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Sexual orientation is one’s romantic preference of attraction, may it be towards the same gender or the opposite. Since ages, lot of communities have considered orientation other than heterosexuality as a taboo. Possession Trance disorder is a trance state in which there is a marked alteration in the individual’s state of consciousness and customary sense of personal identity is replaced by an external ‘possessing’ identity and in which the individual’s behavior and movements are experienced as being controlled by the possessing agent as per ICD 11. While lot of theories for such disorder are established, core of each theory lies at an unconscious underlying conflict that is not acceptable by individual’s psyche. Here is an interesting case of 30yrs old homosexual female having possession trance disorder.
To discuss a rare case of possession trance disorder due to unconscious conflict secondary to unexpressed sexual orientation.
A 30yrs old married female patient diagnosed with Possession Trance disorder as per ICD-11 was on treatment for the same since 3 yrs without improvement. She used to get possession episodes by a religious leader for few hours and would preach to his followers during such episodes. Later she was admitted in indoor facility to understand and explore her illness so as to provide an effective management. After serial interview with the patient and her relatives it was discovered that she had sexual orientation towards females(homosexual). Later on, during the course it was found that patient was attracted to a female disciple of that religious leader and to spend time with her, she used to get possession episodes. This however was not acceptable socio-culturally and by patient herself. This lead to lot of conflicts and dysfunctional marital life with husband. To begin with, patient was unable to accept this fact and reported intense guilt for the same. After serial psychotherapy sessions and pharmacotherapy, she improved significantly. Family based interventions for comprehensive improvement were carried out and the patient was discharged with significant improvement.
Discussion: Lot of communities still has immense stigma against homosexual orientation, at times upto extent to consider it to be some mental illness or supernatural interference. This leads to severe psychological trauma to the person and gives rise to inner conflicts in accepting the true self. This emphasizes a need to develop awareness amongst the communities.
This was an interesting rare case highlighting the need for community based interventions to normalize issues related to human sexuality. There is a need to bring awareness and involvement of community to improve mental health of individual as well as community.
Giardiasis is one of the most important non-viral causes of human diarrhoea. Yet, little is known about the epidemiology of giardiasis in the context of developed countries such as Australia and there is a limited information about local sources of exposure to inform prevention strategies in New South Wales. This study aimed to (1) describe the epidemiology of giardiasis and (2) identify potential modifiable risk factors associated with giardiasis that are unique to south-western Sydney, Australia. A 1:2 matched case-control study of 190 confirmed giardiasis cases notified to the South-Western Local Health District Public Health Unit from January to December 2016 was employed to investigate the risk factors for giardiasis. Two groups of controls were selected to increase response rate; Pertussis cases and neighbourhood (NBH) controls. A matched analysis was carried out for both control groups separately. Variables with a significant odds ratio (OR) in the univariate analysis were placed into a multivariable regression for each matched group, respectively. In the regression model with the NBH controls, age and sex were controlled as potential confounders. Identified risk factors included being under 5 years of age (aOR = 7.08; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–49.36), having a household member diagnosed with a gastrointestinal illness (aOR = 15.89; 95% CI 1.53–164.60) and having contact with farm animals, domestic animals or wildlife (aOR = 3.03; 95% CI 1.08–8.54). Cases that travelled overseas were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 19.89; 95% CI 2.00–197.37) when compared with Pertussis cases. This study provides an update on the epidemiology and associated risk factors of a neglected tropical disease, which can inform enhanced surveillance and prevention strategies in the developed metropolitan areas.
Thanks to significant improvements in high-resolution spectrographs and the launch of dedicated space missions MOST, CoRoT and Kepler, the number of subgiants and red-giant stars with detected oscillations has increased significantly over the last decade. The amount of detail that can now be resolved in the oscillation patterns does allow for in-depth investigations of the internal structures of these stars. One phenomenon that plays an important role in such studies are mixed modes. These are modes that carry information of the inner radiative region as well as from the convective outer part of the star allowing to probe different depths of the stars.
Here, we describe mixed modes and highlight some recent results obtained using mixed modes observed in subgiants and red-giant stars.
A simple and efficient method for the analysis of the elastic-plastic bending of shallow shells is presented. The method is based upon the concept of contour lines of equal deflection on the surface of the shell, and uses Illyushin's theory of plastic deformation. As an illustration of the method, a technically interesting example of a shallow elliptic elastic dome is examined. Results are obtained for increasing loads and varying aspect ratios, and are illustrated graphically. The application of the method to other shell geometries is quite straightforward.
Two photon absorptions (TPA) in conjugated polymers with large bond alternation are reinterpreted. TPA to the 2Ag in long chains should be tiny due to cancellation effects, and therefore the observed strong, narrow TPA is to a higher even parity state. We also present the first theoretical evidence for bound biexcitons, and explain recent photoinduced absorption data.
