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Giant electromagnetic pulses (EMP) generated during the interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets can seriously degrade electrical measurements and equipment. EMP emission is caused by the acceleration of hot electrons inside the target, which produce radiation across a wide band from DC to terahertz frequencies. Improved understanding and control of EMP is vital as we enter a new era of high repetition rate, high intensity lasers (e.g. the Extreme Light Infrastructure). We present recent data from the VULCAN laser facility that demonstrates how EMP can be readily and effectively reduced. Characterization of the EMP was achieved using B-dot and D-dot probes that took measurements for a range of different target and laser parameters. We demonstrate that target stalk geometry, material composition, geodesic path length and foil surface area can all play a significant role in the reduction of EMP. A combination of electromagnetic wave and 3D particle-in-cell simulations is used to inform our conclusions about the effects of stalk geometry on EMP, providing an opportunity for comparison with existing charge separation models.
Litter size has a great impact on the profit of swine producers. Uterine development is an important determinant of reproduction efficiency and could hence affect litter size. Chinese Erhualian pig is one of the most prolific breeds in the world, even though large phenotypic variation in litter size was observed within Erhualian sows. To dissect the genetic basis of the phenotypic variation, we herein conducted genome-wide association studies for total number born and number born alive (NBA) of Erhualian sows. In total, one significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (P<1.78e−06) and 11 suggestive SNPs (P<3.57e−05) were identified on 10 chromosomes, confirming seven previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and uncovering six QTL for litter size or uterus length. One locus on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 13 (79.28 to 90.43 Mb) harbored a cluster of suggestive SNPs associated with multiparous NBA. The SNP (rs81447100) within this region was confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with litter size in Erhualian (n=313), Sutai (n=173) and Yorkshire (n=488) populations. Retinol binding protein 2 and retinol binding protein 1 functionally related to the development of uterus were located in a region of 2 Mb around rs81447100. Moreover, four genes related to embryo implantation and development were also detected around other significant SNPs. Taken together, our findings provide a potential marker (rs81447100) for the genetic improvement of litter size not only in Chinese Erhualian pigs but also in European commercial pig breeds like Yorkshire, and would facilitate the final identification of causative variant(s) underlying the effect of SSC13 QTL on litter size.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
The study of the mechanical properties of polycrystalline alloy materials under dynamic impact, namely, the prediction of mechanical behavior after yield stress and the establishment of a constitutive model, has attracted much attention in the field of engineering. The stress-strain curves of 5083 aluminum alloy were obtained under strain rates varying from 0.0002 s-1 to 7130 s-1 through uniaxial compression experiments. The equipment used included a CRIMS RPL100 tester, Instron tester, and split Hopkinson test system. In addition, based on dislocation dynamics and the strengthening mechanism of metals, the plastic flow of the 5083 aluminum alloy was systematically analyzed under a wide range of strain rates. It was found that the abnormal yield behavior of the 5083 aluminum alloy under a wide range of strain rates increased, and the experimental phenomenon of hardening rate decreased with an increase in strain rate. This study also revealed that the abnormal yield behavior is caused by the different dislocation mechanisms of two-phase alloy elements under different strain rates. Based on the thermal activation theory and the experimental data, a constitutive model was developed. A comparison showed good agreement between the experimental and model curves. This indicates that this model has good plastic flow stress prediction ability for such types of materials.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06–40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.
Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Langmuir Probe were used to characterize RF and VHF plasma properties under conditions leading to nanocrystalline silicon film deposition. Films deposited by RF plasma at low pressure (3 Torr), even with high crystalline volume fraction, show weak X-ray diffraction signals, suggesting small grain size, while RF films at higher pressure (8 Torr) and VHF films at both high and low pressure have larger grain sizes. The preferential growth orientation is controlled by the H2/SiH4 ratio with RF plasma, while the film deposited by VHF shows primarily (220) orientation independent of H-dilution ratio. Langmuir Probe measurements indicate that the high energy electron population is reduced by increasing pressure from 3 Torr to 8 Torr in RF plasma. Compared with RF plasma, the VHF plasma shows higher electron density and sheath potential, but lower average electron energy, which may be responsible for the larger grain size and crystal orientation. The growth rate and crystalline volume fraction of the film is correlated with OES intensity ratio of SiH* and Hα/SiH* for both RF and VHF plasmas.
