A survey was conducted in Tororo, Bugiri and Kapchorwa districts in eastern and northeastern Uganda on farmers' perceptions of constraints in maize production. Farmers in Tororo and Bugiri consistently ranked stemborers and striga as the major production constraints in maize growing, while those in Kapchorwa ranked stemborers and lack of capital as the most important. Approximately 35 and 40% of the farmers in Tororo and Bugiri, respectively, identified stemborers as the ‘caterpillar’ that destroys their maize. In Kapchorwa, 50% of the farmers identified stemborers. Pesticide application was the most common control measure while the use of indigenous and cultural control measures was limited. Less than 50% of the farmers were aware of the existence of alternative plants/grasses on which stemborers feed. This study identified the need for creating farmers' awareness on the biology and ecology of stemborers. Empowering farmers by letting them learn and experiment will facilitate the development of innovative control measures.