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SiO maser emission from the Bulge IRAS sources has been searched by the v=1, J=1−0 and v=2, J=1—0 transitions to investigate the kinematics of the Galactic Bulge, resulting in a sample of 124 line-of-sight velocities. The rotation velocity, velocity dispersion, and velocity offset at l = 0° for the sample are found to be , and —18.2±9.7 km s−1, respectively (80% confidence interval). Furthermore we find trends for the rotation velocity and velocity dispersion to decrease with distance from the galactic plane. These trends are supported by a larger sample constructed by incorporating other available velocity data on the Bulge IRAS sources. The rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are expressed as 15.6—1.23x|b(deg)| km s−1 deg−1 and 101−3.6x |b(deg)| km s−1, respectively. The implications of the observed quantities are discussed.
The maser emission of the J = 1-0 lines of SiO in vibrationally excited states has been detected in two regions of massive star formation, W51 IRS2 and Sgr B2 MD5. The SiO masers apparently coincide with strong H2O masers in each source within the uncertainties of < 5″. Their velocity ranges fall within those of the nearest H2O masers (Figure 1). In W51 IRS2 the maser emission is observed only in the v = 2 state, and the upper limit of the v = 1 line (3σ) is 1/15th of the v = 2 line intensity. The v = 1 emission found in Sgr B2 MD5 is five times stronger than the marginally detected v = 2 emission (Figure 2). Their luminosities are comparable to those from the corresponding maser in Orion.
CRL2688 is suggested to be one of the proto-planetary nebulae which are probably at a stage in which the central star is evolving from the red giant phase with rapid mass loss (Zuckerman 1978). The bipolar shape in both the optical and H2 emission indicates that a dense toroid of dust and gas obscures the star and surrounds the optical emission. The toroid is probably responsible for channelling the mass loss to the polar directions (Ney et al. 1975, Morris 1981, Beckwith et al. 1984). We present the results of mapping observations of CO (J = 1-0) emission from the expanding molecular envelope (Zuckerman et al. 1976, Lo et al. 1976, Knapp et al. 1982, Thronson et al. 1983) of the bipolar reflection nebula CRL2688 using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope with a 1.5″ resolution at a 7″.5 observing spacing.
A backend processor has been constracted which is a pipeline for calculating the gravitational force exerted on one particle from the rest in an astrophysical many-body system (Sugimoto et al. '90). The first version of the processor, GRAPE-1 (GRAvity PipE), was designed with 8 bits floating point format for use in collision-free systems (Ito et al. '90). It is in operation at the speed of 120M flops equivalent.
We have made high resolution (2-5″) CO observations of seven IR luminous (LIR > 1011 LO) galaxies. They are Arp220, Mrk231, NGC6240, NGC6090, NGC695, Mrk331 and NGC828. We can resolve CO emission from all the galaxies but Mrk231 (figure 1).
We present our recent results of high spatial resolution(2″-6″) CO and 13CO(J=1−0) observations with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array(NMA). We observed the central (1-2 kpc) regions of nearby galaxies, IC342, Maffei2, and NGC6946 with 2″-4″ resolution (45-90 pc) in CO and 13CO, and the 3' region of M51 with 4″-6″ resolution (180-280 pc). We discuss the structures and kinematics of molecular gas in the central region of nearby late-type spiral galaxies, and in spiral arms, and discuss the trigger of star formation from viewpoints of galactic shock, gas fueling by bars.
The distribution of H2O masers in the Sgr B2 core was observed with a 2.5′×2.5′ wide field and with 540 km s−1 total velocity coverage by the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Thirty-nine resolved maser spots were detected with a relative positional accuracy of 0.3″, which are clustered into four separate regions. In Sgr B2 north, the cluster lies at the edge of the continuum ridge. One of the maser spots shows strong and wide velocity-spread emission, suggesting it may correspond to a center of star forming activity. In Sgr B2 main, the strong maser spots are projected just on the face of a compact HII region, and are red-shifted relative to the central velocity of the HII region. There are two possibilities to interpret our results in Sgr B2 (M). One is that the H2O maser spots are distributed around the HII region and are infailing to the HII region. The other is that the H2O maser sources are associated with the cloud in the foreground of the HII region.
