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High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow’s energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (−16%), standing time (−38%) and heart rate (−15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (LMAX, R2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having LMAX values above TS (>LMAX: 348±17), those with LMAX values below TS (<LMAX: 109±26) had higher basal blood cortisol levels, lower concentrations of insulin, and respond to fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance towards a much stronger dominance of the sympathetic branch of the ANS and development of stress-induced hyperthermia. The data indicate a higher stress level, reduced well-being and restricted regulatory capacity in <LMAX cows. This assumption is in accord with the lower dry matter intake and energy corrected milk yield (16.0±0.7 and 42±2 kg/day) in lactating <LMAX compared with >LMAX cows (18.5±0.4 and 47.3 kg/day). From the present study, it seems conceivable that LMAX can be used as a predictive marker to discover alterations in central autonomic regulation that might precede metabolic disturbances.
Non-steady-state vertical velocities of up to 5 m a−1 exceed the vertical surface-parallel flow (SPF) components over much of the ablation area of Storstrømmen, a large outlet glacier from the East Greenland ice sheet. Neglecting a contribution to the vertical velocity of this magnitude results in substantial errors (up to 20%) also on the south–north component of horizontal velocities derived by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements. In many glacier environments, the steady-state vertical velocity component required to balance the annual ablation rate is 5–10 m a−1 or more. This indicates that the SPF assumption may be problematic also for glaciers in steady state. Here we derive the three-dimensional surface velocity distribution of Storstrømmen by using the principle of mass conservation (MC) to combine InSAR measurements from ascending and descending satellite tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle are in better agreement with the GPS velocities than the previously calculated velocities derived with the SPF assumption.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
During the past three years the measurement of stellar radial velocities has formed an important part of the spectroscopic programme of most observatories possessing large telescopes. As observations are carried to fainter and fainter stars and the number of observable objects increases rapidly, a natural development has been the selection of special groups and types of stars, the radial velocities of which will aid in the solution of certain specific problems. Illustrations are the studies of the O, B and A type stars made at the Dominion Astrophysical, the Lick, and the Simeis Observatories, of the members of the galactic clusters at the Lick Observatory, and of the fainter Cepheid variables and early-type stars with strong interstellar lines at the Mount Wilson Observatory.
The following report, which has been drawn up partly on the basis of the reports of the members of the Commission, touches briefly and without any attempt at completeness a few points of the recent developments in certain important fields falling within the domain of the Commission.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be delivered efficaciously through various modalities, including telephone (T-CBT) and face-to-face (FtF-CBT). The purpose of this study was to explore predictors of outcome in T-CBT and FtF-CBT for depression.
A total of 325 depressed participants were randomized to receive eighteen 45-min sessions of T-CBT or FtF-CBT. Depression severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were conducted with baseline participant demographics and psychological characteristics predicting depression outcomes, HAMD and PHQ-9, at end of treatment (week 18).
The demographic and psychological characteristics accurately identified 85.3% and 85.0% of treatment responders and 85.7% and 85.0% of treatment non-responders on the HAMD and PHQ-9, respectively. The Coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale predicted outcome on both the HAMD and PHQ-9; those with moderate to high CSE were likely to respond with no other variable influencing that prediction. Among those with low CSE, depression severity influenced response. Social support, physical functioning, and employment emerged as predictors only for the HAMD, and sex predicted response on the PHQ-9. Treatment delivery method (i.e. telephone or face-to-face) did not impact the prediction of outcome.
Findings suggest that the predictors of improved depression are similar across treatment modalities. Most importantly, a moderate to high level of CSE significantly increases the chance of responding in both T-CBT and FtF-CBT. Among patients with low CSE, those with lower depressive symptom severity are more likely to do well in treatment.
On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.
The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.36, I2 = 0%, 95% CI 0–58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00–12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.
The formation of low temperature Au-Ge contacts to n-GaAs is a two-step process. In the first step, the metals segregate into Au and Ge rich regions and the intermixing of the Au and Ge with the Ga and As causes a reduction in the barrier height. The second step occurs after extended annealing, during which time Au and Ge continue to diffuse into the substrate. An orthorhombic Au-Ga phase is formed and it is likely that other Au-Ga or Ge-As phases are formed. The length of the extended anneal is dependent upon the atomic percent of Ge in the film, with the 10 at. % Ge taking 6 hr., the 27 at. % Ge taking 3 hr. and the 50 at. % Ge taking 9 hr. to become ohmic. The 75 at. % Ge sample doesn’t show ohmic behavior even after 33 hr. of annealing. The metal-semiconductor interface configuration appears abrupt, showing no protrusions into the GaAs substrate.
We have studied the spectral dependence of various types of amorphous silicon-germanium (a-Si:Ge) alloy p-i-n solar cells in which the band gap of the intrinsic (i) layer is profiled between 1.4 and 1.7 eV. It is observed that the cell performance depends critically on the shape of the profile, especially for red-light illumination where the device output is found to vary by more than a factor of two. We have correlated the experimental data with optical absorption and dynamic internal collection efficiency (DICE) measurements. We have also fabricated two-cell tandem and three-cell triple devices by incorporating a-Si:Ge alloy with multiple band-gap profiles in the bottom cell and achieved 13.0% and 13.7% conversion efficiencies, respectively. These are the highest efficiency amorphous silicon-based alloy solar cells reported to date.
