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We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Intensive cereal based rations for beef cattle are typically formulated to contain 175 g/kg DM crude protein. Many different sources of protein have been successfully used to supplement cereals. In this study, the performance of bulls fed three different protein supplements were compared, namely rapeseed meal (R), urea (U) and a combination of urea and soya (S). The study also examined the performance of beef cattle fed a yeast culture (Diamond V ‘XP’ Yeast - Rumenco).
A total of 48 Limousin x (Hereford x Friesian) suckled bull calves at approximately 8 months old were allocated to one of three treatments with four replicates per treatment. Two replicates from each treatment were fed 40 g/head/day of yeast culture. Each diet was fed ad libitum with free access to barley straw and water. The feed ingredient inclusions in the rations were: R, 0.775 barley, 0.15 rape, 0.05 molasses, 0.025 minerals; U, 0.85 barley, 0.10 mineralised urea concentrate (Promol™ Rumenco), 0.05 molasses; S, 0.80 barley, 0.10 mineralised urea concentrate, 0.05 soya and 0.05 molasses. The R diet was used as the control. The bulls were slaughtered at fat class 4L. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA unless otherwise indicated.
We aimed to establish the treatment effect of physical activity for depression in young people through meta-analysis. Four databases were searched to September 2016 for randomised controlled trials of physical activity interventions for adolescents and young adults, 12–25 years, experiencing a diagnosis or threshold symptoms of depression. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the standardised mean difference (SMD) between physical activity and control conditions. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression investigated potential treatment effect modifiers. Acceptability was estimated using dropout. Trials were assessed against risk of bias domains and overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Seventeen trials were eligible and 16 provided data from 771 participants showing a large effect of physical activity on depression symptoms compared to controls (SMD = −0.82, 95% CI = −1.02 to −0.61, p < 0.05, I2 = 38%). The effect remained robust in trials with clinical samples (k = 5, SMD = −0.72, 95% CI = −1.15 to −0.30), and in trials using attention/activity placebo controls (k = 7, SMD = −0.82, 95% CI = −1.05 to −0.59). Dropout was 11% across physical activity arms and equivalent in controls (k = 12, RD = −0.01, 95% CI = −0.04 to 0.03, p = 0.70). However, the quality of RCT-level evidence contributing to the primary analysis was downgraded two levels to LOW (trial-level risk of bias, suspected publication bias), suggesting uncertainty in the size of effect and caution in its interpretation. While physical activity appears to be a promising and acceptable intervention for adolescents and young adults experiencing depression, robust clinical effectiveness trials that minimise risk of bias are required to increase confidence in the current finding. The specific intervention characteristics required to improve depression remain unclear, however best candidates given current evidence may include, but are not limited to, supervised, aerobic-based activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity, engaged in multiple times per week over eight or more weeks. Further research is needed. (Registration: PROSPERO-CRD 42015024388).
We present simultaneous two-dimensional velocity and scalar measurements on a central vertical plane in an axisymmetric pure turbulent plume. We use an edge-detection algorithm to determine the edge of the plume, and compare the data obtained in both a fixed Eulerian frame and a frame relative to local coordinates defined in terms of the instantaneous plume edge. In an Eulerian frame we observe that the time-averaged distributions of vertical and horizontal velocity are self-similar, the vertical velocity being well represented by a Gaussian distribution. We condition these measurements on whether fluid is inside or outside of the plume, and whether fluid inside is mixed plume fluid or engulfed ambient fluid. We find that, on average, 5 % of the total vertical volume transport occurs outside the plume and this figure rises to nearly 14 % at heights between large-scale coherent structures. We show that the fluxes of engulfed fluid within the plume envelope are slightly larger than the vertical transport outside the plume – indicating that ambient fluid is engulfed into the plume envelope before being nibbled across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) and then ultimately irreversibly mixed. Our new measurements in the plume coordinate (following the meandering fluctuating plume) show the flow within the plume and in the nearby ambient fluid is strongly influenced by whether an eddy is present locally within the plume, or absent. When an eddy is present and the plume is wide, the vertical velocities near the plume edge are small and hence all vertical transport is inside the plume. In regions where the plume is narrow and there is no eddy, large vertical velocities and hence transport are observed outside the plume suggesting that pressure forces associated with the eddies accelerate ambient fluid which is then engulfed into the plume. Finally, we show that observing significant vertical velocities beyond the scalar edge of the plume does not suggest that the characteristic width of the velocity distribution is greater than that of the scalar field; on the contrary, we show our observations to be consistent with a buoyancy distribution that is up to 20 % wider than that of the velocity. Measurements in the plume coordinates show that the mixing of momentum across the plume results in a distribution for which the differential entropy is close to maximal and the mixing of momentum is uninhibited (i.e. not bounded) by the TNTI of the plume. Furthermore, our measurements suggest that the scalar mixing across the plume may also result in a distribution for which the differential entropy is close to maximal but, in contrast to the momentum, the scalar mixing is strictly bounded by the plume edge.