We report NH3 observations of the Sgr A complex region including Sgr A West and the 20 km/s and 50 km/s molecular clouds (M–0.13–0.08 and M–0.02–0.07) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the 45m telescope. NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines were simultaneously observed to estimate the kinetic temperature. Our results suggest strong interaction between the molecular clouds and the continuum sources in the Sgr A complex. The interaction with continuum sources might be an important factor in determining the physical conditions of molecular gas in the galactic center region.
We have done a CO(1-0) imaging survey of the central regions of nearby spiral galaxies using the Nobeyama and Owens Valley Millimeter Arrays. The survey aims to reveal the nuclear gas properties in normal galaxies that have been paid relatively little attention compared to Seyferts, mergers, and ultraluminous IRAS galaxies. The sample consists of 20 galaxies that meet the following criteria: (1) i < 70° (2) δ > +5° (3) ICOdV ≥ 10 K(T∗A)km s−1 in the FCRAO Extragalactic CO Survey (4) no evidence of significant perturbation (e.g. merging). No selection was made on the basis of nuclear activity or IRAS data. The average distance of the galaxies is 15 Mpc and the average linear resolution is 300 pc.
We have made aperture synthesis observations of CS(J=l-0, 2-1) and NH3(1,1) lines and 49, 98, and 110 GHz continuum in NGC2071-1RS with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Wfe have obtained maps of these lines and continuum maps with 2”. 7-20” resolution, ffe have found that dense molecular gas has a disk structure with a radial scale ranging 0.01 pc - 0.1 pc and has a ring-like structure with expanding motion at the central 5000 AU region. We also have found that there exists double dust continuum sources which are separated by 2500 AU in projection and are apparently located at the inner edges of the ring. Our observational results suggest that the disk of molecular gas has a central hole formed by wind and UV radiation from a central young stellar object, the central part is expanding, and that dust continuum emission comes from tangential parts of the shock compressed ring (r~1300 AU, M(H2)~ 21-34 Mo, and n(H2)~ 109) at the most inner side of the disk structure. The other possible model of the dust continuum sources is a binary system of self-luminous young stellar objects.
We made aperture synthesis CO(l-O) observations of the central region of Arp220 with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Central CO emission was resolved with a size of 975 kpc. It shows a ring-like structure (ɪ ~ 500 pc) with a large velocity gradient, 393 km · s−1 · kpc−1, from southwest to northeast direction. The ring-like emission is located around double radio compact sources. No emission peak was found in the center of the double sources within the velocity range 5100 km s−1to 5800 km s−1. These results suggest that an inclined massive gas ring has been or is being formed in the central 1 kpc of Arp220. Most of the molecular gas in Arp220 is concentrated on this nuclear ring. The radio compact sources are probably located at the inner egde of the ring.
In Japan, there is a plan for Large Millimeter Array proposed by Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The proposed array may consist of 50 10-m antennas distributed in a 2 − 3 km area at very high altitude. In this paper, scientific directions, planned system, and site survey for the LMA are reported.
Positron annihilation and electron spin resonance (ESR) have been used to study defects introduced by lMeV electron irradiation in n-type cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) epitaxially grown on Si by chemical vapor deposition. Positron annihilation measurements by using variable-energy positron beams indicated the narrowing of the Doppler-broadened energy spectrum of annihilation gamma-rays and the decrease in the effective diffusion length of positrons with increasing the electron fluence. These results show the formation of vacancy-type defects in 3C-SiC. An ESR spectrum labeled T1, which has an isotropie g-value of 2.0029±0.0001, was observed in electron irradiated 3C-SiC. The T1 spectrum is interpreted by hyperfine interactions of paramagnetic electrons with 13C at four carbon sites and 29Si at twelve silicon sites, leads that the Tl center results from a point defect at a silicon sublattice site. The production rate of the Tl center was in good agreement with the carrier removal rate, indicating that the Tl center captures an electron from the conduction band. All these results are accounted for by the introduction of negatively charged vacancies at silicon sublattice sites in 3C-SiC by the irradiation.
