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In Brazil, the buffalo milk market has been growing. However, identity and quality standards have not been established for this raw material, nor have proper distinctions between buffalo milk and bovine milk been defined. Currently, the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) has only three producers that supply raw material for officially marketed derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and quality standards of raw buffalo milk in this region. Samples were obtained biweekly from three farm cooling tanks between June 2017 and August 2018, to reach a total of 69 samples. The averages for the results of the physicochemical parameters fat, protein, lactose, total solids, SNF (solids-not-fat), calcium, density, FP, acidity and SCC were 5.5 g/100 g, 4.06 g/100 g, 5.07 g/100 g, 15.5 g/100 g, 9.96 g/100 g, 0.161 g/100 g, 1.034 g/ml, −0.527°C, 16°D and 95 × 103 cells/ml, respectively. With reference to the microbiological parameters, the mean of the Standard Plate Count (SPC) and thermotolerant coliforms were 9,0 × 104 CFU/ml and 1.6 × 102 MPN/ml, respectively. Regarding coagulase-positive staphylococci, 36 samples tested positive (52% of total). Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes, nor antibiotic or antiparasitic residues were detected in any sample. In conclusion, the buffalo milk used as raw material for dairy products in southern Brazil demonstrated satisfactory physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, in accordance with recent scientific literature.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.
We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.
We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.
This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
Modern machine learning methods have the potential to supply industrial product lifecycle management (PLM) with automated classification of product components. However, there is only little work in the literature on this topic. We propose to apply supervised machine learning on component meta-data. By analysing an industrial case study, we identify requirements and opportunities for automating classification, e.g. in part numbers and product structures. We validate our novel approach through a classification experiment comparing four machine learning methods on a realistic component dataset.
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are associated with higher risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Decreasing the unnecessary use of FQs and ESCs is a goal of antimicrobial stewardship. Understanding how prescribers perceive the risks and benefits of FQs and ESCs is needed.
We conducted interviews with clinicians from 4 hospitals. Interviews elicited respondent perceptions about the risk of ESCs, FQs, and CDI. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a flexible coding approach.
Interviews were conducted with 64 respondents (38 physicians, 7 nurses, 6 advance practice providers, and 13 pharmacists). ESCs and FQs were perceived to have many benefits, including infrequent dosing, breadth of coverage, and greater patient adherence after hospital discharge. Prescribers stated that it was easy to make decisions about these drugs, so they were especially appealing to use in the context of time pressures. They described having difficulty discontinuing these drugs when prescribed by others due to inertia and fear. Prescribers were skeptical about targeting specific drugs as a stewardship approach and felt that the risk of a negative outcome from under treatment of a suspected bacterial infection was a higher priority than the prevention of CDI.
Prescribers in this study perceived many advantages to using ESCs and FQs, especially under conditions of time pressure and uncertainty. In making decisions about these drugs, prescribers balance risk and benefit, and they believed that the risk of CDI was acceptable in compared with the risk of undertreatment.
Pharmacogenetics in schizophrenia comprises pharmacokinetical and pharmacodynamical aspects as well as an approach to identify candidate genes associated with therapy response or side effects. Firstly focussing on classical drug targets like dopaminergic or serotonergic receptors, currently also developmental and regulatory genes presumably associated with effects of antipsychotic therapy are identified. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between therapy response in schizophrenic patients and different polymorphisms previously been identified within a genome wide array in rodents treated with MK-801 and/or haloperidol combined with some well-known schizophrenia candidate genes. We genotyped for 200 different polymorphisms in 285 schizophrenic patients, who were treated with different antipsychotics within randomized controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS scale. Correlations between psychopathology and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model (ANCOVA).
We found significant associations between some well-known candidate genes (e.g. D2-, 5HT1A-, and α1A-receptors) and different PANSS subscales at baseline and after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment considered as therapy response. Furthermore we also identified several significant associations between some genes introduced from the animal model and psychopathology at baseline and towards therapy response. Some of them were formerly described in the literature (e.g. Homer1, Phospholipase C and Transthyretin), but most of them have not been related to schizophrenia or antipsychotic treatment by now (e.g. PLEKHA6, CLIC6 and SOSTDC1).
