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The effect of fluid on the natural frequencies of a vertical rectangular lock gate is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible having an irrotational flow field. The far boundary of fluid domain is truncated near the lock gate structure by solving the Laplace equation using Fourier half range cosine series expansion. The formulation of lock gate structure is governed using Mindlin’s plate theory. The coupled interaction between the fluid domain and the lock gate structure is established using finite element method (FEM) and a computer code is written using FORTRAN. Convergence study and validation of the formulation are carried out to minimise the computational error. The natural frequencies of lock gate coupled with and without fluid are determined for undisturbed and linearised free surface conditions. By varying extent of fluid domain, the effect on the natural frequencies of lock gate is evaluated. The results of natural frequencies obtained may be useful to the designer when the reservoir lock gate structure is exposed to the natural disasters.
Alcohol use is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is less understood than other addictive disorders. Humans vary in alcohol responses which could be related to genetic susceptibility for alcoholism. The objective of the present study was to examine the prevalence of OPRM1 polymorphisms in addicts. The opioid receptor mu1 (OPRM1) mediates the action of morphine and is a major determinant of striatal dopamine responses to alcohol. Two polymorphism, C17T and A11G of exon I were screened in subjects with addiction to alcohol and opioids and compared with subjects without a history of any sort of drug addiction using restriction fragment length polymorphism, which was further validated by DNA sequencing. The allelic frequencies between the two groups were compared and the difference was found to be of statistical significant (p < 0.0001), with the 17T allele having a 3.06-fold higher risk of alcohol addiction (risk ratio (RR) = 3.069, 95%CI of RR = 2.0339 to 4.6127, odds ratio (OR) = 3.9554; 95%CI of OR = 2.4175 to6.4718) and 118G allele having a 1.81-fold higher risk of alcohol addiction (risk ratio (RR) = 1.8096, 95%CI of RR = 13459 to 2.433, odds ratio (OR) = 2.2025; 95%CI of OR = 1.479 to 3.2799). Similar differences were observed in the case of opiate addiction, RR = 1.1369 to 2.7647, OR = 1.9367; 95%CI = 1.1625 to 3.2263 and RR = 1.7363, 95%CI of RR = 1.3043 to 2.3112, OR = 2.0725; 1.42 to 3.0248) for 17T and 118G respectively. Further studies to unravel the epigenetic control of expression of these candidate genes are underway.
Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
This paper discusses the unique patterns evolved through phase separation of a bulk liquid crystal (LC) from the self-assembly of lysozyme induced by evaporation of de-ionized water only. Each domain shows a central dark region surrounded by bright regions (randomly oriented LC droplets). The birefringence intensity reveals three regimes (a slow increase, rapid rise, then saturation) not seen without LC droplets. The textural study exhibits a simple exponential behavior that changes as a function of LC concentration. Furthermore, in the presence of LC, the crack patterns are found to be different near the drop edge than those in the central region.
Inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite high level of comorbidity, many studies of the immune system in severe mental disorders have not systematically taken cardiometabolic risk factors into account.
We investigated if inflammatory markers were increased in schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective (AFF) disorders independently of comorbid CVD risk factors. Cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, body mass index and glucose) and CVD-related inflammatory markers CXCL16, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble CD14 (sCD14), macrophage inhibitory factor and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) were measured in n = 992 patients (SCZ, AFF), and n = 647 healthy controls. We analyzed the inflammatory markers before and after controlling for comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors, and tested for association with psychotropic medication and symptom levels.
CXCL16 (p = 0.03) and sIL-2R (p = 7.8 × 10−5) were higher, while sCD14 (p = 0.05) were lower in patients compared to controls after controlling for confounders, with significant differences in SCZ for CXCL16 (p = 0.04) and sIL-2R (p = 1.1 × 10−5). After adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors higher levels of sIL-2R (p = 0.001) and lower sCD14 (p = 0.002) remained, also in SCZ (sIL-2R, p = 3.0 × 10−4 and sCD14, p = 0.01). The adjustment revealed lower ALCAM levels (p = 0.03) in patients. We found no significant associations with psychotropic medication or symptom levels.
The results indicate that inflammation, in particular enhanced T cell activation and impaired monocyte activation, are associated with severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests a role of novel pathophysiological mechanisms in severe mental disorders, particularly SCZ.
The drying process, self-assembly of the proteins and the phase separation of a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) from an initial aqueous solution represent a rich area of study. A focus of this work is to compare the behavior of two different proteins, bovine serum albumin [BSA] and lysozyme [Lys] in the ternary system through optical microscopy. During the drying process, the intensity profile shows three regimes in the presence of LC whereas no intensity variation is observed in its absence in both protein drops. The striking outcome is the presence of an umbilical defect of [+1] strength in every domain near the edge of BSA drop, whereas, each domain has a central dark region surrounded by a bright region in the dried Lys drop. Finally, the crack spacing in the dried Lys drop is reduced in the presence of LC whereas, no significant difference is found in the dried BSA drop.
