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The impact of co-morbid substance use in first-episode schizophrenia has not been fully explored.
This naturalistic follow-up of a cohort of 152 people with first-episode schizophrenia examined substance use and clinical outcome in terms of symptoms and social and neuropsychological function.
Data were collected on 85 (56%) of the patient cohort after a median period of 14 months. Over the follow-up period, the proportion of smokers rose from 60% at baseline to 64%. While 30% reported lifetime problem drinking of alcohol at baseline, only 15% had problem drinking at follow-up. Furthermore, while at baseline 63% reported lifetime cannabis use and 32% were currently using the drug, by the follow-up assessment the latter figure had fallen to 18.5%. At follow-up, persistent substance users had significantly more severe positive and depressive symptoms and greater overall severity of illness. A report of no lifetime substance use at baseline was associated with greater improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) at follow-up.
Past substance use may impede recovery of SWM performance in people with schizophrenia in the year or so following first presentation to psychiatric services. The prevalence of substance use other than tobacco tends to diminish over this period, in the absence of specific interventions. Persistent substance use in first-episode schizophrenia is associated with more severe positive and depressive symptoms but not negative symptoms, and should be a target for specific treatment intervention.
Studies in schizophrenia suggest that a longer initial period of untreated illness is associated with a poorer clinical outcome.
To determine whether, in first-episode schizophrenia, a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) or of untreated illness (DUI) (DUP plus any prodrome) is associated with clinical variables that could mediate a poor prognosis.
Clinical, social, neuropsychological and oculomotor function data on 53 patients with first-episode schizophrenia were related to the DUP and DUI.
Comparing short and long DUP groups split around the median showed no statistically significant differences (except age); patients in the latter group tended to perform worse on an executive attentional set-shifting task, and were more likely to be unemployed, and living alone or homeless.
There was little evidence of any association between either DUP or DUI and progressive deterioration in the schizophrenic illness or the development of resistance to initial drug treatment. Social variables that augur a poor prognosis may be associated with delayed presentation of schizophrenia to psychiatric services.
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