We present an analysis of wide-field, far-ultraviolet images of the LMC and SMC obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. The photometric catalog of over 37,000 stars allows us to make large-scale, statistical studies of massive star formation in OB associations and in the field population. Our results show that: (1) the most probable slope for the initial mass function (IMF) of field stars is Γ = −1.80, slightly steeper than the Salpeter slope; and (2) there doesn't seem to be a single, unique IMF slope for stars in OB associations, with a range of values from Γ = −1.0 to −2.0. We also analyze the stellar vs. diffuse UV flux, and the population of OB star candidates in the field.
A tuberculosis (TB) case was reported May 2008 in Kelowna, British Columbia, leading to a multi-year outbreak in homeless persons. The epidemiological characteristics and social networks of cases are described. Outbreak-related cases were identified from epidemiological information in medical records and from genotyping of TB isolates. Social network information from case interviews were used to identify potential locations of TB transmission, where symptom screening and tuberculin skin testing was conducted. Fifty-two cases that were predominantly male (47/52), Canadian-born (44/50), and were homeless or associated with homeless individuals (42/52) were reported from May 2008 to May 2014. Many isolates (40/49) had partial resistance to isoniazid. Transmission primarily occurred at two homeless shelters, with potential further transmission at sites visited by the general population. TB outbreaks in homeless populations can occur in small, low-incidence cities. Social network information helped prioritize sites for TB screening, thereby improving detection of persons with TB disease or latent infection for treatment.
Streams draining the Cypress Hills support unique and understudied macroinvertebrate communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Here, we report the discovery of a species of caddisfly new to the Cypress Hills and Saskatchewan, Neophylax splendens Denning (Trichoptera: Thremmatidae). Larvae were collected early in May 2012, and are found to enter pre-pupal diapause in mid-June until mid-September. Larvae were identified as N. splendens by morphological characters and verified with genetic analysis. Its occurrence strengthens the biogeographical link between the montane regions in British Columbia, Canada and Utah, United States of America with the southwest corner of Saskatchewan. This study highlights the importance of seasonal sampling, resolute species level identifications in biological surveys and the use of genetic analyses to obtain this level of identification.
The Magnetoresistance (MR), Magnetic properties, and crystal structure of dc magnetron sputtered CO/Ag periodic multilayers have been investigated. The Co layer thickness was fixed at -30 Å while the thickness of the Ag layer was systematically varied. ‘Giant’ magnetoresistance was observed. The MR ratio has been found to decline monotonically with increasing Ag thickness in the range 30 Å to 107 Å. Although the maximum room temperature MR ratio is a Modest 4.78%, a more technologically significant measurement of field sensitivity (MR ratio/FWHM of the MR vs. H peak) is a promising 0.1%/Oe at its best. The effect of the number of bilayer units has also been examined and no substantial differences were noted between multilayers containing 8, 9, and 10 bilayer units. Coercivities as determined by both magnetometer and the splitting of the MR peaks are in agreement and increase from 25 to 38 Oe with increasing Ag thickness. Evidence for antiferromagnetic coupling is apparent in the hysteresis loops. High angle X-ray diffractometry (HXRD) in the θ-2θ mode revealed a strong Ag (111) texture in the film, with satellite peaks indicating a layered structure. Low angle XRD (LXRD) also yielded broad superlattice peaks in all samples at least to the second order.
