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We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The development of an economic capital model requires a decision to be made regarding how to aggregate capital requirements for the individual risk factors while taking into account the effects of diversification. Under the Individual Capital Adequacy Standards framework, UK life insurers have commonly adopted a correlation matrix approach due to its simplicity and ease in communication to the stakeholders involved, adjusting the result, where appropriate, to allow for non-linear interactions. The regulatory requirements of Solvency II have been one of the principal drivers leading to an increased use of more sophisticated aggregation techniques in economic capital models. This paper focusses on a simulation-based approach to the aggregation of capital requirements using copulas and proxy models. It describes the practical challenges in parameterising a copula including how allowance may be made for tail dependence. It also covers the challenges associated with fitting and validating a proxy model. In particular, the paper outlines how insurers could test, communicate and justify the choices made through the use of some examples.
To identify the common causal beliefs of mental illness in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian community and describe the sociodemographic associations to said beliefs. The factor structure to the causal beliefs scale is explored. The causal beliefs relating to five different mental illnesses (alcohol abuse, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), dementia and schizophrenia) and desire for social distance are also investigated.
Data from 3006 participants from a nationwide vignette-based study on mental health literacy were analysed using factor analysis and multiple logistic regression to address the aims. Participants answered questions related to sociodemographic information, causal beliefs of mental illness and their desire for social distance towards those with mental illness.
Physical causes, psychosocial causes and personality causes were endorsed by the sample. Sociodemographic differences including ethnic, gender and age differences in causal beliefs were found in the sample. Differences in causal beliefs were shown across different mental illness vignettes though psychosocial causes was the most highly attributed cause across vignettes (endorsed by 97.9% of respondents), followed by personality causes (83.5%) and last, physical causes (37%). Physical causes were more likely to be endorsed for OCD, depression and schizophrenia. Psychosocial causes were less often endorsed for OCD. Personality causes were less endorsed for dementia but more associated with depression.
The factor structure of the causal beliefs scale is not entirely the same as that found in previous research. Further research on the causal beliefs endorsed by Southeast Asian communities should be conducted to investigate other potential causes such as biogenetic factors and spiritual/supernatural causes. Mental health awareness campaigns should address causes of mental illness as a topic. Lay beliefs in the different causes must be acknowledged and it would be beneficial for the public to be informed of the causes of some of the most common mental illnesses in order to encourage help-seeking and treatment compliance.
Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is the cohesive phase in cement paste and critically controls the cement hydration. Atomistic models can reproduce reasonable structural and mechanical properties of C-S-H gel at the nano scale. However, the length and time scale of such all-atom modeling technique are restrained by limited computing power. Under this context, coarse-grained modeling technique emerges as a useful alternative for investigating cement paste at extended length and time scale. Here, we regard the building block of cement as ellipsoid and develop a coarse-grained model of cement matrix based on the Gay-Berne (GB) potential. Emphasis of the present paper is on the parameterization and interpretation of the GB potential formula.
Ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 layers in Si by MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) implantation has been performed under various conditions. The formation and characteristics of these CoSi2 layers have been studied by XTEM, RBS, AFM, X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, electrical and Hall effect measurements. It was found that a higher substrate temperature during implantation results in an as-implanted Co distribution closer to the surface and hence the formation of a shallower CoSi2 layer after annealing. Buried CoSi2 layers of good crystal quality and low resistivity CoSi2 can be formed by MEVVA implantation and annealing under appropriate conditions. A strong temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient showing a large peak at around 100K was observed for the CoSi2 layers formed in p-type Si substrates but not in n-type substrates. The properties and their dependence on the processing conditions, in particular, the substrate temperature during implantation, are presented and discussed.
Natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds for potential
load-bearing bone implants were fabricated by two methods. The natural
scaffolds were formed by heating bovine cancellous bone at 1325°C, which
removed the organic and sintered the HA. The synthetic scaffolds were
prepared by freeze-casting HA powders, using different solid loadings (20–35
vol.%) and cooling rates (1–10°C/min). Both types of scaffolds were
infiltrated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The porosity, pore size, and
compressive mechanical properties of the natural and synthetic scaffolds
were investigated and compared to that of natural cortical and cancellous
bone. Prior to infiltration, the sintered cancellous scaffolds exhibited
pore sizes of 100 – 300 μm, a strength of 0.4 – 9.7 MPa, and a Young’s
modulus of 0.1 – 1.2 GPa. The freeze-casted scaffolds had pore sizes of 10 –
50 μm, strengths of 0.7 – 95.1 MPa, and Young’s moduli of 0.1 –19.2 GPa.
When infiltrated with PMMA, the cancellous bone- PMMA composite showed a
strength of 55 MPa and a Young’s modulus of 4.5 GPa. Preliminary data for
the synthetic HA-PMMA composite showed a strength of 42 MPa and a modulus of
The pixel cross-talk is investigated in two-dimensional amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) imager arrays based on the new high fill factor design. In this configuration a continuous a-Si:H sensor extends over the whole surface of the imager, and a buried insulator material with low dielectric constant is used to separate the sensor from the underlying active matrix readout circuit. We find that the lateral conduction between neighboring pixels is mainly determined by the quality of the buried insulator-sensor interface, rather than the specific buried material itself. Minimum cross-talk values below 1% are obtained for different insulator materials including silicon oxynitride and thicker polymer based resins. The quality of this interface also affects trapping and recombination of the photogenerated carriers, influencing important imager properties such as sensitivity and image lag.
We report studies of the image-blur effects caused by lateral cross-talk between neighboring pixels of large-area amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) image sensors. The lateral conduction is attributed to three effects: conduction along the interface between the a-Si:H film and the underlying passivation; field-dependent electron injection at the edge of the sensor; and a field enhancement of the interface conduction due to the bias applied to the address lines. We show that the cross-talk can be controlled by choice of the operating conditions and optimization of the materials.
Pulsed Excimer-Laser Annealing (ELA) has become an important technology to produce high performance, poly-Si Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) for large area electronics. The much-improved performance of these poly-Si TFTs over the conventional hydrogenated amorphous Si TFTs enables the possibility of building next generation flat panel imagers with higher-level integration and better noise performance. Both the on-glass integration of peripheral driver electronics to reduce the cost of interconnection and the integration of a pixel level amplifier to improve the noise performance of large area imagers have been demonstrated and are discussed in this paper.
Phase-change wax-based printed masks were used to fabricate a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) in place of conventional lithography. Wax-mask features with a minimum feature size of ∼20 [.proportional]m was achieved using an acoustic-ink-printing process. Bottom-gate TFTs with source-drain contacts overlapping the channel were created using a four-mask process. The TFTs have I-V characteristics comparable to photolithographically patterned devices, with mobility of 0.6-1 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage of 2-3 V, and on/off ratios exceeding 107, for devices with channel lengths below 50[.proportional]m.
Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of exciton transitions has been utilized to obtain information about light-holes in strained InGaAs/GaAs single quantum wells. By monitoring their behavior with respect to that of heavy-holes, it was shown possible to ascertain whether or not the quantum wells were pseudomorphic (lattice matched but strained) or relaxed and, if strained, the magnitude of strain present. Thus the indium composition of the single QW layers was deduced. This method is advantageous since it is nondestructive, requires no special sample preparation, is accurate and can readily be extended to monitoring strain in QWs subjected to various processing steps associated with device fabrication.
Thin film interactions between a-(Ni-Nb) and polycrystalline Au over-layers have been studied with high depth resolution (≤1.7nm) Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and TEM to obtain information on the early stages of reaction at the interface. The RBS spectra from Au indicated that the interdiffused samples consisted of two layers: an Au-Nb binary layer on the surface and a ternary Au-Ni-Nb compound layer beneath the binary layer. The growth kinetics of the ternary compound layer differed in samples which had been relaxed prior to Au deposition from the kinetics for unrelaxed samples. Furthermore, cross section TEM micrographs showed that relaxed and unrelaxed samples exhibit different microstructures after the early stages, of annealing. We interpret this result to indicate that the reaction stages in relaxed samples are not as advanced as those in the unrelaxed samples.