Gattini and CSTAR have been installed at Dome A, Antarctica, which provide time-series photometric data for a large number of pulsating variable stars. We present the study for several variable stars with the data collected with the two facilities in 2009 to demonstrate the scientific potential of observations from Dome A for asteroseismology.
This study reports the influence of electrical and mechanical stresses on indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs).The deformation is introduced by mounting the samples on cylindrical structures of varying radii creating tensile or compressive strains. The mechanical stresses are parallel and perpendicular to the length of the channel layer. Results reveal that, when the stresses are parallel to the channel length, mobilities increase under tensile stresses and reduce under compressive stresses; while, the effect on sub-threshold is contrary to this. However no changes are observed for mobilities and sub-threshold swings when the stresses are perpendicular to the channel length. The TFTs exhibit stability under the electromechanical stressing with no device failure observed over prolonged stress times.
In this paper, efficacy of p-n junction p-CuO/n-ZnO composite is assessed as a potential photocatalyst by monitoring degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of UV light. The p-n junction photocatalyst, p-CuO/n-ZnO, was prepared by ball milling of ZnO and CuO in water. The structural properties of p-CuO/n-ZnO composite were characterized by x-ray diffractometer and surface charge properties via zeta potential measurement. The degradation of MB in the presence of composite powder was monitored via UV-vis spectrometer. Various studies affecting the degradation rate of MB were conducted as a function of weight fraction of CuO in the composite and ball milling time. The highest degradation rate of MB was achieved in CuO (10 Wt.%)/ZnO for which high negative zeta potential was recorded. The MB degradation efficiency was found to decrease with the samples ball milled for time longer than 12 hours due to increased agglomeration of particles. The mechanisms that influence the photocatalytic activity of p-CuO/n-ZnO are discussed based on the p-n junction principle.
In this work TiO2/Si multilayer structures have been grown by sputtering. After rapid thermal annealing in pure inert gas or inert gas with oxygen atmosphere the multilayers have been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, μ-Raman and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry for their structure and anatase/rutile phase composition. It has been found that the photocatalytically more active anatase TiO2 is stabilized and that interdiffusion and chemical reaction processes were strongly hindered up to 1100°C annealing temperature in oxygen containing atmosphere. These findings are of particular importance since only at this high temperature simultaneous formation of embedded Si nanocrystallites can be achieved.
Thin films of molybdenum oxide have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterised by photoelectron spectroscopy. Such films of MoOx are increasingly being used as electrode interfaces in both organic light emitting diodes and bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene solar cells. Control of the Mo to oxygen stoichiometry has been gained by two methods of R.F magnetron sputtering. The first method is by controlling the proportion of oxygen in the sputtering chamber and the second is by controlling the level of surface oxidation of the sputter target prior to deposition, both methods have been used to control average film stoichiometry. In general the transition from metallic like film to oxide like film occurs at an oxygen chamber partial pressure of 15 %. UPS measurements show that such a transition, and resulting increase in the average oxidation state, leads to a shift in the Fermi level from 4.5eV to 5.2eV with respect to vacuum. The presence of specific oxidation states below +6 give rise to electronic structures that lie between the valence band edge and the Fermi level. For reduced samples +2 and +5 oxidation states peaks appear at binding energies of 0.4eV and 2.1eV respectively while a third peak at 1eV could be attributed to either the presence of +3 or +4 oxidation states.
BiFeO3 nanopowders with a size distribution around 20nm and optical absorption onset at 2eV have been synthesized using self-combustion. These particles were used to photodecolourise RhB under AM1.5 irradiation. XPS showed changes to the oxidation state of the Fe cations. Under AM 1.5 illumination at pH 2 RhB showed >95% decolourisation after 10minutes.
Metal oxide (MO) films (ZnO and CuO) were synthesized by hydrothermal methods and treated with hydrogen and oxygen plasmas. From uv-visible transmittance spectra, we have found that the optical band gaps of MO films blue-shifted with hydrogen plasma treatment, but red-shifted with oxygen plasma treatment. By alternating the treatment sequence of hydrogen and oxygen plasmas, the MO optical band gap values can be reversibly tuned with the tunable ranges as wide as 80 and 550 meV for ZnO and CuO, respectively. The mechanism for reversible tuning of optical property is proposed based on the results of optical emission, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy characterization. Compared to conventional metal ion doping and high temperature annealing methods, the use of low-temperature hydrogen and oxygen plasmas is more environmentally friendly.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.