In the propagation of seismic waves through layered media, the boundaries play crucial role. The boundaries separating the different layers of the earth are irregular in nature and not perfectly plane. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the corrugation of the boundaries while dealing with the problem of reflection and refraction of seismic waves. The present study explores the reflection and refraction phenomena of SH-waves at a corrugated interface between visco-elastic half-space and fibre-reinforced half-space. Method of approximation given by Rayleigh is adopted and the expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained in closed form for the first and second order approximation of the corrugation. The closed form formulae of these coefficients are presented for a corrugated interface of periodic shape (cosine law interface). It is found that these coefficients depend upon the amplitude of corrugation of the boundary, angle of incidence and frequency of the incident wave. Numerical computations for a particular type of corrugated interface are performed and a number of graphs are plotted. Some special cases are derived.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
To test the hypothesis that modulation of hepatic microsomal sulphoxidation and sulphonation by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide could increase bioavailability of albendazole, the present study was undertaken to understand the pharmacokinetics of albendazole in goats at a dose of 7.5 mg kg− 1 body weight with and without co-administration with piperonyl butoxide at 63.0 mg kg− 1 body weight. Plasma albendazole sulphoxide metabolite, the anthelmintically active moiety, reached its maximum concentration of 0.322 ± 0.045 μg ml− 1 and 0.384 ± 0.013 μg ml− 1 at 18 h and 24 h after administration of albendazole alone and co-administration of albendazole with piperonyl butoxide, respectively. Analysis of the data revealed statistically increased albendazole sulphoxide levels at 24 (P < 0.001), 30 (P < 0.001) and 36 h (P < 0.01) after administration of albendazole with piperonyl butoxide, with statistically increased levels of albendazole sulphone at 24, 30 and 48 h after administration. No significance difference (P > 0.05) in values of maximum concentration (normal and calculated) could be observed between groups of goats. However, values of time to reach the concentration maximum (normal and calculated), area under the concentration–time curve (0–∞ and calculated), minimum residence time, distribution half-life, elimination half-life and total area under the first movement of plasma drug concentration–time curve were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in plasma levels of albendazole sulphoxide in goats following single oral co-administration of albendazole with piperonyl butoxide. The faecal egg count reduction and lower 95% confidence limit for the group treated with albendazole alone were 97 and 68%, while for co-administration of albendazole and piperonyl butoxide the values were 99 and 97%, respectively. The ED50 for egg hatch was 0.196, indicating suspected resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics. The drug combination proved efficacious against an albendazole-resistant nematode parasite population in goats.
The influence of diet type and pre-treatment fasting on the kinetic disposition of albendazole was evaluated in Sahiwal heifers following oral and intra-ruminal administration of the drug. The anthelmintically active moiety albendazole sulphoxide appeared early and was eliminated early in cattle offered green fodder, with decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under concentration–time curve (AUC) when the drug was administered both through oral and intra-ruminal routes. Further, the elimination half-life (t½β) revealed significantly increased values for albendazole sulphoxide in cattle administered albendazole through the intra-ruminal route. An increased AUC and t½β is reflective of increased bioavailability of albendazole in animals offered dry fodder. Increased values (P < 0.05) of Cmax, time to Cmax (Tmax), AUC and t½β for albendazole sulphoxide occurred in cattle with a pre-treatment 24-h fast, resulting in its increased bioavailability. Extrapolation of data of the active metabolite albendazole sulphoxide levels in terms of drug–parasite contact revealed increased exposure of parasites to the drug in cattle administered albendazole through the intra-ruminal route and with 24-h pre-treatment fasting.
The study characterizes a collection of 67 neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli isolates on the basis of phylogroup, serotype, virulence, antibiotic resistance and also the association of CTX-M-producing E. coli and the ST131 clone in a developing country. Phylogroups B2 and D were predominant (33% and 19%, respectively). The most prevalent virulence factors (VFs) were traT (69%) and iucC (68%) and most VFs were concentrated in the B2 isolates. High levels of resistance (⩾70%) to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was recorded but meropenem remained the most active antimicrobial. Six (9%) of the study isolates belonged to the ST131 clone, five of which were from the same hospital, and were either indistinguishable or closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing isolates was high (81%), the ST131 clone was relatively infrequent (11%) in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers. The ST131 clone was characterized by the presence of blaCTX-M-15, qnrS, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, IncF plasmids and virulence determinants such as iucC, papC, traT, usp, hlyA, iroNE.coli, cnf, and sat. We conclude that clonal spread of ST131 did not contribute directly to the high prevalence of CTX-M-15 in our settings.