When silane, with more than 0.1% of diborane in the gas mixture, are co-pyrolyzed at temperatures below 540°C, an amorphous silicon-boron alloy is formed. The composition of the solid film was determined by SINS and Auger spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the films was established by X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and TEM electron diffraction. Electrical and optical properties of this material are reported. Oxidation and chemical etching of this material were also studied.
Interdiffusion, reactions and microstructure in Ti-Cu-Ti trilayer thin films deposited on silicon wafers have been investigated by Rutherford backscattering, and cross-sectional TEM techniques in the temperature range of 350 to 500 °C. The formation of intcrmetallic compounds was found to be symmetric at both interfaces in Ti-Cu-Ti film package. TiCu compound formed first at low temperature and was followed by TiCu3 at higher temperatures. The stress in Ti-Cu film has also been measured in-situ as functions of both temperature and annealing time by thin fused quartz bending-cantilever beam technique. The stress in metallic Ti-Cu film couple on fused quartz was tensile. The stress increased as both annealing time and temperature increased and followed a parabolic relationship with time due to the growth of the intermetallic compound TiCu3 It was possible to calculate stress in the TiCu3 layer from the changes of stress in the bilayer thin film. The stress in TiCu3 was computed to be at about 3 times larger than the stress in the unreacted Ti-Cu thin film couple.
The acquisition of RHEED oscillation information on (100) GaAs substrates is described for use in the growth of “lattice-matched] Iny (AlxGa1−x)1-Y As layers on (100) InP substrates with 0.52 < y < 0.53 and 0.00 < x < 1.00. The observed frequency of the RHEED oscillations on GaAs is the same as on InP, however, the measured lattice parameters of the grown layers are less than that of InP. The x-ray diffraction images show that the misfit dislocations perpendicular to the primary flats of 2” round (100) InP wafers are denser than the parallel ones. Photoluminescence (at 10K) and photoreflectance (at 300K) measurements on a composite layer structure of x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 clearly show six distinct peaks with narrow FWHMs of less than 20 meV. The measured bandgaps increase linearly with the Al content.
The interfacial reactions and microstructures of metal-GaAs contacts are, in general, much more complicated and difficult to control than the corresponding metal-Si contacts. They are very sensitive to reaction temperature, ambient, metal layer thickness, and the GaAs surface cleaning procedure. Many of the ohmic and gate contacts to GaAs currently in use or under development for GaAs FET devices are comprised of more than one metal species and in some cases a doping element as well. In dealing with these complexities, information about the microstructure at the contact interface is critically needed: for the evaluation of a specific contact metallurgy, for the definition of an optimum fabrication process, and, most important of all, for generating new ideas for better contact schemes. In this paper, our TEM and STEM studies of several ohmic and gate contacts that are of technological interest will be described. Attention will be drawn to the link between the interfacial microstructures and their electrical behavior, the kinetics of interfacial reactions, and thermal stability. The current constraints on obtaining ideal, reliable and controllable metal-GaAs contacts will also be discussed.
The interaction of Ti with A12O3 under UHV conditions has been studied by AES and UPS. Ti was deposited by iterated and successively thicker evaporations (up to a total thickness of 91 Å) under UHV conditions onto the alumina substrate at room temperature. The oxide substrate was grown on Al/Si(111) in an adjacent VHV preparation chamber. The last deposition was followed by in situ annealing. It was found that, contrary to indications of thermodynamic considerations using bulk equilibrium data, Ti interacts strongly with alumina at room temperature, dissociating it to metallic Al and forming TiO2 at the interface. This reaction is limited, resulting in an interface width of ∼10 Å and allowing subsequent evaporations to homogeneously cover the products. Annealing to 500°C does not produce any evidence of outdiffusion or extensive interface reactions, implying that the interface oxide is stable and an effective barrier to Al (and/or Ti) diffusion up to this temperature.