To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Dicke and Goldenberg (1967a) measured the solar oblateness to be σ= (5±0.7) × 10-5 and subsequently interpreted this measurement as evidence that the solar interior rotates with a period of 1.d8. With this interpretation, they then showed that the observed oblateness causes an 8% discrepancy in the Einstein prediction of the perihelion advance of Mercury. The stability analysis of Goldreich and Schubert (1967) seems to preclude such a fast rotation of the solar interior although magnetic field effects could alter their conclusions (Dicke, 1967). More recently Goldreich and Schubert (1968) and Fricke (1969) have calculated upper bounds to the solar oblateness essentially by finding the steepest distribution of angular velocity that is consistent with secular stability at each point in the equatorial plane of the sun. Fricke’s result of σmax=1.4 × 10-5 is based on a stronger stability criterion than that of Goldreich and Schubert who found σmax=1.4 × 10-4; Fricke, however, suggests that this may be in error and should actually be σmax=3.4 × 10-5. In their calculations of σmax the above authors assumed that the outer convective layers of the sun are rotating uniformly and that the angular velocity in the interior is a function of the radial distance from the center of the sun only. We note that while these assumptions are reasonable, neither of them is supported by the observed solar rotation.
IP Peg is a U Gem-type dwarf nova with a very high orbital inclination such that the secondary star eclipses the white dwarf primary, accretion disc and hot spot in each orbit. An observing project was set up by ‘The Astronomer’ (TA) magazine and the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section to make visual and CCD eclipse observations of IP Peg during outbursts in the 1994/95 season.
An extension of the method devised by Monaghan and Roxburgh (1965) for rapidly rotating polytropes is used to study the structure of the primary component of a synchronous close binary system. Results are presented for polytropes of index 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 4.9. We conclude that the extended Monaghan and Roxburgh method can be applied to real stars which are perturbed by both tidal and rotational forces.
Using semi-empirical isochrones, we find the age of the Taurus star-forming region to be 3-4 Myr. Comparing the disc fraction in Taurus to young massive clusters suggests discs survive longer in this low density environment. We also present a method of photometrically de-reddening young stars using iZJH data.
We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (≲ 200 Myr), nearby (≲ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-Teff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.
A new experimental technique for the characterisation of the thermal-morphological properties of materials has been developed at Daresbury. Many thermal events, for example melting endotherms, are signals of changes in morphology covering size scales from the atomic to the microscopic, that is Å to μm. There are obvious advantages in collecting both the wide angle (1-20Å) and small angle (20-1000Å) patterns simultaneously to unambiguously characterise such thermal events. The new apparatus comprises a Linkam hot-stage capable of controlled heating and cooling mounted in a combined SAXS/WAXS camera. The camera is equipped with a multiwire quadrant detector (SAXS) located 3.5 m from the sample position and a curved knifeedge detector (WAXS) that covers 120° of arc at a radius of 0.4 m. SAXSIWAXS is possible with a time resolution of 0.1 seconds and heating/cooling rates up to 120 °C min-1.
Associations between animal behaviour and emissions of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) have been noted in studies of grazing cattle (Lockyer, 1997) and feedlot confined cattle (Harper et al., 1999, Flesch et al., 2007). Methane emissions have been predicted as being greatest during bouts of rumination (Harper et al., 1999) whereas the emissions of the indirect greenhouse gas ammonia tends to be low early in the morning but increasing rapidly in the early afternoon after which a rapid decline until sunset (Flesch et al., 2007). With the exception of Harper et al., (1999) there are few complete data sets that examine the interaction between animal behaviour and greenhouse gas emissions from intensive animal production systems. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and emissions of CH4 and NH3 in a beef feedlot system in northern Australia.
Feedlot management systems for beef cattle are becoming a more common practice in Australia reflecting opportunities to ensure quality of product whilst maintaining cost efficiencies within production. However, feedlot systems have been identified as point sources of greenhouse gases emissions (GGE: methane, nitrous oxide and the indirect greenhouse gas ammonia). It has been estimated that feedlot systems contribute 3.5% of total direct methane emissions (Alford et al. 2006), and 30% of total emissions from livestock wastes. Furthermore, approximately 1% of total N2O emissions from agriculture are attributed to livestock. This paper reports methane, N2O and NH3 emissions from an Australian feedlot system managed under summer climatic conditions. It compares actual measured emissions with estimated from three recognised models used by national governments to estimate total GGE per annum from livestock agriculture.
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is Herschel's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–672 μm. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
We present three new methods for determining the age of groups of pre-main-sequence stars. The first, creating empirical isochrones allows us to create a robust age ordering, but not to derive actual ages. The second, using the width of the gap in colour-magnitude space between the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence (the radiative convective gap) has promise as a distance and extinction independent measure of age, but is as yet uncalibrated. Finally we discuss τ2 fitting of the main sequence as the stars approach the terminus of the main sequence. This method suggests that there is a factor two difference between these “nuclear” ages, and more conventional pre-main-sequence contraction ages.