Although Much has been published on giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) in co-deposited thin films [1–4], only little  has been published on the structure-property relationships limiting the effect. Here, we report the results of microstructural characterization of NiFeAg thin films that exhibit a GMR effect. The as-deposited films show a sizeable GMR effect. The Maximum GMR effect observed was 6.4% with -4k0e FWHM of the 6P/P peak. Upon annealing these films, the GMR at first increases, and then decreases. We present microstructural evidence from TEM and XRD, amongst other techniques, which shows that this is a consequence of the initial NiFeAg thin film agglomerating into NiFe grains in a predominantly Ag segregant Matrix. Upon extended annealing, excessive grain growth leads to a decrease in the GMR as predicted by the model of Berkowitz, et al. .
The phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), previously measured only in multilayer films comprising ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic spacers, has recently been observed in single layer ‘granular’ alloy thin films prepared by cosputtering a ferromagnet and a nonmagnet which tend to phase separate (cluster) under equilibrium conditions. We have systematically studied the magnetoresistance of two new phase separating GMR systems (Ni66Fe16Co18-Ag and Co9oFelo-Ag) both of which exhibit large room temperature GMR (>11% and >14%, respectively). We have also attempted to influence the details of the field dependence of the magnetoresistance in the previously studied Co-Ag system by employing novel processing methods including interrupted sputtering and layering of the Co-Ag alloy with Cu spacers.
A Model for the field dependence of giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) in ‘granular’ co-sputtered alloy thin films (based on a relatively simple spin-dependent scattering concept appropriate to superparamagnetic and weakly ferromagnetic films) is applied to new experimental data from the Co90Fe10-Ag system. The Model and the experimental data can be shown to compare very well with the help of a single adjustable parameter related to spin correlation of adjacent Co-Fe clusters. A careful fit of field-dependent MR data and theory leads to a fairly reliable determination of spin-cluster radius. An analysis of the relative permeability of granular GMR films derived from the generalized form of the Clausius-Mossoti relationship is also presented. For a non-Magnetic Matrix the effective relative permeability is shown to be materials independent. The permeability model is applied to Co-Au granular films.
Composite films were electrochemically synthesised via the simultaneous deposition of multiwalled nanotubes and polypyrrole, a conducting polymer. Negatively charged functional groups attached to the surface of the acid treated nanotubes enables the tubes to act as a dopant for the PPy in these films. Scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the nano-porous three-dimensional arrangement of PPy coated MWNTs in these films produced specific capacitances per mass and geometric area as high as 192 F g-1 and 1.0 F cm-2, respectively. This value of specific capacitance per geometric area exceeds that of both component materials and other carbon nanotube-conducting polymer composites. The composite films described in this report were also able to charge and discharge more than an order of magnitude faster than similarly prepared pure PPy films. The nano-porosity and small diffusion distances within the composite films, crucial to achieving the superior capacitive performance, were found to be dependent on the concentration of nanotubes and additional dopant anions in the polymerisation electrolyte, offering possibilities for tailoring of the composite structure.
Stable sols of 60 nm colloidal zirconia have been prepared by thermolysis of zirconium acetate. The surface complexing acetate groups have been replaced by phosphoric acid groups. Phosphate grafting has been characterized by dynamic light scattering, infrared spectroscopy, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and impedance spectroscopy measurements. These systems give acid and proton conductive particles (4.10-5 S.cm-1 at 70 % relative humidity).