This indicates an involvement of genes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia apart from yet known candidate genes and might further help in detecting differential therapy response in individuals with schizophrenia.
Until now, no studies have been published about the prevalence and needs of children with a mentally ill parent nor about interventions for this vulnerable group in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Therefore, the multi-centre study HELP-S for Children was initiated by the University of Leipzig in cooperation with the Technical University of Dresden. The aim of HELP-S for Children is to identifiy the prevalence and specific needs of children with a mentally ill parent.
All psychiatric outpatients of Leipzig and Dresden at an appointed date will be asked to participate in the study. Patients with minor children will be asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about the perceived needs of their children and the existing and lacking support possibilities. Because there is no adequate instrument to assess the needs of the children with a mentally ill parent, we will develop a standardized questionnaire by using expert interviews and a pre-test with mentally ill parents.
The standardized questionnaire, which we will develop for this study, will be useable in other studies about needs of children with a mentally ill parent. Furthermore, we will gather information about the prevalence of children of mentally ill parents who are outpatients and about the specific needs of these children in the age of 0 to 18. These results will be presented and discussed during an expert workshop at the end of the project to explore ways to improve the situation of children with a mentally ill parent.
Forty-three patients with schizophrenia were investigated with a short neurocognitive screening battery focussing on working memory and executive functions. As compared to healthy controls, patients showed impairments in the modified card sorting test, in verbal fluency and all span tasks with exception of digit span forward. Patients who were treated with atypicals showed better performance in the digit ordering test (manipulation task) when compared to a group of patients who received conventional antipsychotics; this difference was not due to disease severity, age or education. Manipulation tasks might be useful for neurocognitive follow-up and intervention studies.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an important treatment in conjunction with psychopharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. However, there is only very little research on the effects of such interventions on brain function.
Recent studies have suggested that jumping to conclusions and a specific attributional bias is a predominant cognitive style in patients which might lead to the development of delusions. In this multi-centre fMRI trial, we investigated the effect of nine months of CBT on neural correlates of “jumping to conclusions” and the “attributional style” in patients with psychosis. Eighty patients and 80 control subjects were recruited in six centres and measured with 3-Tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) before and after CBT.
It could be shown that CBT ameliorates differences in brain activations between patients and controls after nine months.
These results support the feasibility of fMRI multicenter trials and sheds further light into the mechanisms relating psychotherapy to brain function in Schizophrenia.
Childhood Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology persists in a substantial proportion of cases into adult life. ADHD is highly heritable but the etiology of ADHD is complex and heterogeneous, involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. In the present paper we analyzed the influence of both genetics and adverse life events on severity of ADHD symptoms in 110 adult ADHD patients. Subjects were genotyped for the norepinephrine transporter (NET), the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (SERTPR) and the more rare A/G variant within SERTPR. Three main outcomes were obtained: (1) adverse events showed a small but positive correlation with current ADHD severity; (2) NET, COMT and the A/G variant within SERTPR were not associated with ADHD severity; (3) taking into account stressors, the long (L) SERTPR variant showed a mild effect on ADHD, being associated with an increased severity, particularly as regard affective dysregulations; on the other hand, in subjects exposed to early stressors, it showed a protective effect, as compared to the S variant (see table). In conclusion, our data support the role of environmental factors in adult ADHD symptomatology. SERTPR may be involved in some features of the illness and act as a moderator of environmental influences in ADHD.
Structural and functional deviations in schizophrenic patients with formal thought disorder (FTD) point towards a dysfunction within left sided language network.
Independent component analysis (ICA), a new approach to fMRI analysis, enables to target the question of a network dysfunction directly. Using this method in healthy controls it was possible to identify the language networks separately for the left and the right hemispheres In the present study we use ICA analysis to examine changes of the language network separate for each hemisphere in relation to the severity of FTD.
We hypothesize increasing disintegration with increasing severity of FTD only in the left sided language network while the right language network should remain unaffected.
