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While the global market for photovoltaic (PV) modules continues to grow 30% - 40% annually, manufacturers are looking at advanced technologies and cell concepts in order to improve the cost performance and reliability. One of the challenges faced by the silicon (Si) PV manufacturers is the lack of efficient metal screen-printing technologies. While screen-printing is a long-established technology, THE traditional silver-based pastes have technical limits in terms of paste composition, drying and thermal-firing conditions, line-width, aspect ratio, contact resistance, etc. Such limits keep the industrial cell structure from being close to an ideal PV cell architecture. In an effort to develop alternate printable pastes electrically, electrically conductive adhesives are considered in this study to provide fine-line contacts and low thermal budget so that performance-driven solar cell designs can be reliably implemented in manufacturing. Mechanical properties of solar cell printed by conductive adhesives are experimentally investigated in this work and confirmed with the simulation results.
A low-resistance back contact for n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cells has been developed, which utilizes a thermally evaporated MoOx thin film as the buffer layer between the p-CdTe and the back electrode. The low-resistance behavior of back contact is attributed to the high work function of MoOx, which reportedly is as high as 6.8 eV, and thus adequately matches that of p-CdTe. With MoOx as the buffer, a variety of common metals, even those with a low work function such as Al, have been found to be useful as the electrode in forming the back contact. Other advantages of the MoOx buffer include dry application by vacuum deposition, and thus it is particularly suitable for the fabrication of ultra-thin CdTe solar cells without introducing additional shorting defects. Surface cleaning of CdTe films prior to MoOx deposition has also been studied. The cell stability has been evaluated through thermal annealing tests. Thermal degradation has been explained in terms of oxidation of the metal electrodes. CdTe cells with high efficiency and good stability have been demonstrated with MoOx as the back contact buffer and Ni as the electrode.
New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 have appeared in different time-frames in various endemic regions, especially in Asia and Africa. Sixty-nine strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in Zambia between 1996 and 2004 were investigated by various genotypic techniques to determine the lineage of virulence signatures and clonality. All strains were positive for Vibrio seventh pandemic Islands (VSP)-I and VSP-II and repeat toxin (RTX) gene clusters attesting their El Tor lineage. Interestingly, strains isolated in recent times (2003–2004) were identified as an altered variant (El Tor biotype that harbours El Tor type rstR but produce classical ctxB) that replaced completely the progenitor El Tor strains prevalent in 1996–1997. Recent altered variant strains differed from prototype El Tor strains isolated earlier in that these strains lacked two ORFs, VC0493 and VC0498, in the VSP-II region. PFGE analysis revealed two major clonal lineages in the strains; cluster A represented the strains isolated before 2003 and cluster B the altered strains isolated in 2003–2004. Cluster A was closely related to prototype El Tor reference strain isolated in Bangladesh in 1971. Cluster B was found to be matched with Bangladeshi altered strains but was different from the hybrid strains isolated from Mozambique and Bangladesh. This report provides important information on the genesis of altered strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in Zambia and emphasizes the need for further studies to follow the trends of evolutionary changes.
The implementation of SiC based sensors and electronics for operation in chemically harsh, high temperature environments depends on understanding the SiO2/SiC interface in field effect devices. We have developed a technique to fabricate wedge polished samples (angle ∼ 1×10−4 rad) that provides access to the SiO2/SiC interface via a surface sensitive probe such as xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lateral scanning along the wedge is equivalent to depth profiling. Spatially resolved XPS images of the O 1s and Si 2p core levels were obtained of the interfacial region. Samples consist of device-quality thermally grown oxides on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates. The C 1s spectrum suggests the presence of a graphitic layer on the nominally bare SiC surface following thermal oxidation.
It is shown that if a trigonometric series is (R, 3), respectively (R, 4), summable then its (R, 3) sum, respectively (R, 4) sum, is James P3—, respectively P4—, integrable and that such series are Fourier series with respect to these integrals.
It is shown that both icosahedral Al–Mn–Si and Mg–Al–Zn alloys give rise to the same variety of electron diffraction patterns as documented for icosahedral Al–Mn alloys. Subtle variations in intensity are ascribed to a different decorational motif in terms of the Mackay icosahedron and the Pauling triacontahedron. Icosahedral Al–Mn–Si alloys do not appear to be ordered on a superlattice basis.
The special Denjoy-Bochner integral (the D*B-integral) which are generalisations of Lebesgue-Bochner integral are discussed in [7, 6, 5]. Just as the concept of numerical almost periodicity was extended by Burkill  to numerically valued D*- or D-integrable function, we extend the concept of almost periodicity for Banach valued function to Banach valued D*B-integrable function. For this purpose we introduce as in  a distance in the space of all D*B-integrable functions with respect to which the D*B-almost periodicity is defined. It is shown that the D*B-almost periodicity shares many of the known properties of the almost periodic Banach valued function [1, 4].
Let f be a real valued function defined in some neighbourhood of a point x. If there are numbers α1, α2, … αr-1, independent of h such that
then the number αk is called the kth Peano derivative (also called kth de la Vallée Poussin derivative ) of f at x and we write αk = fk(x). It is convenient to write α0 = f0(x) = f(x). The definition is such that if the mth Peano derivative exists so does the nth for 0 ≦ n ≦ m.
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