A study to compare the effects of different frequencies of targeted chemotherapy with levamisole (Ketrax: JAGAL Pharma, Lagos, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals UK) as an action for the control of Ascaris lumbricoides was carried out in 3 communities in rural Oyo State, Nigeria. The targeted group comprised children, aged 5 to 15 years, attending primary school within their village. Treatment was provided within the school with the assistance of the school teachers. Three frequencies of targeted treatment were offered. In one village targeted treatment was provided on 1 occasion in 1 year, in another village at two 6-monthly intervals and in the third village every 4 months. Prevalence and intensity (e.p.g.) of A. lumbricoides infection were determined immediately before and after the period of intervention using a modified Kato–Katz technique. In the villages which received treatment once and at 6-monthly intervals, a reduction in post-treatment intensity of A. lumbricoides was observed in the total population but this failed to attain statistical significance. In contrast, within the village which received 4-monthly targeted chemotherapy, a significant reduction in post-treatment intensity of A. lumbricoides was observed in the total population and in the targeted children. In general, reductions in the intensity of A. lumbricoides after intervention were not particularly pronounced in untreated children (aged 0–4 years) even in the 4-monthly targeted village, whereas in untreated adults, reductions approached statistical significance in villages which received targeted treatment once and at 4-monthly intervals.