In this paper an overview of our developments towards industrialization of thin film silicon PV modules is presented. Amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells have been developed in medium size single-chamber R&D KAI-M PECVD reactors. High initial efficiencies of 10.6 % and stabilized of 8.6 % could be achieved for a 1 cm2 a-Si:H p-i-n solar cell of 0.20 m thick i-layer deposited on TCO from Asahi U type (SnO2). On our in-house developed LPCVD ZnO we could further improve the stabilized a-Si:H p-i-n efficiency to a similar level of 8.5 %. Incorporating such cells in commercial available front TCO of lower quality still leads to high initial mini-module aperture efficiencies (10 × 10 cm2) of 9.1% and stabilized ones of 7.46% (independently measured by ESTI JRC-Ispra).
Transferring the processes from the KAI-M to the industrial size 1.1×1.25 m2 KAI-1200 R&D reactors resulted in a-Si:H modules of 110.6 W using commercial TCO, respectively 112.4 W when applying in-house developed LPCVD front ZnO. Both initial module performances have been independently measured by ESTI laboratories of JRC Ispra. A typical temperature coefficient for the module power of -0.22 %/°C (relative loss) has been deduced from temperature dependent I-V characteristics at ESTI laboratories of JRC Ispra. Finally, micromorph mini-modules of 10 % initial aperture efficiency have been fabricated.
A simple formulation of a 9 df cubic Hermitian finite element for potential flow problems is given, using the interpolation of the BCIZ element and after Argyris, defining natural velocities parallel to the element sides. Consistent loads for body forces are also derived and it is shown that these are necessary to obtain accurate results when body forces are significant. Example problems include those of infinite domains for which simple conditions at infinity are used.
Femtosecond modelocked lasers using new ytterbium-doped borate crystals (Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3,
Yb:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 and Yb:Ca4YO(BO3)3) are demonstrated. Pulse duration as short as 69 fs
has been obtained. To modelock such lasers, fast saturable absorbers need to be used. Two
different types of fast saturable absorbers have been studied: low-temperature-grown
semiconductor mirrors (SESAM) and high-energy-ion-implanted semiconductor Bragg
reflectors (SBR). We demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that ion-implanted
SBR can be used to modelock oscillators using Yb-doped materials.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) in children is associated with various neurobehavioral disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with TS and ADHD show some difficulties with neuropsychological tasks, but we do not know if children with TS alone have neuropsychological deficits. To assess specific cognitive differences among children with TS and/or ADHD, we administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, including 10 tasks related to executive function (EF), to 10 children with TS-only, 48 with ADHD-only, and 32 with TS+ADHD. Children in all groups could not efficiently produce output on a timed continuous performance task [Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) mean reaction time and reaction time variability]. Children with TS-only appeared to have fewer EF impairments and significantly higher perceptual organization scores than children with TS+ADHD or ADHD-only. These findings suggest that deficiencies in choice reaction time and consistency of timed responses are common to all three groups, but children with TS-only have relatively less EF impairment than children with TS+ADHD or ADHD-only. (JINS, 1995, 1, 511–516.)
Large twin samples and recent applications of multiple regression techniques to behavioral genetics methodology makes possible evaluation of genetic and environmental contributions to the articulation proficiency of individual phonemes. Factor analysis of the articulation scores from 256 MZ and DZ twins and 124 of their non-twin siblings (all children ranged from 2; 11 to 9; 8 years) were conducted to reduce a 50-item articulation test to a more manageable set of five articulation factors. The twins' factor scores were then analyzed using multiple regression procedures to determine the extent to which the individual factors resulted from genetic and/or environmental influences. The /r/ and /∫, t∫, dƺ/ factors were found to have strong genetic components, while the /l, j, w/ factor was found to be strongly influenced by environmental sources of variation.
Patients with predominantly unilateral parkinsonian signs may provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the cerebral representation of cognitive functions characteristically affected in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Twenty hemiparkinsonian patients (ten left and ten right) and 10 healthy controls, matched for age and education, were studied with neuropsychological tests and positron emission tomography. Both right and left hemiparkinsonians evidenced impairments in visuospatial and verbal episodic memory function, but had no deficits in executive abilities, compared to controls. None of the neuropsychological test scores distinguished right from left hemiparkinsonians. Glucose metabolic profiles were identical for the three groups in all cortical areas assessed; in the subcortex however, lenticular hypermetabolism contralateral to the predominant side of motor involvement was evident in the left hemiparkinsonian group. Correlational analysis revealed that higher glucose metabolic rates in the basal ganglia of these hemiparkinsonians were associated with lower visuospatial test scores. In frontal and parietal cortex, decreasing glucose metabolism was positively associated with neurobehavioral function; in temporal cortex, measures of attention and memory decreased with increasing glucose metabolic rates.