H3PO4/ZrO2/PVDF-co-HFP composite membranes have been synthesized. Impedance spectroscopy measurements allow discrimination between proton conduction at the surface of the phosphated particles and within free H3PO4 in the polymer. For the highest H3PO4/ZrO2 ratios, the latter phenomenon prevails, giving a proton conductivity of 6.10-4 S.cm-1 at 70 % R.H.
A novel preparation method of CdS nanoparticles in the core or corona of micelles is presented. Poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and cadmium ions form aggregates of single micelles, called compound micelles, upon addition of the cadmium acetate salt into a solution of the block copolymer in tetrahydrofuran. The growth of CdS nanoparticles is confined to the core of single micelles after introduction of hydrogen sulfide gas into the solution. UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the prepared core-embedded CdS nanoparticles. Corona-embedded CdS nanoparticles were prepared by dropping the core-embedded CdS nanoparticles into water with a low pH value. The location change of the CdS nanoparticles was accompanied by a structural change of the micelles, a change from compound micelles to single micelles. In a single micelle, CdS nanoparticles distribute randomly in the corona. The size of the nanoparticles increases slightly after the transition.
SAXS and EXAFS were applied to study genesis of polynuclear zirconium hydroxyspecies in pillaring solutions as dependent upon the zirconium concentration, addition of alkaline-earth chlorides and aging. After the montmorillonite clay pillaring, the structure of zirconium nanopillars was characterized by applying X-ray structural analysis, UV-Vis, FTIRS of adsorbed CO and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Main pillaring species appear to be nanorods comprised of several Zr4 tetramers. Basic structural features of the tetramers are preserved in zirconia nanoparticles fixed between alumosilicate layers in pillared clays. In calcined samples, those nanoparticles contain only bridging hydroxyls and/or oxygen anions responsible for bonding within pillars and between pillars and clay sheets.
Nanodispersed lead in metallic and amorphous matrices was synthesized by rapid solidification processing. The optimum microstructure was tailored to avoid percolation of the particles. With these embedded particles it is possible to study quantitatively the effect of size on the superconducting transition temperature by carrying out quantitative microstructural characterization and magnetic measurements. Our results suggest the role of the matrices in enhancement or depression of superconducting transition temperature of lead. The origin of this difference in behavior with respect to different matrices and sizes is discussed.
Hydroxyapetite (HA) coating on medical implant has been used in commercial application for several decades. The coating, commercially made by thermal spray method, functions as a intermediate layer between human tissues and the metal implant. The coating can speed up early stage healing after operation but the life span is much limited by low interfacial bond strength, which comes from the dissolution of amorphous HA in human body fluid during its service. This amorphous phase is formed in coating process under high temperature. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel room temperature electrophoretic deposition process to fabricate nanostructured HA coating. This nanostructured HA coating significantly improved coating's bond strength up to 50-60 MPa, 2-3 times better than the thermal sprayed HA coating. The nanostructured HA coating also has corrosion resistance 50-100 times higher than the conventional HA coating. X-ray diffraction shows that all the HA coating is fully crystalline phase. It is expected that the implants with the nanostructured HA coating will have much longer service life. Other benefits derived from this process include room temperature deposition, the ability to control the coating microstructure and phases, and low cost for production.
This paper describes the formation of cobalt and iron metal nanoclusters in various polymeric domains. The size of the particles, their size distribution and their geometry is controlled by the extent of the interfacial interactions between the polymeric phase and the growing metal fragments. Iron oxide particles are shown to exhibit various geometries as a function of the polymer medium and the temperature at which they are formed. The selective phase separation and particle confinement of cobalt clusters in the presence of PS25300-b-PMMA25900 block co-polymer was achieved due to the different reactivities of the functional groups in the blocks towards the metal fragments. Transmission electron micrographs showed that cobalt clusters aggregated primarily in the poly(methyl methacrylate) block, while no cobalt nanoclusters were observed in the polystyrene block, thus creating a patterned distribution that coincided with the morphology of the block copolymer.