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Astronomy is rapidly approaching an impasse: very large datasets require remote or cloud-based parallel processing, yet many astronomers still try to download the data and develop serial code locally. Astronomers understand the need for change, but the hurdles remain high. We are developing a data archive designed from the ground up to simplify and encourage cloud-based parallel processing. While the volume of data we host remains modest by some standards, it is still large enough that download and processing times are measured in days and even weeks. We plan to implement a python based, notebook-like interface that automatically parallelises execution. Our goal is to provide an interface sufficiently familiar and user-friendly that it encourages the astronomer to run their analysis on our system in the cloud—astroinformatics as a service. We describe how our system addresses the approaching impasse in astronomy using the SAMI Galaxy Survey as an example.
The health status of the Irish Traveller ethnic minority is low compared to the general population in Ireland in terms of infant mortality rates and life expectancies. Respiratory disease is an area of health disparity manifested as excess mortalities in Traveller males and females. In this study, we examined the available data with regard to tuberculosis (TB) notifications in Ireland from 2002 to 2013. We found an increase in TB notifications in Irish Travellers from 2010 onwards. This resulted in a crude incidence rate for TB in Irish Travellers that was approximately threefold higher than that of the white Irish-born population in 2011 and 2012. An outbreak of TB in Irish Travellers in 2013 increased this differential further, but when outbreak-linked cases were excluded, a higher incidence rate was still observed in Irish Travellers relative to the general population and to white Irish-born. The mean age of a TB patient was 26 years in Irish Travellers compared to 43 years in the general population, and 49 years in white Irish-born. Based on available data, Irish Travellers exhibit a higher incidence rate and younger age distribution of TB compared to white Irish-born and the general population. These observations emphasize the importance of routine use of ethnicity identifiers in the management of TB and other notifiable communicable illnesses in Ireland. They also have implications for the orientation of preventive services to address health disparities in Irish Travellers and other ethnic minority groups.
We are finally entering an era where radial velocity and direct imaging parameter spaces are starting to overlap. Radial velocity measurements provide us with a minimum mass for an orbiting companion (the mass as a function of the inclination of the system). By following up these long period radial velocity detections with direct imaging we can determine whether a trend seen is due to an orbiting planet at low inclination or an orbiting brown dwarf at high inclination. In the event of a non-detection we are still able to put a limit on the maximum mass of the orbiting body. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search is one of the longest baseline radial velocity planet searches in existence, amongst its targets are many that show long period trends in the data. Here we present our direct imaging survey of these objects with our results to date. ADI Observations have been made using NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) on Gemini South and analysed using an in house, LOCI-like, post processing.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that growth restriction and preeclampsia (referred to as fetal risk) are significant predictors of these conditions, with women at higher risk in adulthood. Adult offspring exposed to fetal risk factors and their discordant siblings were from two prenatal cohorts, whose mothers were followed through pregnancy and whom we recruited as adults 40 years later (n = 538; 250 males and 288 females). Subjects were psychiatrically diagnosed and underwent a stress challenge during which parasympathetic regulation was assessed by electrocardiogram, operationalized as high-frequency R-R interval variability (HF-RRV). Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of fetal risk on HF-RRV, MDD and comorbidity of low HF-RRV (lowest 25th percentile) and MDD, including interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Fetal risk was significantly associated with low HF-RRV response (F = 3.64, P = 0.05), particularly among low SES (interaction: F = 4.31, P < 0.04). When stratified by MDD, the fetal risk impact was three times greater among MDD compared with non-MDD subjects (effect size: 0.21 v. 0.06). Females had a significantly higher risk for the comorbidity of MDD and low HF-RRV than males (relative risk (RR) = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73), an association only seen among those exposed to fetal risk (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.83). Findings suggest that these are shared fetal antecedents to the comorbidity of MDD and CVD risk 40 years later, an association stronger in females than in males.
We present the first results from the MultiSite Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) observations of the sdBV star PG 1605+072. Pulsating sdB stars (V361 Hya stars) offer the chance to gain new insights into the formation and evolution of extreme Horizontal Branch stars using the tools of asteroseismology. PG 1605+072 is an outstanding object in its class, with the richest frequency spectrum, the longest periods, and the largest variations. The MSST campaign took place in 2002 May/June and we present here the massive data set, made up of 399 hr of photometry and 151 hr of spectroscopy. The overall aims of the project are to examine light/velocity amplitude ratios and phase differences, changes in equivalent width/line index, and λ-dependence of photometric amplitudes, and to use these properties for mode identification.
We present the initial results of an abundance analysis of echelle UV spectra of 5 hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars, which form part of a study to test pulsation and diffusion calculations. SdB stars have been identified as core helium-burning objects on the extreme Horizontal Branch. Around 5% of sdB stars show short-period acoustic mode oscillations, which models predict are due to an opacity bump caused by the ionisation of iron group elements. The necessary metal abundance has to be maintained by diffusive equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative levitation. However, analyses of high resolution optical spectra has revealed that we cannot discriminate between pulsating and non-pulsating sdB stars on the basis of the surface iron abundance. Our initial analysis of HST/STIS observations of 3 pulsators and 2 non-pulsators in the near and far UV suggests this may also be the case for other iron group elements, although further work will be needed to verify this.
Events in the aerodynamic development of the multi-service V-22 Osprey tiltrotor are reviewed, with emphasis on recent flight test findings and the solutions developed. A discussion of the performance in the USMC, Navy and SOCOM missions is presented.
Meconium ileus (MI) is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in the newborn accounting for 9–33% of neonatal intestinal obstructions. It is the earliest clinical manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF), occurring in approximately 16% of patients with CF. However, MI has been reported in the absence of CF.
The relation between soil mechanical impedance as a result of soil drying, and root system growth (mass and length density) of rice was investigated in greenhouse and field studies. In a greenhouse experiment, soil drying for 16 days increased mechanical impedance in the 0–20 cm soil layer from near 0 to 2.5 MPa, and decreased root growth by 47% compared to the continuously flooded control. Root length density decreased with decreasing soil moisture and increasing soil mechanical impedance. In a lowland field experiment using a sprinkler irrigation gradient treatment for 19 days during the vegetative growth stage, soil mechanical impedance as low as 0.01 MPa inhibited root growth while values greater than 0.3–0.5 MPa decreased root growth and extension by 75%. The relative loss of potential root growth was continued after reflooding. Root length density, measured at flowering, was linearly related to yield.
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