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Evidence is mixed on e-cigarette's effectiveness as a tobacco cessation aid. Research suggests that e-cigarette users face greater barriers to quitting tobacco.
To examine the association between e-cigarette use and tobacco cessation outcomes among quitline callers.
We examined 2,204 callers who enrolled and completed 7-month follow-up surveys between April 2014 and January 2017. We examined the association between any e-cigarette use and tobacco cessation. We also evaluated these relationships by e-cigarette use patterns between enrollment and 7-month follow-up: sustained, adopted, discontinued, and non-use. We used multivariable logistic regression to control for caller characteristics, tobacco history, and program utilization.
Overall, 18% of callers reported using e-cigarettes at enrollment, follow-up, or both. Compared to non-users, e-cigarette users were more likely to be younger, non-Hispanic, and report a mental health condition. The adjusted odds of tobacco cessation were not statistically different for callers who used e-cigarettes compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios = 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.79–1.32). Results were similar when examining cessation by patterns of e-cigarette use.
E-cigarette use was not associated with tobacco cessation. This suggests that e-cigarette use may neither facilitate nor deter tobacco cessation among quitline callers. Future research should continue exploring how e-cigarette use affects quitting.
Previous research suggests that persistence, an individual difference characteristic representing the ability and willingness to maintain engagement in challenging or aversive contexts, may relate to smoking relapse. Improving understanding of the persistence-relapse risk association could guide improvements in behavioural interventions. We explored whether persistence and gender related to change in smoking urges across multiple cue exposure trials (an analogue of extinction learning and relapse risk). Participants included abstinent smokers who completed 12 massed, 5-minute smoking cue exposure trials using guided imagery as well as olfactory, tactile, visual and motor cues associated with smoking. We used multilevel logistic growth curve modelling to explore predictor associations with change in urge. Results suggested that gender related to urge whereby males showed greater initial and sustained reactivity than females. Persistence was not associated with female urge trajectories. However, compared to males with high persistence, males with low persistence evidenced sustained urge reactivity over time. Results suggest that greater persistence relates to reduction of conditioned responding (e.g., urges) among abstinent male smokers when exposure trials include complex cues most closely related to nicotine self-administration. Because persistence is modifiable, males with low persistence may benefit from interventions that include elements designed to increase persistence in urge eliciting situations.
Gender-based violence (GBV) is both a global public health problem and violation of human rights. Refugees and internally displaced persons experience an increased risk of GBV and health outcomes associated with GBV are often exacerbated in conflict settings.
A mixed methods study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of universal screening for GBV in a refugee population in the Dadaab refugee camp of Kenya, using the ASIST-GBV from January to July 2015.
Of 9366 women offered screening at International Rescue Committee health clinics, about 89% (n = 8369) female refugees consented to participate. Only 15% of the potentially eligible population could participate in GBV screening because of the ongoing struggle to identify private space in the clinics. Over 85% of women reported being ‘willing’ or ‘very willing’ to participate in GBV screening; 96% felt they had a good or very good experience with the screening protocol. Qualitative findings stressed the importance of securing a room/space in the busy clinic is critical to universal screening with referral to safe and confidential services for survivors.
The findings suggest that the evidence-based ASIST-GBV is both feasible to implement and acceptable to both providers and women seeking care. Universal GBV screening and referral is an effective way for health care and service providers in humanitarian settings to assist survivors of GBV.
A total of 45 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from 10 different places in India where they were associated with cases of cholera between the years 2007 and 2008 were examined by molecular methods. With the help of phenotypic and genotypic tests the strains were confirmed to be O1 El Tor biotype strains with classical ctxB gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by double – mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR showed 16 of these strains carried the ctxB-7 allele reported in Haitian strains. Sequencing of the ctxB gene in all the 45 strains revealed that in 16 strains the histidine at the 20th amino acid position had been replaced by asparagine and this single nucleotide polymorphism did not affect cholera toxin production as revealed by beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study shows that the new ctxB gene sequence was circulating in different places in India. Seven representatives of these 45 strains analysed by pulsed – field gel electrophoresis showed four distinct Not I digested profiles showing that multiple clones were causing cholera in 2007 and 2008.
