An Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy was implemented from 1981 to 1985 in one part of Pondicherry, South India, for the control of the bancroftian filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (the IVM area). The rest of the town (the comparison area) received the conventional larvicidal input. After 1985 both the areas were managed conventionally. The switch to conventional strategy resulted in an increase of vector density in both areas. The microfilaraemia prevalence in humans showed a general decline (P < 0·05) from 1986 to 1989 only in the IVM area whereas its intensity did not change significantly in either area. While the age-specific rate of gain of infection was generally unchanged in the IVM area, an increase in all age classes was observed after 1985 in the comparison area, where the Annual Transmission Index was high during the previous years. In both areas the rate of loss of infection increased during 1986–9 compared to 1981–6. The results suggest that 3 years is too short a period to relate the changes in entomological parameters to those in the microfilaraemia status of the population.