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Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
Introduction: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) resulting in injuries and death disproportionately involve impaired drivers. Those under the influence of alcohol also have a higher rate of presentation and admission to hospital for traumatic injuries. In an attempt to decrease impaired driving and alcohol-related MVCs and injuries, the government of Alberta introduced stricter impaired driving legislation in the summer of 2012. It has yet to be determined what impact this new legislation has had on traumatic injuries secondary to MVCs and alcohol impairment. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the implementation of the new legislation and the proportion of alcohol-related MVC trauma presenting to the emergency department of a Level I Trauma Centre. Methods: A retrospective single centre cross-sectional chart review examining adult patients presenting to the ED of a major trauma centre who: a) require trauma team activation or consultation and b) have a MVC related injury. Of those charts meeting these criteria, the proportion of patients with positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was compared between the year before and the four years after implementation of the new legislation. Patients were identified using electronic medical record logs. We compared the proportion of impaired drivers by year using the SPSS software package and conducted an interrupted time series analysis in order to determine whether the implementation of the law directly affected the measured outcomes. Results: 1470 total MVC related trauma patients were identified during the study period (468 prior to legislation implementation [2010-2012] and 1002 after [2012-2016]). The proportion of drivers with BAC defined as legally impaired decreased significantly over this time period (p=0.003). Based on preliminary interrupted time series analysis we cannot conclude that the implementation of the new laws led to this significant change (p=0.524). When analyzing drivers between 16 to 25 years old, we noted a non-significant but notable decrease in the proportion of impaired drivers from 45.9% in 2011 to 21.1% in 2016 (p=0.173). Conclusion: While an impact was not seen immediately following the implementation of Alberta’s new impaired driving legislation, the proportion of impaired drivers requiring trauma team activation has decreased significantly since enactment of the new legislation from 28.9% in 2011 to 16.9% in 2016. However, based on interrupted time series analysis we cannot conclude the new legislation independently influenced this change. The impact of other factors including public education, societal preferences and generational changes cannot be excluded. There continues to be a dramatic decrease in the proportion of impaired drivers presenting with MVC related trauma under 25 years old This has not yet reached statistical significance probably due to small sample size but the trend is most prominent in this age group.
Phase equilibria among the β-Ti, α-Ti and γ-TiAl phases were examined at 1473 K, in order to reveal the M/Nb ratio dependence of the relative phase stability of β phase in the Ti-Al-Nb-M (M: V, Cr, Mo) quaternary systems. In all of the quaternary systems, the expansion of β phase region toward the lower (Nb+M) content side is observed due to the existence of negative interaction to stabilize the β phase between the third and fourth elements (i.e. Nb-V, Nb-Cr and Nb-Mo). Composition dependence of the interaction is quantified as a function of the M/(Nb+M) ratio at 42 at.% Al. The strong interaction energy existing between the different group elements should be taken into account to design the multi-component TiAl alloys.
To determine the clinical effect of post-operative radiotheraphy and systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of salivary duct carcinoma.
The medical records of 26 patients treated by surgery with or without radiotheraphy and/or systemic chemotherapy for salivary duct carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the role of post-operative adjuvant treatment for the patients' prognosis.
The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 54 and 48.1 per cent, respectively. There was no correlation with the clinical stage and the patients' prognosis. The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative radiotheraphy was 64 and 33 per cent, respectively (p = 0.29). The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative chemotherapy was 53 and 56 per cent, respectively (p = 0.78).
Post-operative adjuvant therapy did not improve the patients' overall prognosis with salivary duct carcinoma. Developing novel treatment modalities may be necessary to improve the prognosis of this aggressive disease.
The management of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma has not been standardised to date. This study reviewed the clinical course, management and survival outcomes of patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck region.
Nine patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck were included in this study.
Five patients received radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. Two other patients were treated with chemotherapy consisting of CPT11 plus cisplatin or CPT11 plus cisplatin plus VP-16 three times. Two other patients received chemoradiotherapy consisting of S-1 or CPT11 plus cisplatin. The median overall survival was 14.5 months, with a three-year survival rate of 23.7 per cent.
The prognosis of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is generally poor. Further prospective multicentre studies are required for better understanding of disease entities and response to treatment modalities.
The object of this study was to analyse our experience with the effects of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the treatment results of this therapeutic strategy and a salvage treatment for recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Seventy-five patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated with chemoradiotherapy. The study included twenty-five of these patients who had recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy
The three-year actuarial survival rates for 75 patients by disease stage were as follows: stage II, 100 per cent; stage III, 71.1 per cent; stage IV, 51.7 per cent and overall, 58.2 per cent. The mean time of detection of recurrence was 6.2 months. The total salvage rates of recurrence were 21 per cent. The one and three-year tumour-free actuarial survival rates of those patients who received salvage treatment were 83 and 33 per cent.
Surgical salvage was only feasible for early recurrent tumour. Close follow-up surveillance of early recurrence is essential after primary treatment of patients with chemoradiotherapy.
