To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is increasing consumer resistance to feeding antibiotic performance enhancers to beef cattle which has created interest in the use of yeast cultures as an alternative. Yeast cultures such as Diamond V ‘XP’ (Rumenco) are produced by growing selected yeast strains (on a semi-solid medium under stressed conditions) which are then dried. Yeast cultures are now used in a considerable number of North American beef feed lots. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding ‘XP’ Yeast to finishing beef cattle on a typical UK grass silage-based diet.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the USA. Although secondary household transmission of norovirus is frequently reported in outbreaks, little is known about specific risk factors for susceptibility and infectiousness in the household. Three norovirus outbreaks were investigated and data were collected on individuals exposed in the primary outbreak setting and their household members. Potential individual- and household-level risk factors for susceptibility and infectiousness were assessed using univariate and multivariate generalised linear mixed models. In the univariate models, the secondary attack rate (SAR) was significantly higher when living in a household with two or more primary cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2·1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·37–3·29), more than one primary case with vomiting (IRR = 1·9; CI 1·11–3·37), and at least one primary case with diarrhoea (IRR = 3·0; CI 1·46–6·01). After controlling for other risk factors in the multivariate models, the SAR was significantly higher among those living in a household with two or more primary cases (adjusted IRR = 2·0; CI 1·17–3·47) and at least one primary case with diarrhoea (adjusted IRR = 2·8; CI 1·35–5·93). These findings underscore the importance of maintaining proper hygiene and isolating ill household members to prevent norovirus transmission in the household.
With the continued expansion of livestock units in the UK there is often an increased number of cattle reared per stockperson. Artificially reared calves are predominantly fed milk twice per day to weaning at 5 to 9 weeks old. Rearing systems that reduce the amount of labour reared per calf yet maintain animal welfare and performance standards therefore merit evaluation. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of rearing dairy-bred beef calves on either a once or twice a day milk feeding system to weaning at 6 weeks old.
The introduction of the Single Farm Payment support system sees a change from headage to area payments. The removal of the Beef Special Premium for steers is likely to see a move towards either 12-15 month intensive finishing systems or low input extensive grass based 24-30 month finishing systems. Late maturing breed type cattle reared on the latter system may however require a 2-3 month intensive finishing period to achieve adequate fat cover. With falling cereal prices there is increased interest in their use in beef cattle rations. Antibiotic based feed additives e.g., monensin sodium, have been successfully used for over 40 years to manipulate microbial activity and improve beef cattle performance. The use of monensin sodium will be banned from January 2006 and there is therefore a requirement to find alternative ‘natural’ products that can improve the efficiency of beef production with intensive cereal based rations. Yeast cultures are composed of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and the medium on which it was grown. These products are dried in a manner which preserves the fermenting activity of the yeast. It is suggested that production responses associated with the use of live yeast culture supplements in ruminants may be related to their stimulatory effects on specific groups of micro-organisms in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a live yeast culture (Yea-Sacc1026) on the performance of cereal fed beef cattle.
In a previous study at Harper Adams University College (Marsh et al., 2007) the progeny from Limousin bulls with either a Top 1% Beef Value (LM44) or Top 10% Beef Value (LM30) were reared through to slaughter on a cereal beef system. The calves sired by the Top 1% Beef Value bull recorded significantly higher daily liveweight gains, daily carcase gain, slaughter weights, carcase weights, improved conformation scores and carcase values. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the performance of Limousin cross Holstein-Friesian bull and heifer calves sired by bulls with either a Top 1% or Bottom 1% Beef Value.
There are numerous calf rearing systems but the last decade has seen increased interest in the use of computerised machine feeders for group reared calves in place of systems based on bucket rearing with individual housing. Automated machines are expensive but are becoming more common due to reductions in labour and advances in technology allowing regulation of milk intakes (Hepola, 2003). The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of rearing dairy-bred bull calves on either a computerised machine or twice a day milk feeding system to weaning at 6 weeks old.
Artificial rearing is a common practice for rearing calves from the dairy herd destined for beef production. In commercial practice calves are typically weaned from 5 to 9 weeks old. There are four criteria that can be used to determine weaning time: - age, compound feed intake, liveweight, and, milk price and quota policy. Late weaning systems are based on the theory of giving the calf the best possible start in life, but are costly with high milk intakes (Davis and Drackley, 1998). Hence emphasis is usually placed on early weaning of the calf and encouraging concentrate intake. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning at either 6 or 8 weeks old on the performance dairy-bred beef calves.
Intensive cereal based rations for beef cattle are typically formulated to contain 175 g/kg DM crude protein. Many different sources of protein have been successfully used to supplement cereals. In this study, the performance of bulls fed three different protein supplements were compared, namely rapeseed meal (R), urea (U) and a combination of urea and soya (S). The study also examined the performance of beef cattle fed a yeast culture (Diamond V ‘XP’ Yeast - Rumenco).
A total of 48 Limousin x (Hereford x Friesian) suckled bull calves at approximately 8 months old were allocated to one of three treatments with four replicates per treatment. Two replicates from each treatment were fed 40 g/head/day of yeast culture. Each diet was fed ad libitum with free access to barley straw and water. The feed ingredient inclusions in the rations were: R, 0.775 barley, 0.15 rape, 0.05 molasses, 0.025 minerals; U, 0.85 barley, 0.10 mineralised urea concentrate (Promol™ Rumenco), 0.05 molasses; S, 0.80 barley, 0.10 mineralised urea concentrate, 0.05 soya and 0.05 molasses. The R diet was used as the control. The bulls were slaughtered at fat class 4L. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA unless otherwise indicated.