The smallest radio Einstein Ring, B2018+357, discovered by Patnaik et al. (1993), shows much promise as a tool to constrain the parameters of cosmological models (Refsdal 1964). Dominating this system is a pair of 0.″335–separation compact radio images, with image A between 2.7 to 3.9 times as strong as image B (λλ 18 to 2 cm). Observations have established the lens redshift (zl = 0.685, O'Dea et al. 1992, Browne et al. 1993), a possible source redshift (zs = 0.96, Lawrence, this conference), and a tentative value for the time–delay between the highly polarized images A and B (12 ± 3 days, Browne, this conference). Recent mas–resolution observations have made it possible to understand the imaging of A and B in sufficient detail as to provide constraints on an elliptical lens model for B0218+357; this work presents a model and provides an estimate of Hubble's Constant.
MG2016+112, discovered by Lawrence et al. (1984) is one of the best–studied among multiply–imaged systems, but is still only partially understood. Ostensibly a three–image system consisting of images A, B and C of a quasar at z = 3.273, the observed lensing galaxy D (a giant elliptical at z = 1.01) at the centroid of the image system seems inadequate to provide the minimum mass of ∼ 2.5 × 1012 M⊙ within 10 kpc of its center (in projection along the l.o.s.) required to produce the observed 3.″9 image–splitting. C itself appears to consist of two components, radio emission that may be associated with the faint optical image counterpart of A and B (called C2, see Garrett et al. 1994) and flat-spectrum C1, which dominates radio observations of the system and apparently consists of at least three linearly stretched subcomponents, C11 to C13 (see Garrett et al. in these proceedings).
2016+112 was observed simultaneously with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and MERLIN arrays during the May 1993 joint EVN-MERLIN session at λ18 cm. Common elements to both arrays included the Jodrell Bank 76-m Lovell and 32-m Cambridge telescopes. In order to simultaneously map the entire 4 arcsec2 field of view, various wide-field mapping techniques were employed (see Garrett et al. 1994b).
Baryonic Dark Matter (BDM) candidates are segregated into two main mass ranges: (i) sub-solar mass dwarf stars (MACHOS) and (ii) ∼ 104–106M⊙ Very Massive Objects (VMOs). The lower mass range has been the target of the various micro-lensing programs but the first, tentative conclusions (see Stubbs et al. these proceedings) seem to suggest that MACHOs are unlikely to provide the bulk of the dark matter in the galactic halo. Meanwhile the upper mass range (104–106M⊙) remains largely unexplored. However, Wambsganss & Paczynski 1992 (hereafter WP92), have shown that this mass range is perfectly tuned to a straightforward and direct test: gravitational milli-lensing of macro-lensed images (Fig 1).
The Fontan connection, originally described in 1971, is used to provide palliation for patients with many forms of CHDs that cannot support a biventricular circulation. An increasing number of females who have undergone these connections in childhood are now surviving into adulthood and some are becoming pregnant. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with a twin pregnancy at 33 weeks of gestation. She had significant deterioration of her cardiovascular status before the twin babies were delivered by emergency caesarean section owing to associated obstetric complications. This report also highlights the various maternal and fetal complications occurring in pregnancy of Fontan-palliated patients and suggests the need for meticulous pre-conception counselling and strict perinatal care.
We present λ7mm multi-epoch and polarization VLBA maps of the gravitational lens PKS 1830–211. The maps suggest that the radio structure of both images evolves rapidly. The offset between the polarized intensity and the total intensity may be used to constrain the magnification matrix.
In this study, we present the case of a neonate with obstructed infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with severe pulmonary hypertension and a patent ductus arteriosus with right-to-left shunting. The patient had an unusual finding of pandiastolic flow reversal in the upper descending thoracic aorta. He underwent emergency surgical re-routing of the pulmonary veins to the left atrium, and postoperative echocardiography showed disappearance of the descending aortic flow reversal. We hypothesise that in severely obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection the left ventricular output may be extremely low, resulting in flow reversal in the descending aorta.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
A high gain ZnO nanowire (NW) based photodetector was fabricated, which was sensitive to photoexcitation at or below 370 nm corresponding to the band-edge of ZnO. At an incident wavelength of 370 nm and a bias field of 5 kV/cm, the maximum responsivity was over 105 A/W corresponding to an extremely high photoconductive gain of the order of 106. Through this work we provide experimental evidence of the role of surface and defects in carrier dynamics, resulting in enhanced photoresponse. Using intensity and temperature dependence of the rise and decay rates of photocurrent, we present a detailed analysis that provides an estimate of the activation energies of carrier trapping mechanisms.