Liposarcomas rarely occur in the parapharyngeal space and only a few case reports exist. For curative therapy of liposarcoma, surgical excision remains the dominant modality. Although a wide surgical margin is important to prevent local recurrence, wide excision is often difficult in the head and neck region.
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a well-differentiated liposarcoma arising in the parapharyngeal space. We removed the tumour surgically utilising a cervical–parotid approach. The histological diagnosis was well-differentiated sclerosing liposarcoma. There is no recurrence after five years and nine months of follow up.
The patient's age and the tumour site made it difficult for us to make a quantitative diagnosis before the operation. Well-differentiated liposarcoma rarely develop distant metastasis, but often recur locally. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for well-differentiated liposarcoma is still not clear and careful and long-term follow up is necessary.
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a rare minor salivary gland neoplasm. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with or without post-operative radiotherapy. This tumour often demonstrates a good prognosis.
We report a case of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma arising in the nasopharynx. A 27-year-old female presented with progressive hearing disturbance and tinnitus. On examination, an expansile mass was observed in her nasopharynx. Biopsy was performed and the pathology results returned as clear cell carcinoma.
Results and conclusion:
Surgical resection was performed trans-orally accompanied by trans-palatal approach. She has no recurrence during more than two years of follow up.
To report magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with an SLC26A4 gene mutation who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.
A 13-year-old girl had bilateral and symmetric low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Upon genetic testing, a heterozygous c.1105A > G (p.K369E) mutation of the SLC26A4 gene was detected. Mild endolymphatic hydrops in the right cochlea and marked endolymphatic hydrops in the left vestibulum were seen by magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after an intravenous gadolinium injection.
This is the first reported case of a patient with the SLC26A4 gene mutation c.1105A > G (p.K369E) who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Co-occurrence of cochlear and vestibular endolymphatic hydrops suggests an association with that pathology.
Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films were prepared by using the synthesized Cu2ZnSnSe4 ingot and Na2Se powder at various Na2Se/Cu2ZnSnSe4 mole ratio as evaporation materials for selenization process. From EPMA analysis, the composition was approximately constant even if the Na2Se/Cu2ZnSnSe4 mole ratio increased. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the thin films had a kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 structure and the foreign phases disappeared with increasing the Na2Se/Cu2ZnSnSe4 mole ratio. The Na2Se addition enhanced to grow thin films having a close-packed structure and columnar grains. The values of Voc and Isc in Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells increased with increasing the Na2Se/Cu2ZnSnSe4 mole ratio.
We report three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with relapsing polychondritis.
A 76-year-old woman initially presented with bilateral auricular swelling together with dyspnoea. Three months later, she experienced left hearing loss and recurrent vertigo. A biopsy of the auricle was performed and relapsing polychondritis was diagnosed. The patient underwent three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after intravenous injection of a standard dose of gadolinium. Gadolinium enhancement was visible throughout the vestibule and the endolymphatic space could not be visualised, suggesting breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier.
This is the first radiological report to demonstrate breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier in a case of relapsing polychondritis with inner ear impairment.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25·5% of the patients were seronegative and 74·5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27·3% had OT and 72·7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·24–3·98, P = 0·009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1·77, 95% CI 1·05–2·98, P = 0·03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48·2 ± 21·2 years vs. OOD: 69·5 ± 14·7 years, P < 0·0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0·414, 95% CI 0·2231–0·7692, P = 0·007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the expression of cathepsin L and its inhibitor headpin, in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 56 oral squamous cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the relationship between cathepsin L and headpin expression versus patients' clinicopathological factors and survival.
The group that was positive for cathepsin L expression tended to have positive metastatic neck lymph nodes and a poorer prognosis. Headpin expression was not related to metastasis or prognosis. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma had higher levels of headpin expression compared with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Cathepsin L expression is related to the invasive and metastatic potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
We have found configuratlonally metastable Fe-B pairs in Si by using dark or photo capacitance-transient technique combined with minority-carrier injection. The metastable pairs are observed as four electron-trapping levels at Ec-0.43 eV, 0.46 eV, 0.52 eV, and 0.54 eV and as two hole-trapping levels at Ev+0.53 eV and 0.48 eV after the injection at 150 K. The production of each level is investigated under various injection conditions, and the annihilation process is studied by isochronal anneals.
Gold nanorods (NRs) were fixed on an ITO plate and used for the
Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass
Spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of oligopeptides (angiotensin I). The SALDI-MS
measurements had a high sensitivity to the angiotensin on the ITO plate on
which isolated NRs were deposited. Angiotensin molecules in a very diluted
solution (1 × 10-11 M) could be detected at m/z = 1297 with a
good signal/noise ratio (S/N = 18). In contrast, alternatively deposited NR
an ITO plate, which present broad surface plasmon bands, was found to be
inactive for SALDI measurements.
We have developed a new pulsed laser deposition technique using two Nd:YAG laser beams for the nucleation of silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline nano-particles and single crystalline SiC thin films. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observation suggest that several nanometer size SiC particles can be prepared by the new pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using two Nd:YAG laser beams (1064nm and 532nm). X ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that the silicon/carbon composition ratio of the prepared SiC thin films can be controlled by laser fluence and wavelength.