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Various kinds of compounds containing arsenic have been used in the world as rat poisons, agricultural chemicals and so on. In the field of semiconductor materials, AsH3 is used as a doping gas on silieon-wafer substrates and GaAs is now also investigated as a wafer substrate instead of Si wafer.
As for quantitative analysis of arsenic, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) have often been used. In these methods, usually, oomplioated pretreatments such as preconcentration and separation have been needed in order to obtain reproducible values for arsenic.
A new procedure for indirect determination of pharmaceutical drugs is presented. The procedure consists of extracting ion pairs between organic basic compounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs and cobalt tetrathiocyanate and of determining Co contents in the organic extraction phase using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Quinine, papaverine and pilocarpine are used as pharmaceutical drugs and 1,2-dichloroethane is adopted as extraction medium. Quinine cobalt tetrathiocyanate complex was isolated and was analyzed by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy) suggested that approximately 4 ng of quinine could be detected by 1 μl of sampling of organic phase under ideal conditions using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These drugs have their own optimal pH for extraction. This technique can be applied to cocaine analysis.
We identified ikaite crystals (CaCO3·6H2O) and examined their shape and size distribution in first-year Arctic pack ice, overlying snow and slush layers during the spring melt onset north of Svalbard. Additional measurements of total alkalinity (TA) were made for melted snow and sea-ice samples. Ikaite crystals were mainly found in the bottom of the snowpack, in slush and the surface layers of the sea ice where the temperature was generally lower and salinity higher than in the ice below. Image analysis showed that ikaite crystals were characterized by a roughly elliptical shape and a maximum caliper diameter of 201.0±115.9 μm (n = 918). Since the ice-melting season had already started, ikaite crystals may already have begun to dissolve, which might explain the lack of a relationship between ikaite crystal size and sea-ice parameters (temperature, salinity, and thickness of snow and ice). Comparisons of salinity and TA profiles for melted ice samples suggest that the precipitation/dissolution of ikaite crystals occurred at the top of the sea ice and the bottom of the snowpack during ice formation/melting processes.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Massive stars in a certain mass range (20 – 40M⊙) may form low mass black holes after supernova explosions. In such massive stars, fall back of ~ 0.1M⊙ materials onto a black hole is expected due to a deep gravitational potential or a reverse shock propagating back from the outer composition interface. We study hydrodynamical disk accretion onto a new-born low mass black hole in a supernova using the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method.
High integrity SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack has been demonstrated for GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The SiO2 film formed on GaN by the microwave-excited plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) exhibits good properties compared that by the LP (Low Pressure)-CVD. Then, by incorporating the advantages of both of SiO2 with a high insulating and Al2O3 with good interface characteristics, the SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack structure has been employed in GaN MOS devices. The structure shows a low interface state density between gate insulator and GaN, a high breakdown field, and a large charge-to-breakdown by applying 3-nm Al2O3. The SiO2/Al2O3 gate stack has also been applied to AlGaN/GaN hybrid MOS heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) and the HFET shows excellent properties with the threshold voltage of 4.2 V and the maximum field-effect mobility of 192 cm2/Vs.
The genus Saltisedes Kubota, 1944 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae: Tmesiphorini) is redefined and three new species are described and illustrated: S. hainanensis Yin and Nomura, new species (China), S. kojimai Nomura and Yin, new species (Japan), and S. yahiroi Nomura and Yin, new species (Malaysia). Saltisedes brunneus Kubota, 1944 (Japan), the only previously known species is redescribed. Stethotaphrus Newton and Chandler is placed as a junior synonym of Saltisedes, the placement results in the following new combinations: Saltisedes clavatus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes hamotoides (Schaufuss, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes javanicus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes longispina (Raffray, 1903), new combination, and Saltisedes weiri (Chandler, 2001), new combination. A list of known Saltisedes species is included and a key to the species from continental Asia and Japan is presented.
Multimillion-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the mechanisms which control heat-initiated oxidation in aluminum nanoparticles. The simulation results reveal three stages: (1) confined burning, (2) onset of deformation, and (3) onset of small cluster ejections. The first stage of the reaction is localized primarily at the core-shell boundary, where oxidation reactions result in strong local heating and the increased migration of oxygen from the shell into the core. When the local temperature rises above the melting point of alumina (T=2330K), the melting of the shell allows deformation of the overall particle and an increase in heat production. Finally, once the particle temperature exceeds 2800-3000 K, small aluminum-rich clusters are ejected from the outside of the shell. The underlying mechanisms were explored using global and radial statistical analysis, as well as developed visualization techniques and localized fragment analysis.
The three-stage reaction mechanism found here provides insight into the controlling factors of aluminum nanoparticle oxidation, a topic of considerable importance in the energetic materials community.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Growth of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) crystals both on the MgO and the YBCO substrates has been investigated in order to clarify the growth mechanism of the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process for the coated conductor. It was found that the slope angle of the growth grain varied with growing in the initial stage of the LPE growth. In the case of the MgO substrate, the slope angle increased with laterally growing the crystal. On the other hand, the slope angle decreased with growing the crystal in the case of the YBCO substrate. This phenomenon with the opposite tendency could be explained by considering the difference in the step-advancing rates between on the MgO and the YBCO surfaces. It was found that the deep and steep valley of the LPE grains due to the slow step-advancing rate on the MgO is the origin of the flux trapping inclusions. It is necessary that the seed films should cover the entire MgO surface without undesired orientation grains and impurity particles in order to obtain the high quality LPE layer.