When differences are observed between genotypes in their response to low temperatures at germination, it has been generally assumed these are purely genetic. Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of physiological age on the temperature responses of 13 rice genotypes from Bangladesh in order to clarify whether (a) differences in seed germination at low temperature represented genetic differences or differences in the physiological state of the particular seed lot used and (b) whether genotype performance at higher temperatures was indicative of performance at lower temperatures. A higher initial seed moisture content (mc) was associated with lower initial viability (Ki). The base temperature for germination differed by less than 1 °C between genotypes. Seeds remaining ungerminated at low temperatures usually germinated when transferred to 21 °C. The thermal time requirement to reach t50 (θ) differed widely between genotypes. Lower optimum temperatures for germination were associated with lower thermal time requirements. Ageing seeds for 24 hours at 24 % mc and 45 °C significantly reduced final germination on a thermal gradient table at all temperatures below 20.8 °C in genotype BR29 but only below 16.5 °C in BR11. The rates of germination (seeds d−1) of aged seeds were also lower at all temperatures. Germination of high quality seeds of four genotypes were compared at 21 °C and 11 °C both before and after ageing (at 24 % mc and 45 °C). Ageing consistently reduced the rates of germination at both 21 °C and 11 °C. Increased ageing time progressively reduced the rate of germination of all seed lots at both temperatures. The rates of germination at 11 °C and 21 °C were positively and significantly (p < 0.01) related to final germination at the lower temperature of 11 °C. These results demonstrate that seed physiological quality as well as genotype might influence the final germination and rate of germination of rice genotypes at low temperatures. This information will be useful for breeders involved in selection of lines suitable for growing in cooler seasons.
Free radicals and reactive species produced in vivo can trigger cell damage and DNA modifications resulting in carcinogenesis. Dietary antioxidants trap these species limiting their damage. The present study evaluated the role of vitamins C and E in the prevention of potentially premalignant modifications to DNA in the human stomach by supplementing patients who, because of hypochlorhydria and possible depletion of gastric antioxidants, could be at increased risk of gastric cancer. Patients undergoing surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (n 100), on long-term proton pump inhibitors were randomized into two groups: vitamin C (500 mg twice/d) and vitamin E (100 mg twice/d) for 12 weeks (the supplemented group) or placebo. Those attending for subsequent endoscopy had gastric juice, plasma and mucosal measurements of vitamin levels and markers of DNA damage. Seventy-two patients completed the study. Plasma ascorbic acid, total vitamin C and vitamin E were elevated in the supplemented group consistent with compliance. Gastric juice ascorbic acid and total vitamin C levels were raised significantly in the supplemented group (P=0·01) but supplementation had no effect on the mucosal level of this vitamin. However, gastric juice ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were within normal ranges in the unsupplemented group. Mucosal malondialdehyde, chemiluminescence and DNA damage levels in the comet assay were unaffected by vitamin supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation does not affect DNA damage in this group of patients. This is probably because long-term inhibition of the gastric proton pump alone does not affect gastric juice ascorbate and therefore does not increase the theoretical risk of gastric cancer because of antioxidant depletion.
The results of field experiments in 1983/84 and 1984/85
used to test the hypotheses (i) that
cultivars and management systems which result in high biomass of
winter barley will also produce
high grain yield and (ii) that greater uniformity of tiller and
ear size is associated with greater yield.
In a set of cultivars, grain yield per plant was significantly
correlated with biomass per plant despite
no correlation with any individual yield component. Biomass per
shoot was significantly correlated
with grain yield per shoot. Treatments to increase shoot uniformity
(the mass of individual tillers
relative to that of the main stem) generally increased biomass per
shoot and grain yield per shoot.
The re-examination of data in the literature where yield and biomass
were available confirmed the
association of biomass and grain yield both on a per plant and per
shoot basis. It is argued that
harvest index is not a character which can be easily targeted for
manipulation by growers, whereas
crop management systems to increase biomass should be easier to specify.
Experiments were conducted in glasshouses at the Agronomy Department, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, in 1987 and 1988 to test the effects of small amounts of additional N applied at different times during the vegetative and reproductive phases of growth on rice yield components and on spikelet differentiation and survival.
The results showed that an additional 10 kg/ha of N fertilizer had the largest effect on maximum spikelet number when applied at growth stage (GS) 1·9 but was too low to sustain the survival of the differentiated spikelets. Applications after panicle initiation did not lead to an increased survival of spikelets. Foliar N application at GS 5·5 did increase spikelet survival.
The results confirm the role of limited N supply in restricting yields of rice. Altering the timing of N inputs seems unlikely to improve spikelet survival.
Experiments were conducted in glasshouses at IRRI, Philippines, during 1987 and 1988 to identify varietal differences in apical development using six rice cultivars having extreme characters; Jirasar 280 (early senescence), Neo-Dunghan 1 (late senescence), Macunting (small seeds), ABB (large seeds), C12474–1 (long culm), and B581–A6–458 (short culm); and five cultivars, IR20, IR22, IR34, IR54, IR64, of the same growth duration.
The length of time from physiological panicle initiation (PI) to flowering varied from 25 to 50 days. The onset of physiological PI occurred when the fourth penultimate leaf was fully exserted. The visual panicle initiation stage (VPI) coincided with spikelet differentiation in all cultivars. Nitrogen top-dressing at 55–57 days before the anticipated maturity date (the present N management recommendation) did not coincide with the actual panicle initiation stage in any of the cultivars and the major yield determinants (i.e. the primary and secondary branches) therefore differentiated in conditions of internal nitrogen shortage. Spikelet abortion took place both before and after flowering. Reduction of pre-flowering abortion is important in increasing rice grain yields and could be achieved by improved N management. It is important to recognise cultivar differences and periods of loss of potential yield in developing efficient N management protocols.
A double-blind cross-over trial of depot flupenthixol in recurrent manic depressive psychosis was carried out. Ail patients continued on lithium. Eleven patients completed the two-year trial. Flupenthixol appeared to have no prophylactic effect.
The effect of ascorbic acid and ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis was compared, using double-blind procedures, with recognized treatment regimes. There was no significant difference between the response of depressed patients to amitriptyline or ascorbic acid and EDTA. Manic patients responded significantly better to lithium than to ascorbic acid and EDTA. These results are in keeping with the suggestion that vanadium may be of aetiological importance in depressive psychosis, but do not support such a suggestion for mania.