To describe modification to endoscopic medial maxillectomy for treating extensive Krouse stage II or III inverted papilloma of the nasal and maxillary sinus.
Ten patients with inverted papilloma arising from the nasoantral area underwent diagnostic nasal endoscopy, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning of the paranasal sinus and pre-operative biopsy of the nasal mass. They were all managed using endoscopic medial maxillectomy and followed up for seven months to three years without recurrence.
Most patients were aged 41–60 years at presentation, and most were male. Presenting symptoms were nasal obstruction, mass in the nasal cavity and epistaxis. In each case, computed tomography imaging showed a mass involving the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus, with bony remodelling. The endoscopic medial maxillectomy approach was modified by making an incision in the pyriform aperture and removing part of the anterolateral wall of the maxilla bone en bloc.
Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy providing full access to the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses is described in detail. This effective, reproducible technique is associated with reduced operative time and morbidity.
In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n ⩽ 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10−4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.
A large outbreak of cholera reported during April–July 2009 in the Kendrapada district of Odisha, India was investigated. Forty-one rectal swabs and 41 water samples, collected from diarrhoeal patients and from different villages were bacteriologically analysed for the isolation of bacterial enteriopathogens, antibiogram profile and detection of various toxic genes. The bacteriological analysis of rectal swabs and environmental water samples revealed the presence of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. The V. cholerae strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on V. cholerae strains revealed the presence of ctxA and tcpA genes. The mismatch amplification of mutation assay (MAMA) PCR on clinical and environmental isolates of V. cholerae revealed that the strains were El Tor biotype, which harboured the ctxB gene of the classical strain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results indicated that the V. cholerae isolates belonged to the same clone. This investigation gives a warning that the El Tor variant of V. cholerae has spread to the coastal district causing a large outbreak that requires close monitoring and surveillance on diarrhoeal outbreaks in Odisha.
A nonlinear optical crystal of L-valine was grown from an aqueous solution containing a small amount of phosphoric acid by the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the unit cell parameters. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed the lattice parameters to be a = 9.6687(7) Å, b = 5.2709(4) Å, c = 12.0371(10) Å and β = 90.805(4)°. The results of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) indicate the presence of a small amount of phosphorus in the grown crystal. The Vickers micro hardness test was performed to study the mechanical strength of the crystals. Chemical etching studies were carried out to analyze the dislocation structure. The laser damaged threshold of the grown crystal was measured to be 11.11 GW/cm2 for 10 ns pulse at 1064 nm, which is higher than that of the standard nonlinear optical crystals like KDP. Second harmonic generation of the grown crystals was also 1.44 times that of KDP.
The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.
Bhopal, the capital of the state of Madhya Pradesh in India, is known throughout the world for the huge industrial disaster, affecting millions of people, that occurred at a Union Carbide pesticide plant on the night of December 3, 1984. The Union Carbide Corporation technical team reports that a large volume of water was introduced into the Methyl Isocyanate tank and triggered a reaction (MIC) that resulted in the gas release (Lapierre & Moro, 1997).
In 1969, the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), a U.S. company, set up a plant in Bhopal in a joint venture with the Indian government. The plant was intended to produce pesticides for use in India’s huge agricultural sector. The decision to manufacture the pesticide in India, as opposed to relying on imports, was based on India’s goal of preserving foreign exchange and its policy of industrialization (Cassels, 1994). The site was chosen for several reasons. Bhopal is centrally located in India, with good railway connections. There are many nearby lakes to provide water. It has sufficient supplies of both electricity and labor needed to sustain a large industrial plant.
FACTORS CAUSING LEAKAGE OF GASES
It is puzzling that such a massive accident could occur in a plant that was supposed to meet international standards of safety. Many factors have been blamed for the leakage of gas in official and independent probes. The first factor relates to the huge and unsafe storage of lethal chemical tanks. The UCC was invariably storing more than the permitted quantities. In the interests of economy, several vital safety arrangements were also reported to have been compromised. Some NGOs accused the UCC of having double standards for safety when planning factories in developing countries (Chouhan et al, 1994; Ecikerman, 2003). The most serious allegations of negligence were the weaker safety measures and environmental standards in the Indian plant as compared to a similar plant located in West Virginia in the United States. The parent plant had computerized warning and monitoring system while the Indian plant relied on manual gauges and the human senses to detect gas leaks. The capacities of storage tanks, gas scrubbers, and flare towers were also greater at the parent plant in the U.S.