We investigated 16 schizophrenic patients with different severity of FTD and matched healthy controls using ICA decomposition of the BOLD signal. The spatial similarity of the individual language networks was correlated to the severity of FTD.
The integrity of the left language network decrease with increasing severity of FTD (r = -0.79, p < 0.01), while the integrity of the right language network show no significant correlation to the severity of FTD.
For the first time the isolated breakdown of the left sided language network was linked specifically to schizophrenic FTD. This result unites older manly left hemispheric findings of structural and functional abnormalities in schizophrenic FTD.
A number of studies has been performed recently on the efficacy and tolerability of silexan, a novel preparation from lavender oil for oral use, in the treatment of anxiety disorders and related conditions with particular attention to subthreshold generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Three randomized, double-blind clinical trials were identified which investigated the efficacy of silexan in subsynromal anxiety disorder (vs. placebo; 10 weeks’ treatment), in GAD (vs. lorazepam; 6 weeks), and in restlessness and agitation (vs. placebo; 10 weeks) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. One open-label pilot study assessed the potential of the medicinal product in neurasthenia, posttraumatic stress disorder and somatization disorder (6 weeks). All trials assessed the participants’ anxiety levels using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) or the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) as well as measures of co-morbidity and clinical global impressions. Across all trials 280 patients were exposed to silexan 80 mg/day, 37 were treated with lorazepam 0.5 mg/day and 192 received placebo. Average within group HAMA total scores at baseline ranged between 24.7 and 27.1 points. Patients treated with silexan showed average HAMA total score decreases by between 10.4 ± 7.1 and 12.0 ± 7.2 points at week 6 and by between 11.8 ± 7.7 and 16.0 ± 8.3 points at week 10. In subthreshold GAD silexan was significantly superior to placebo, with a mean value difference of at least 4 points (lower bound of 95% confidence interval (CI)) after 10 weeks. In GAD silexan and lorazepam showed comparable HAMA total score reductions (90% CI for mean value difference: -2.3; 2.8 points). The decrease of anxiety levels was accompanied by a reduction of restlessness and co-morbidity, and by improvements in general well-being. The anxiolytic effect of silexan is superior to placebo and comparable to lorazepam in subthreshold and threshold GAD, respectively. The medicinal product also improved associated symptoms like restlessness, disturbed sleep and somatic complaints, and had a beneficial influence on general well-being and quality of life. Silexan may offer interesting perspectives particularly in the treatment of subthreshold GAD.
We report on the case of a patient who developed an acute meningitis and, after a period of about two weeks, without any neuropsychiatric problems, an acute paranoid-hallucinatory and catatonic syndrome. The symptomatology is discussed, in relation with the diagnostic difficulties of differentiating between a biphasic meningo-encephalitis with an organic psychosis or a first manifestation of an endogenous psychosis.
Recent data support the view that the neurodegeneration underlying sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is in part related to brain insulin deficiency and brain insulin resistance. There is a higher incidence of AD in patients with diabetes mellitus type II (T2D) and both diseases show a decline in memory function. In a preceding trial intranasal insulin improved memory function in healthy volunteers so that an increase of central-nervous insulin concentration may improve cognitive function in both amnestic patient groups.
We want to analyse the effects of intranasal insulin on patients with early Alzheimers's disease (eAD) and patients with T2D in the state of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Recruitment of 30 patients with eAD, 30 patients with T2D in aMCI state and 30 age-matched healthy controls. All patients undergo a run-in period of 2 weeks with 4 × daily administration of placebo. It follows a double blinded trial with daily intranasal administration of 4 × 40 I.U. insulin vs. placebo for 8 weeks and another 8 weeks of follow-up. At 4 defined time points memory function is assessed by word lists comprising 30 items of emotional, nutritional and neutral content which have to be memorized and are recalled after one week. To assess structural changes of the brain, a quantitative analysis for hippocampal N-acetyl-aspartate, choline and creatine is performed by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Results: Since the study has not finished yet, we present experiences from the initiation and the beginning phase.
