analysis revealed that non-Western immigrant children had serum 25(OH)D lower by 4 (95 % CI 1·3, 8·0) nmol/l (P = 0·006) and increased odds of 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l (OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·3, 2·9). After adjustment for known vitamin D determinants the observed difference attenuated to 0·04 (95 % CI −4·8, 4·8) nmol/l (P = 0·99), with higher cow's milk intake (P < 0·0001), vitamin D supplementation (P < 0·0001), summer season (P = 0·008) and increased age (P = 0·04) being statistically significant covariates. Vitamin D supplementation was the strongest explanatory factor of the observed difference.
There is an association between non-Western immigration and lower 25(OH)D in early childhood. This difference appears related to known vitamin D determinants, primarily vitamin D supplementation, representing opportunities for intervention.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence and distribution of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among 1,308 children aged 10–18 years in 34 primary schools in 8 informal urban settlements in Kisumu City, western Kenya. Stool samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma mansoni and STH (Hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) using the Kato-Katz technique. Haematuria was used as a proxy indicator of urinary schistosomiasis. Schools and water bodies were mapped using a geographical information system. Overall, 34% of children were infected with one or more helminth species whereas 16·2% of children were infected with one or more STH species. Schools in closest proximity to Lake Victoria and River Nyamasaria had the highest S. mansoni prevalence while schools with STH were more homogenously distributed. Mean school prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 21% (range=0–69·7%), S. haematobium 3·6% (range=0–12%), hookworms 6·1% (range=0–20%), A. lumbricoides 4·9% (range=0–18·4%), and T. trichiura 7·7% (range=0–18·6%). Helminth-related morbidities were not associated with infection. Our study demonstrates that schistosomiasis and STH are important health priorities among schools in informal settlements of Kisumu City, and highlights the need for routine deworming in similar settings.
To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children.
Three-day diet diaries (child completed with parental help) were collected. Height and weight were measured in research clinics. Maternal education level was derived from a questionnaire completed during pregnancy and classified into low, medium or high. One-way ANOVA was undertaken to compare maternal education groups for nutrient intakes and the Kruskal–Wallis test used for food consumption.
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK.
Children (n 7474) who provided dietary data at age 10 years.
A large proportion (60 %) of the sample was classified as plausible reporters, with under-reporting accounting for 36 %. No clear differences were found for intakes of energy or macronutrients between maternal education groups for plausible reporters. However, there were marked differences in micronutrient intakes especially for vitamin C, retinol equivalents and folate, highlighting lower diet quality with lower maternal education level. Intakes of fruit and vegetables showed a positive gradient with increasing maternal education (57 % v. 79 % consumed fresh fruit in low and high educational groups, respectively). A trend towards higher intake in the lower educated group was shown for less healthy foods (meat pies P < 0·001; sausages, burgers and kebabs P < 0·001).
The quality of children's diet at 10 years was related to maternal education level. Lower maternal education was associated with less healthy food choices that could be detrimental to health. Further research is needed to establish if these associations can be explained by other socio-economic factors.
To investigate associations between dietary intakes throughout childhood and age at menarche, a possible indicator of future risk of disease, in a contemporary cohort of British girls.
Diet was assessed by FFQ at 3 and 7 years of age, and by a 3 d unweighed food diary at 10 years. Age at menarche was categorised as before or after 12 years 8 months, a point close to the median age in this cohort.
Bristol, South-West England.
Girls (n 3298) participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Higher energy intakes at 10 years were positively associated with the early occurrence of menarche, but this association was removed on adjusting for body size. Total and animal protein intakes at 3 and 7 years were positively associated with age at menarche ≤12 years 8 months (adjusted OR for a 1 sd increase in protein at 7 years: 1·14 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·26)). Higher PUFA intakes at 3 and 7 years were also positively associated with early occurrence of menarche. Meat intake at 3 and 7 years was strongly positively associated with reaching menarche by 12 years 8 months (OR for menarche in the highest v. lowest category of meat consumption at 7 years: 1·75 (95 % CI 1·25, 2·44)).
These data suggest that higher intakes of protein and meat in early to mid-childhood may lead to earlier menarche. This may have implications for the lifetime risk of breast cancer and osteoporosis.
To examine the sociodemographic, parental and child factors that predict fruit and vegetable consumption in 7-year-old children.
Diet was assessed using three 1d unweighed food diaries. The child’s daily fruit and vegetable consumption was calculated by summing the weight of each type of fruit, fruit juice and vegetable consumed. The various others factors measured were assessed by a questionnaire at different time points.
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
A total of 7285 children aged 7 years residing in the south-west of England during 1999–2000.
Median daily fruit and vegetable consumption (201 g) was below the recommendations for this age group (320 g). Girls ate more fruit and vegetables per unit energy (30·3 g/MJ) than boys (26·7 g/MJ; P =< 0·001). The predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption were mostly similar. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with maternal consumption, maternal education status and parental rules about serving fruit/vegetables every day, food expenditure per person and whether the child was choosy about food. Vegetable consumption was also associated with the other characteristics of the child, such as whether the child enjoyed food and whether the child tried a variety of foods.
Children are not eating recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, particularly boys. Consumption of fruit and vegetables appears to be influenced by parental rules about daily consumption and parental consumption and by the child’s choosiness. Parent’s actions could influence this. These findings may prove useful for those planning healthy eating campaigns for children.