The Kennicutt-Schmidt law (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998, hereafter K-S law) is a power law correlation between area averaged star formation rate (ΣSFR) and gas surface density (Σgas). Despite its importance, the physics that underlie this correlation has remained unclear. The power law index, N, is a prime discriminator of the mechanisms that regulate star formation and form the K-S law (e.g. Leroy et al. 2008; Tan 2010). We present a study of the resolved K-S law for 10 nearby disk galaxies using our new CO(1-0) data at 750 and 500 pc resolutions. The CO(1-0) line emission is established as a tracer of the molecular gas column density, and results in a super-linear correlation (N = 1.3 and 1.8). We discuss the cause of the discrepancy between previous studies, and the mechanism of star formation indicated from our new results.
Optical properties of fully-strained wurtzite and zincblende InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were compared to discuss the origin of exciton localization. In contrast to the hexagonal InGaN MQWs, the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of cubic InGaN MQWs showed a moderate blueshift with decreasing well thickness, L, and low-temperature PL decay time of the cubic MQWs did not depend strongly on L. The results imply that the wavefunction overlap in cubic InGaN MQWs was not reduced compared to the hexagonal ones, since they do not suffer from the electric field normal to the QW plane due either to spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization. Both MQWs exhibited a large and composition-dependent bandgap bowing, and time-resolved PL (TR-PL) signals showed a stretched-exponential decay even at room temperature. The exciton localization is considered to be an intrinsic property of InGaN.
Lattice polarities and film qualities of GaN grown by rf-MBE were investigated concentrating on the use of different buffer layer processes at the initial stage. Direct clarifying by coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectra technique, together with RHEED and chemical wet etching, were applied to identify the lattice polarity of GaN films. XRD rocking curve and photoluminescence results showed that the qualities of GaN films with Ga-polarity were dramatic improved compared to those with N-polarity. Hall effect measurement results indicated that the mobility of the Ga-face film was increased to one order higher (568 cm2/Vs in maximum at room temperature) than that of N-face one.
This paper reports heterojunction photodiode properties and its application to a compact scanner. The photodiode has ITO / p-a-SiC:H / a-Si:H / metal structure. This diode has high photo to dark current ratio and small photocurrent saturation voltage, because of the excellent blocking characteristics for a heterojunction with large built in potential. Moreover, a-Si:H / metal contact has been investigated. A contact linear image sensor has been fabricated using the heterojunction photodiode array and compact optical system. Performance tests showed excellent results. Good reproduced images have been obtained.
Deep levels in the annealed low-temperature molecular beam epitaxial (LT-MBE) GaAs layer were successfully characterized by using the capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) as well as photocapacitance quenching technique in combination with a unique sample structure. In this work, we have fabricated the samples by inserting the LT-GaAs layer into two n-type semi-conductive layers, like a sandwich (n-LT-n structure), grown at normal substrate temperatures. DLTS measurements have revealed that one electron trap dominates the annealed LT-MBE GaAs. The dominant electron trap was very similar to the so-called EL3 level. Moreover, we found the midgap level appeared upon 800-900°C RTA, although no midgap level was detected in the as-grown n-LT-n sample (annealed at 620°C) and confirmed with photoquenching measurements that it is the EL2 level.
Deep-level formation upon plasma hydrogenation has been studied with n-GaAs grown by various methods. Four electron traps (EH0-EH3) were generated in As-rich n-GaAs crystals. No electron traps were observed in the LPE layer before and after hydrogenation. The hydrogen as well as excess arsenic defects are responsible for the formation of these deep levels. Two of the generated levels in our study, EH0/EH2, exhibit metastability and are identical to the M3/M4 levels reported by Buchwald et al. It can be speculated that both diffused hydrogen and already existing As antisite defects are responsible for the generation of the metastable defects.
Photoemission spectra (XPS and UPS) of As-covered Si (001) surfaces prepared at high (>600ºC) and low (<450ºC) temperatures and GaAs epilayers subsequently grown on them were measured without exposing to air. It was found that the surface electronic structures of As/Si prepared at the low temperature are different from those of the high temperature sample, the spectra of which can be interpreted as a symmetric dimer model. Differences were also observed between the GaAs epilayers on the As—covered Si surfaces prepared at the high and low temperatures. The temperature dependence of the surface and interface structures are discussed.