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During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
We are making accurate observations of the change in Doppler shift of stellar absorption lines. The purpose is to detect the oscillatory reflex motion due to planets orbiting stars. The scrambling of incident light by an optical fiber and the stability of wavelength calibration by a Fabry-Perot etalon provide immunity to systematic errors. Selecting several echelle diffraction orders in the vicinity of 4250–4600 A, which are imaged on a CCD, about 350 points on the profile of the stellar spectrum are sampled by successive orders of interferometric transmission through the etalon. At 4300 A each interference order is 47 milliangstroms wide and the sample points are 0.64 A apart, causing distinct, widely-spaced monochromatic images of the entrance aperture to be formed in the focal plane of the camera. Changes in Doppler shift modify the relative intensities of these images, according to the slope of the spectral profile at each point sampled. To simplify operation and enhance sensitivity, the instrument is being operated as a null-measurement accelerometer, responding only to changes in radial velocity. With an argon emission line lamp the interferometer is calibrated to two parts in 100 million; this corresponds to ± 6 meters/sec in Doppler shift. These calibrations show instrumental variations of ± 27 meters/sec on a time scale of months; observations of stars are corrected for such changes. The internal repeatability of observations of the differential Doppler shift of Arcturus (K1 IIIb; B=1.19) is ± 6 meters/sec for each exposure of 600 square meter-seconds. These exposures are obtained in 15–20 minutes with a 0.9-meter telescope. The external repeatability (day-to-day differential accuracy) of nightly averages of stellar observations is ± 20 meters/second.
A survey of K giants is being conducted to search for both short- and long-term oscillations. Our radial velocity spectrometer has a short-term precision on bright stars of 4 m/s after an exposure of 3 minutes on the CCD detector. Extensive sets of observations have been reduced for Arcturus, Pollux, and Aldebaran. Power spectra show no apparent oscillations within these data sets for frequencies between 0.15 and 2.0 mHz. However, the nightly averages over a 4 month time base show a three-fold increase in variance for Arcturus when compared to Pollux. A periodogram reveals a period of 1.844 0.005 days (or its alias of 2.174 days).
A method has been devised and tested for measuring the c-axis orientation of crystal grains in thin sections of glacier ice. The crystal orientation and grain size of ice are of great interest to glaciologists since these parameters contain information on the prior thermal and flow history of the ice. The traditional method of determining c-axis orientation involves a transmission measurement through an ice sample, a process that is time-consuming and therefore impractical for obtaining a continuous record. A reflection- or backscatter-based method could potentially be used inside boreholes, with bubbles as reflectors to avoid such drawbacks. The concept demonstration of this paper is performed on ice slices, enabling a direct comparison of accuracy with traditional methods. Measurements of the crystal orientations (θ, ϕ) in 11 grains showed an average error of ±0.8° in ϕ, with no grain error >1.4°. Measurements of θ showed an average error of ±8.2° on ten grains, with unexplained disagreement on the remaining grain. Although the technique is applied specifically to glacier ice, it should be generally applicable to any transparent birefringent polycrystalline material.
The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders.
A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded. The primary outcomes were associations of genres with the medical usage rate (MUR). Secondary outcomes investigated were the association of confounders and the influences on the level of care provided, the transport rate, and the nature of medical complaint.
A total of 2,399,864 concert attendees, of which 4,546 patients presented to venue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during 403 concerts with an average of 11.4 patients (annual range 7.1-17.4) each concert. Of potential confounders, only the heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C) and whether the event was a festival were significant (P=.027 and .001, respectively). After adjustment, the genres with significantly increased MUR in decreasing order were: alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music (P<.05). Medical complaints were significantly increased with alternative rock or when the heat index was ≥90°F (32.2°C; P<.001). Traumatic injuries were most significantly increased with alternative rock (P<.001). Alcohol or drug intoxication was significantly more common in hip-hop/rap (P<.001). Transport rates were highest with alcohol/drug intoxicated patients (P<.001), lowest with traumatic injuries (P=.004), and negatively affected by heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C; P=.008), alternative rock (P=.017), and country music (P=.033).
Alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music concerts had higher levels of medical resource utilization. High heat indices and music festivals also increase the MUR. This information can assist event planners with preparation and resource utilization. Future research should focus on prospective validation of the regression equation.
Westrol MS, KoneruS, McIntyreN, Caruso AT, ArshadFH, MerlinMA. Music Genre as a Predictor of Resource Utilization at Outdoor Music Concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):289–296.