There is considerable interest in the effect of dietary supplementation with probiotics or yeast cultures on dairy cow performance. Yeast cultures such as Diamond V ‘XP’ are produced by growing selected yeast strains on a semi-solid medium under stressed conditions, which are then dried. They are now used by a majority of the high yielding herds in North America (McCullough, 1995) and have been shown to have a significant effect on butterfat and protein yield with grass silage fed UK dairy cows (Rowlinson et al., 1995). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding a yeast culture to a medium-high yielding (8,100 kg) herd of dairy cows fed a diet based on grass and maize silage.
In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.
Close binary systems may undergo the “Common Envelope” (CE) phase when the primary star expands on the red giant branch or the asymptotic giant branch. Filling its Roche Lobe, the primary transfers mass to the companion driving it out of thermal equilibrium and causing it to expand as well. The giant core and the companion star become surrounded by a CE. When sufficient energy is deposited in the circumstellar material this will be ejected and the binary orbit will shrink further (see review by Iben 1995). Planetary nebulae (PNe) with short-period binary nuclei are considered the most probable post-CE candidates. Abell 35, Lotr 1 and Lotr 5 (the Abell 35-like objects) are the only three PNe with binary nuclei known to contain a very hot UV-bright primary and a chromospherically active, rapidly rotating, G-K companion that dominates the optical spectrum. The origin of these unusual systems is unclear and hence presents a challenge to theories of binary star evolution. Identified in 1966 by Abell, Abell 35 is possibly the largest PN known (D=1.6 pc at a distance of 360 pc, Jacoby 1981) and also the oldest (the kinematical age is 185.000 years from the small expansion velocity of 4.2 km/s, Bohuski 1974). The bright giant star BD −22° 3467 (mv = 9.6mag) lies off-center within the nebula. A white dwarf was detected at the same location in 1988 in IUE spectra obtained by Grewing and Bianchi. BD − 22° 3467 has a vsin i of 90 km/s (Vilhu et al. 1991), variable Hα and Ca II emission lines associated with chromospheric activity, and a variable light curve (P=0.76 days, Jasniewicz and Acker 1988) probably produced by the rotation of the giant star. All attempts to determine the orbital period have failed, raising doubts as to whether the nucleus of Abell 35 is a close binary at all. In pursuit of this point, we have started a radial velocity study of the giant companion.
Multiwavelength observations of polars are essential for developing the big picture of these systems, particularly to gain understanding of the relevant accretion-induced heating and cooling processes. Eclipsing polars are prime targets for such studies since different radiation processes can be disentangled by observations with high-time resolution. We present a preliminary combined analysis of space-based observations (XMM-Newton, ROSAT, HST) with ground-based high-speed photometry (MCCP, OPTIMA, ULTRACAM) of DP Leo, HU Aqr and UZ For. We determine the location and extent of different emission components and find secular and short-term changes in the accretion geometries. We find displaced optical and X-ray emission regions in DP Leo and HU Aqr as well as mini-bursts and accretion arcs of variable size in HU Aqr. We report marked changes in the X-ray eclipse length of UZ For between high and low states.
In this article, we review focused ion beam serial sectioning microscopy paired with analytical techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction or x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, to study materials chemistry and structure in three dimensions. These three-dimensional microanalytical approaches have been greatly extended due to advances in software for both microscope control and data interpretation. Samples imaged with these techniques reveal structural features of materials that can be quantitatively characterized with rich chemical and crystallographic detail. We review these technological advances and the application areas that are benefitting. We also consider the challenges that remain for data collection, data processing, and visualization, which collectively limit the scale of these investigations. Further, we discuss recent innovations in quantitative analyses and numerical modeling that are being applied to microstructures illuminated by these techniques.
Two pregnancy cohorts were used to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis and antenatal and postnatal growth from birth to adolescence. Longitudinal analyses were conducted in the Raine pregnancy cohort (n = 1162) using repeated measures of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) from 18 to 38 weeks gestation and eight measures of postnatal height and weight (1–17 years). Replications of significant associations up to birth were undertaken in the Generation R Study (n = 2642). Of the SNPs within the IGF-axis genes, 40% (n = 58) were associated with measures of antenatal growth (P ⩽ 0.05). The majority of these SNPs were in receptors; IGF-1R (23%; n = 34) and IGF-2R (13%; n = 9). Fifteen SNPs were associated with antenatal growth (either AC or HC or FL) in Raine (P ⩽ 0.005): five of which remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Four of these replicated in Generation R. Associations were identified between 38% (n = 55) of the IGF-axis SNPs and postnatal height and weight; 21% in IGF-1R (n = 31) and 9% in IGF-2R (n = 13). Twenty-six SNPs were significantly associated with both antenatal and postnatal growth; 17 with discordant effects and nine with concordant effects. Genetic variants in the IGF-axis appear to play a significant role in antenatal and postnatal growth. Further replication and new analytic methods are required in order to better understand this key metabolic pathway integrating biologic knowledge about the interaction between IGF-axis components.