Clinical studies point toward a potential role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding as a predictor of clinical outcome in the treatment of depression. After long-term treatment with clinical doses of SSRIs the expected SERT occupancy is about 80%. Here, we were interested to investigate the relationship of SERT occupancy values between short- and longterm treatment.
To test if the SERT occupancy at steady-state can be predicted based on the single dose occupancy by escitalopram (S-citalopram) or citalopram (racemate of S-citalopram and R-citalopram).
18 patients with major depressive disorder received either escitalpram (10 mg/d) or citalopram (20 mg/d) in a double-blind, randomized, longitudinal study. They underwent three PET scans using the radioligand [11C]DASB: PET1 baseline, PET2 6 hours after first drug intake and PET3 after three weeks of daily oral treatment. Occupancy of SERT was quantified in six subcortical regions: thalamus, N. caudatus, putamen, mibrain, dorsal raphe and median raphe nuclei. Data was analyzed by means of multiple linear regression models corrected for baseline SERT availability values using SPSS 15.0.
Single dose occupancy of the SERT significantly predicted steady-state occupancy after three weeks in three regions: thalamus (r2 = 0.45, p = 0.009), N. caudatus (r2 = 0.4, p = 0.006) and putamen (r2 = 0.43, p = 0.005). Other regions did not show significant relationships.
In this study we demonstrated that single-dose occupancy in SERT rich regions such as thalamus, N. caudatus and the putamen could serve as reliable predictors for steady-state occupancy. However, a linear model failed to explain the relationship in regions known for serotonergic cell origin.
Major depression is associated with altered neural function in frontal and limbic areas.
The findings have been inconsistent, especially those derived from cerebral blood flow (CBF) measures.
To identify differences in regional CBF between patients and controls using arterial spin labeling (ASL) at rest.
20 patients with major depression and 20 matched healthy controls were scanned in the morning with a pCASL-sequence at a 3 T Siemens scanner. Mean Hamilton Depression Score (21 item version) was 26.2 ± 5.7 for patients, mean Beck Depression Inventory scores were 28.9 ± 8.9. Mean age did not differ between groups (39.6 vs. 44.4 years). Whole brain voxelwise T-Tests were correct for multiple comparisons using a False Discovery Rate of q < 0.05.
Mean global resting CBF was not different between groups (66.1 vs. 63.0 ml/100 mg/min, T = 0.95, p = 0.35). FDR correction at q < 0.05 led to a T-value threshold of 3.71 (p < 0.001) for group comparison. Hypoperfusion in patients was detected in left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus. Hyperperfusion in patients was seen in the right superior temporal gyrus.
ASL revealed frontotemporal hypoperfusion in patients with major depression. This is in line with previous work and the current concept of depression. However, we were unable to replicate hyperperfusion in limibic areas.
There is evidence that patients with persecutory delusions tend to attribute excessively hypothetical positive events to internal causes and hypothetical negative events to external causes, arrive at hasty conclusions and fail in gathering and assessing adequate feedback, particularly when emotionally salient material is involved. Research on the neural correlates of the corresponding neural correlates and even more so on the potential effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the associated cerebral networks is almost unavailable.
The first and preliminary results of a multicentre fMRI study will be presented.
In this study eighty schizophrenia patients from the POSITIVE clinical trial and eighty healthy subjects were recruited at six German university hospitals (Bonn, Duisburg-Essen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, Tubingen). After nine months of therapy (either with CBT or Supportive Therapy) patients and controls were re-examined enabling the study correlates of cerebral reorganization processes.
We found reliable differences in brain activation relating to phenomena of decision making under uncertainty, and biased attribution (self- vs. external reference of emotional events).
The comparison of both groups revealed significant decreased activation in key areas for decision making, self-reflection, self-relevance and agency attribution of patients with schizophrenia.
The preliminary data analysis of the still blinded treatment arms shows significantly increased activations in these areas after nine months of CBT. This suggest neuroplasitic changes according to relearning strategies in psychotic patients with schizophrenia and will hopefully give rise to a more widespread application of CBT in treatment of schizophrenia.