A new instrument for high-resolution optical logging has been built and tested in Antarctica. Its purpose is to obtain records of volcanic products and other scattering features, such as bubbles and impurities, preserved in polar ice sheets, and it achieves this by using long wavelength near-infrared light that is absorbed by the ice before many scattering events occur. Longer wavelengths ensure that the return signal is composed primarily of a single or few backscattering event(s) that limit its spatial spread. The compact optical logger features no components on its body that draw power, which minimizes its size and weight. A prototype of the logger was built and tested at Siple Dome A borehole, and the results were correlated with prior optical logging profiles and records of volcanic products from collected ice core samples.
Tissue transplantation is an important adjunct to modern medical care and is used daily to save or improve patient lives. Tissue allografts include bone, tendon, corneas, heart valves and others. Increasing utilization may lead to tissue shortages, and tissue procurement organizations continue to explore ways to expand the cadaveric donor pool. Currently more than half of all deaths occur outside the acute care setting.
Many who suffer prehospital deaths might be eligible for non-organ tissue donation.
A retrospective review of electronic prehospital medical records was conducted from May 1, 2008 through December 31, 2009. All prehospital deaths were included irrespective of cause. Once identified, additional medical history was obtained from prehospital, inpatient, and emergency department records. Age, medical history, and time of death were compared to exclusion criteria for four tissue procurement organizations (MTF, LifeNet, LifeCell, EyeBank). After analysis, percentages of eligible donors were calculated.
Over 50,000 prehospital records were reviewed; 432 subjects died in the field and were eligible for analysis. Ages ranged from four to 103 years of age; the average was 68.3 (SD = 20.1) years. After exclusion for age, medical conditions, and time of death, 185 unique patients (42.8%) were eligible for donation to at least one of the four tissue procurement organizations (range 11.6%-34.3%).
After prehospital death, many individuals may be eligible for tissue donation. These findings suggest that future prospective studies exploring tissue donation after prehospital death are indicated. These studies should aim to clarify eligibility criteria, create protocols and infrastructure, and explore the ethical implications of expanding tissue donation to include this population.
ShiroffAM, GaleSC, MerlinMA, CrystalJS, LingerM, ShahAD, BeaumontE, LustigerE, TabakinE, GraciasVH. Enhancing the Tissue Donor Pool through Donation after Death in the Field. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(2):1-4.
Objective: The ability to reflect rationally on one's own anomalous experiences and to recognise that their conclusions are incorrect is called as cognitive insight. It influences the delusion proneness of patients with schizophrenia. Structured instruments to assess cognitive insight have not been validated in any Indian languages so far. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the validity and factor structure of Tamil version of Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS-T).
Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with schizophrenia completed BCIS-T. We assessed their clinical insight with the reference standard, Schedule for Assessment of Insight-Expanded version (SAI-E). An independent psychiatrist evaluated their psychopathology using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).
Results: BCIS-T was internally consistent with Cronbach's α 0.67 and Guttman's split-half coefficient as 0.63. BCIS-T composite index documented convergent validity with SAI-E total score (ρ = 0.38; p < 0.001) and discriminant validity with BPRS (ρ = −0.02; p = 0.85). Factor analysis showed a four-factor structure, namely self-certainty, self-reflectiveness, openness to external feedback and infallibility of self-reflection. BCIS-T composite index had significant linear relationship with clinical insight and treatment compliance on multivariate analyses (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: Our findings support the validity of BCIS-T to assess cognitive insight of the patients with schizophrenia. We suggest addressing the intricacies of cognitive insight beyond the traditional two-dimensional models in cross-cultural settings.
Comparative tests on SGN and Radon simulated ILW vitrification with a cold crucible based experimental plant were performed. The batch was fed as paste with 20 wt.% moisture. An operation conditions, the ability of the cold crucible to maintain the differential pressure during the operation, process variables, product properties, off-gas and condensate compositions, the effect of melt agitation on melter capacity and cesium loss have been determined. Melt viscosity and resistivity have been measured. Material structures were studied using infra-red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Leach rates of sodium and potassium cations as well as Cs-137 have been measured. The behavior of sulfate and chloride ions in the vitrification process as well as their solubility in SGN and “Radon” glasses have been investigated.
In spite of an extensive bibliography available, the solubility limit of carbon
in ferrite is still uncertain (between 50 and 100 ppm at 600°C for example),
and this is not sufficient for the improvement of steel processing. Therefore we
have tried to establish as accurately as possible the solubility of carbon
between 500 and 750°C in a low carbon aluminium killed steel using a
thermoelectric power protocol, which enables to calculate the amount of free
interstitials in a ferritic matrix from the amount of interstitials that segregate
on dislocations after strain. The solubility limit has been determined at ± 2 ppm
between 550 and 730°C, and described by the relation: C(%wt) = 6.63
exp(-11.8 kcal/mol/RT). At a time when metallurgical phenomena are more
and more simulated, we believe that a similar procedure should be used for other
experimental studies providing basic data for modelling.
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