We consider a viscous drop, loaded with an insoluble surfactant, spreading over an inclined plane that is covered initially with a thin surfactant-free liquid film. Lubrication theory is employed to model the flow using coupled nonlinear evolution equations for the film thickness and surfactant concentration. Exploiting high-resolution numerical simulations, we describe the late-time multi-region asymptotic structure of the spatially one-dimensional spreading flow. A simplified differential–algebraic equation model is derived for key variables characterising the spreading process, using which the late-time spreading and thinning rates are determined. Focusing on the neighbourhood of the drop’s leading-edge effective contact line, we then examine the stability of this region to small-amplitude disturbances with transverse variation. A dispersion relationship is described using long-wavelength asymptotics and numerical simulations, which reveals physical mechanisms and new scaling properties of the instability.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are progressively used for decentralized electricity generation. To obtain the maximum yield from such systems, optimisation of all components is essential. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive modelling and sizing of PV systems for any location. Three applications are here presented providing real time monitoring of PV potential, accurate prediction of yield taking into account thermodynamic temperature effects, optimization of modules orientation addressing the effects of shading and efficient sizing of inverter for a higher yield output. When combined, these models can accurately predict the real time performance of any PV system.
To determine the prognostic value of laryngoscopy in predicting the recovery of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
A prospective study was carried out of all patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis without a progressive lesion or arytenoid dislocation.
Among the 66 candidates, 15 recovered. Patients with interarytenoid paralysis (p < 0.001) or posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid (p = 0.028) had less chance of recovery. Among 51 patients who did not recover, 25.49 per cent regained phonatory function by compensatory movement of the normal side; the rest required an intervention. Intervention requirement was significantly less for those patients who had isolated glottic level compensation. The paralysed vocal fold was at the same level in 32.35 per cent of patients, higher in 38.23 per cent and lower in 29.42 per cent. In those in whom vocal folds were in the abducted position (46.67 per cent), the affected vocal fold was at a lower position on phonation. Inter-observer reliability assessment revealed excellent to good agreement for all criteria.
Interarytenoid paralysis and posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid were predictors of poor recovery.
We report a stable CdS/Sb2S3/SnSe heterojunction thin film solar cell deposited on SnO2:F (FTO) – coated glass substrates. Thermal evaporation at 10-5 Torr with substrate temperature of 400 °C was used to deposit Sb2S3 and SnSe thin films of 450 nm and 160 nm, respectively. Thin film Sb2S3 has an optical band gap (Eg) of 1.48 eV and photoconductivity (σp) of 4x10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 and thin film SnSe has an Eg of 1.28 eV and σp of 2 Ω-1 cm-1. The chemically deposited CdS thin film heated at 400 °C shows an Eg of 2.34 eV and σp of 0.1 Ω-1 cm-1. Stabilized solar cell structures with these thin films, FTO/CdS/Sb2S3/SnSe/C-Ag, showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.60 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 5.51 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.96% with a fill factor FF of 0.29. In the absence of the SnSe layer, Jsc decreases to 4.77 mA/cm2.
Thin films of AgSbS2 (150 nm) are prepared (75 min at 40 °C) via chemical deposition using a solution mixture containing SbCl3, Na2S2O3 and AgNO3. As-deposited films are amorphous. When they are heated in nitrogen at 180-320 °C, crystalline cubic-AgSbS2 films are formed. They show an optical band gap 1.89 eV and photoconductivity 1.8x10-5 Ω-1cm-1. Silver antimony sulfide-selenide film, AgSb(SxSe1-x)2, is produced from the initial amorphous film when it is heated in presence of Se-vapor. XRD analysis confirms the formation of solid solution AgSbS1.25Se0.75 or AgSbSe2 depending on the extent of Se-vapor available during heating. SnO2:F/CdS/AgSbS2/C solar cell shows Voc 610 mV, Jsc 0.88 mA/cm2,FF 0.53 and η 0.28%. In SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3/AgSb(SxSe1-x)2/C solar cell, Voc is 582 mV, Jsc 0.99 mA/cm2, FF 0.51 and η 0.29%.