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Let denote a subring of the complex field that contains 1 and is closed under complex conjugation. It is shown that, with respect to the involution induced by word-reversal, the algebra over of a free monoid admits a trace and a separating family of star matrix representations. From the existence of a trace it is deduced that the aforementioned involution is special, in the sense of Easdown and Munn. Similar results hold for the algebra over of a free monoid with involution.
We aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome in a sample of twins and (2) the relative contribution of genes and environment in premenstrual syndrome. A group of 193 subjects inclusive of same gender twins (n = 176) and females from opposite sex twin sets (n = 17) entered the study. Heritability analysis used same gender twin data only. The probandwise concordance rate for the presence or absence of premenstrual syndrome was calculated and the heritability of premenstrual syndrome was assessed by a quantitative genetic model fitting approach using MX software. The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome was 43.0% and 46.8% in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively. The probandwise concordance for premenstrual syndrome was higher in monozygotic (0.81) than in dizygotic twins (0.67), indicating a strong genetic effect. Quantitative genetic modeling found that a model comprising of additive genetic (A) and unique environment (E) factors provided the best fit (A: 95%, E: 5%). No association was found between premenstrual symptom and the following variables: belonging to the opposite gender twin set, birth weight, being breast fed and vaccination. These results established a clear genetic influence in premenstrual syndrome.
Tobacco smoking perpetuates the disadvantages experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for poor maternal and infant outcomes in pregnancy. Over half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women smoke during pregnancy and few successfully quit. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women face many intrinsic barriers to quitting such as low socioeconomic disadvantage and patterns of use in family networks. There are also several extrinsic hurdles surrounding current practice guidelines and policy that may limit success in reducing smoking rates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women during pregnancy: the use of the Stages of Change (SOC) model; delay in the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); and the absence of subsidised intermittent NRT. A more proactive approach towards smoking cessation for pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women may be necessary, including moving away from the SOC model approach and subsidised provision of intermittent NRT. Comprehensive programs that take into account the family network and wider social context are also recommended.
Groups of South African, farm-reared merino lambs about 4 months old were vaccinated with extracts of adult Haemonchus contortus enriched with H11, an integral membrane protein from the parasite's intestinal microvilli, or with proteins soluble in Tween 20. The lambs were challenged with 5000 infective 3rd-stage larvae. Compared to the adjuvant-injected controls, lambs vaccinated with 350 μg/kg liveweight of the H11-enriched extract showed an 89% reduction in parasite egg production and an 88% reduction in total worm burden at post-mortem 35 days post-challenge. The H11-enriched extract contained some protein also present in the Tween 20 extract. Lambs vaccinated with 600 μg/kg of protein soluble in Tween 20 showed a 40% reduction in faecal egg counts and 51% reduction in total worm numbers 35 days post-challenge. Animals injected with 20 μg/kg of a sub-fraction containing H11 obtained from the H11 extract, showed a 71% reduction in egg output and total worm numbers.
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