Collective excitations, such as plasmons, rotons, electron-hole liquid, and excitonic Molecules, have been extensively studied in condensed Matter.1 Wannier excitons in inorganic semiconductors are bound by the exchange interactions between two electrons of the exciton, and the bound state of More than two excitons is not possible. We demonstrate here a new type of collective excitations,2 bound states of Multiple charge-transfer (CT) excitons. Coulomb interactions in one dimension are shown to bind a train of several (More than two) CT excitons. Experimental evidence for these new type of elementary excitations is reported in a quasi-one-dimensional CT crystal of anthracene PMDA. High density excitation by femtosecond light pulses generates Multi-exciton chains, which we refer to as excitonic n-strings with n = 1, 2, 3, etc., along the stack axis of the crystal. Both the n = 2 excitonic string (biexciton) and the n = 3 string (tri-exciton) are observed. This report provides evidence for an n > 2 exciton chain in this system.2 The stability of the n-string exciton is supported by our theoretical calculations based on the extended Hubbard Hamiltonian in one dimension.
We present experimental and theoretical results on electro-optical properties of some polymeric films. Specifically, we report on our measurements regarding a new, completely polymeric and potentially photorefractive material with a large electro-optic coefficient and photoconductivity. Furthermore, we summarize our investigations of electro-absorption in a DCH polydiacetylene where the important contributions of continuum threshold on the nonlinear and electro-optical properties of conjugated polymers are emphasized.
Using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, bleaching of the π-π* absorption Q-band, and photo-induced absorption on the high energy side of the Q-band, have been observed and time-resolved in a nearly-amorphous thin film of fluoro-aluminum phthalocyanine. Following excitation, the induced absorption signal develops as the absorption saturation signal diminishes, suggesting exciton decay into a subgap state. The different bimolecular decay dynamics observed for the absorption saturation (τeff ≈700 fs) and induced absorption (τeff ≈ 2 ps) signals support this conclusion. Possible origins of the subgap state are discussed. In addition, polarization-dependent spectral hole burning is observed at very early times. These results suggest the need for exploration of thin phthalocyanine films which are ordered in three dimensions over distances of at least 200–300 Å. Initial femtosecond results for epitaxially-grown chloro-indium phthalocyanine structures, which meet these criteria, are similar to those for the nearly-amorphous film, but indicate an additional polarization-dependent photo-induced absorption within the Q-band.
The third order nonlinear optical properties of conjugated polymers have been considered promising since the 1970s when Sauteret et al reported large non-resonant values in PTS. Although it is well-understood that the physical origin of the nonlinearities is due to the delocalization of the π-electrons, the details, and how best to calculate them have been the focus of a continuing theoretical dialogue. Until recently, experimental investigations of nonlinearities have been limited to only a few wavelengths. Now third harmonic generation (THG), which accesses only the electronic nonlinearities, can be performed over wide spectral ranges, for example from 500 to 2000 nm. The resulting third harmonic wavelength typically spans the electronic molecular transitions associated with the nonlinearities. By measuring the spectral distribution of both the amplitude and phase of the third harmonic signal, the dominant transitions (between the“essential states”) contributing to the nonlinearity can be identified. Such information is most useful for comparing with theories in which the oscillator strengths (transition dipole moments) for the various molecular transitions are calculated.
Using exact finite-size diagonalizations of extended Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonians for systems of up to 15 sites, we study the excited state spectra of models for the finite oligomer analogs of trans– and cis– polyacetylene. We use a novel “phase randomization” technique and a variety of other methods to extract maximal information from these small systems. For several electron-phonon couplings in the expected range, we discuss the extent to which we are able to find consistent values of the Hubbard on-site (U) and nearest-neighbor (V) correlation parameters such that the band gap, the 2 1Ag state, optical phonon frequency, and the optical absorptions for charged and neutral solitons and dimers occur in the experimentally expected ranges. Our results suggest that these correlation parameters are in the intermediate coupling regime (U ⋍ 2.5t0), beyond the range of perturbation theory.
The variation of resistivity of the lithium fast-ion conductor Li3+y Ge1−yO4 (y = 0.25, 0.6, 0.72) has been studied with hydrostatic pressure up to 70 kbar and compared with that of Li16−2x Znx (GeO4)4(x = 1, 2). Both types showed pronounced resistivity maxima between 20–30 kbar and marked decrease thereafter. Measurements as a function of temperature between 120–300 K permitted the determination of activation energies and prefactors that also showed corresponding maxima. The activation volumes (ΔV) of the first type of compound varied between 4.34 to −4.90 cm3/mol at 300 K and decreased monotonically with increasing temperature. For the second type ΔV was much smaller, varied with pressure between 0.58 and −0.24 cm3/mol, and went through a maximum with increasing temperature. High-pressure studies were also conducted on aged samples, and the results are discussed in conjunction with results of impedance measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. The principal effect of pressure appears to be variations of the sum of interatomic potentials and hence barrier height, which also causes significant changes in entropy.
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