Carrier transport properties and electronic structure of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, were investigated using single-crystalline thin films. Room-temperature Hall mobility strongly depends on carrier concentration, and rapidly increased from ∼ 2 cm2(Vs)-1 to > 10 cm2(Vs)-1 around the carrier concentration (Nth ∼3 × 1018 cm−3. This change is associatedwith insulator-metal transition. These results are explained by a model similar to Anderson localization, in which shallow semi-localized states are formed originating from random distribution of Ga3+ and Zn2+ ions in the intrinsic crystal structure of InGaO3(ZnO)5. The present conclusion suggests that electron densities larger than Nth are necessary to attain high performances in drift carrier devices fabricated using InGaO3(ZnO)5. It was demonstrated that transparent filed-effect transistors exhibited good performances such as a “normally-offcharacteristics”, an on/off current ratios as large as 105 and a field-effect mobility ∼80 cm2(Vs)-1when high-k material, amorphous HfOx, was used as a gate insulator.
A novel characterization method is applied to study the evolution of microstructures during densification of silicon nitride ceramics. This characterization method involves an immersion liquid for making green and sintered bodies transparent, and a subsequent direct optical microscopic examination. Granules were prepared with the spray drying processand formed into green bodies by CIP. After sintering at various temperatures, the specimens were examined for microstructural evolution. Large pores were located at the center and boundary regions of granules left in the green bodies; they were not removed by densification and resulted in large pores in the sintered body, possibly forming fracture origin in ceramics.
SiO2 thin firms were fabricated in a remote electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma by tctraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silicon source. Oxygen was used as the plasma gas. A mesh was placed between the TEOS gas outlet and the substrate. In the present investigation a-SiO2 films were deposited with and without the mesh and film properties were studied comparatively. The deposition rate increased when the mesh was attached. The optimum deposition rate is observed when the mesh voltage was zero, that is the mesh was grounded. The deposition rates of both methods were also dependnt on the TEOS flow rate, applied microwave power and the substrate temperature. These three parameters have significant roles in controlling the film quality. Good quality SiO2 films can be obtained with a higher deposition rate when a mesh is attached.
In this paper, new synthetic routes have been investigated for the preparation of Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer membranes consisting of SiO2 /PTMO(polytetramethylene oxide) hybrids and novel proton conducting materials. These materials have been synthesized through sol-gel processes in flexible, ductile, free-standing thin membrane form. The hybrid membrane has been found to be thermally stable up to 160 C and possesses proton conductivities of approximately 10−4 S/cm from a room temperature to 160 C.
We have developed a novel growth method for single-crystalline film of natural superlattice oxides and named the method “Reactive Solid-Phase Epitaxy (R-SPE).” Single-crystalline thin films of homologous series In-GaO3(ZnO)m (m=integer) are fabricated by the R-SPE method and its growth mechanism, especially a role of ZnO epitaxial layer, is clarified. High-temperature annealing of bi-layer films consisting of an amorphous InGaO3(ZnO)5 layer deposited at room temperature and an epitaxial ZnO layer on YSZ substrate allows for the growth of single-crystalline film with a controlled chemical composition. The ZnO layer plays an essential role in determining the crystallographic orientation, while the thickness ratio between the two layers controls the film composition.
Transparent metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were fabricated using a single-crystalline thin film of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, a homologous compound InGaO3(ZnO)5, grown by a reactive solid phase epitaxy method. The transparent MISFET exhibited good performances with “normally-off characteristics”, “an on/off current ratio as large as 105” and “insensitivity to visible light”. Field-effect mobility was about 2 cm2(Vs)-1, which is larger than those reported previously for MISFETs fabricated in transparent oxide semiconductors. These improved performance is thought to result from the low defect density and intrinsic-level carrier concentration of the single-crystalline InGaO3(ZnO)5 film.
In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction total reflection angle X-ray spectroscopy (RHEED-TRAXS) was performed to monitor alloy composition at the surface during growth of nitrides by RF-MBE for the first time. TRAXS signal of the GaLα line is found to be more sensitive to the composition at the surface than the GaKαline. A difference in the composition of layer adsorbed on the surface and the solid alloy layer has been identified.
Titanium oxide (TiO2) thin ftlms were formed on a Si substrate by metalorganic decomposition(MOD) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1100°C. As-deposited films were in the amorphous state and were completely transformed after annealing at 600°C to a crystalline structure with anatase as its main component. During crystallization, a reaction between TiO2 and Si occurred at the interface, which resulted in the formation of a thin interfacial SiO2 layer. Capacitance-voltage measurement showed good dielectric properties with a maximum dielectric constant of 76 for films annealed at 700°C. For the crystallized TiO2 films, the interface trap density was 1 × 1011 cm−2 eV−1, and the leakage current was 1 × 10−8 A/cm2 at 0.2 MV/cm. The modified structure of TiO2/SiO2/Si is expected to be suitable for the dielectric layer in an integrated circuit in place of conventional SiO2 films.