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The transgenic Liberty Link® (LL) soybean is tolerant to glufosinate, conferred by the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which is encoded by the pat gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Because symptoms of injury can be observed in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants in some situations, this study evaluated the effects of rates of glufosinate on agronomic performance; quality of LL soybean seeds; and the ammonia, glufosinate, and N-acetyl-l-glufosinate concentration (NAG) in soybeans with and without the pat gene after application of increasing glufosinate rates. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted; the first evaluated the selectivity of glufosinate in LL soybeans, and the second evaluated the metabolic changes in soybeans with (LL) and without (RR2) the pat gene, after application of glufosinate. For fieldwork, application of glufosinate at rates up to four times the maximum recommended caused initial injury symptoms (up to 38.5%) in LL soybean plants. However, no negative effect was found on seed quality and agronomic performance of LL plants, including yield. This shows the selectivity of glufosinate promoted by pat gene insertion for application in POST (V4), in LL soybean. For the greenhouse experiment, it was concluded that the LL soybean plants presented high glufosinate metabolism, lower ammonia concentration, and no reduction in dry matter, in comparison with RR2 soybean, after application of high rates of glufosinate.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread and long-lasting pain, tenderness, and fatigue. It is associated with impaired quality of life, and significant social and health burden.
The etiopathogenesis of this condition is presently undefined, but is probably multifactorial. The hypothesis of a clinical endocannabinoid deficiency has been proposed. In fact, recent studies suggest that synthetic cannabinoids might be an effective therapy in patients with fibromyalgia.
Based on the clinical case of a female patient whose cannabis use was related to symptomatic relief of fibromyalgia, the authors review issues concerning the endocannabinoid system, its possible relation to this challenging pain disorder, and therapeutic possibilities with synthetic cannabinoids.
The aging person with Intellectual Disability (DI) occurs early and uncharacteristically, accompanied by disability and increase the degree of dependence in everyday occupations. This aging still unknown in Brazil, is confirmed by the absence of theoretical models and lack of evidence to base clinical practice. The need for differentiated interventions highlights the importance of creating calls that address their needs and demands programs. Given this, created the program which Multidisciplinary Consulting aims to describe its actions on the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF and working methodology of Therapeutic Project Single - PTS for family in the daily management of the person with DI in the aging process, focusing on maintenance and prevention of disability and quality of life. Experience Report. The sessions take place at home, 2 times per week and lasting 1h30min. Will be met by the professional staff people with DI, both genders, aged 30 years, with cognitive decline - functional and / or alteration of mood and behavior kept a period of at least 6 months, with or without hypothesis syndrome dementia. Interventions occur at three levels of care according to the degree of impairment of functionality: 1-Diagnosis Clinical-functional application Wide Geriatric Evaluation - AGA; 2-Cognitive Intervention and Rehabilitation / Functional; 3-Monitoring functionality and palliative care. This program will contribute to maintenance, prevention of disabilities and less need for assistance of another person to care. Should be reproduced in other professional and specialized services.
People with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) are aging and accompanied the process are co-morbidities and disabilities. Have limitations in mental function and performance of activities, prior to 18 years and aging tend to exacerbate disabilities and increase dependency. Analyze the functional profile of the population enrolled in service for people with ID in the aging process by measuring and comparing the degree of dependency to perform everyday activities. Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted between January to August 2014, with 112 men and women between 36 and 65 years, diagnosed with DI Used the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) to measure functional independence in six areas of life. The majority are male (68.55%), with 46.6 years, unspecified etiology (47%), degree of impairment of moderate disability (34.65%) and modified to full independence, FIM = 105.64 (72 %). In the analysis by areas, identified greater needs for supervision and minimal-moderate aid in communication and social-cognition and greater independence in self-care, sphincter control, mobility and locomotion. These data show the description of the literature in relation to major adaptive disabilities of DI for communication, cognition and social interaction, and even favorable predisposing factors of aging and dementias such as Alzheimer's type. Highlights the importance of expanding this research to longitudinal monitoring functionality, contributing to the understanding of the aging of the population, with associated co-mobidades and dementia syndromes. This study try to contribute to this knowledge of the aging population and to promote research for prevention and health promotion.
People with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) are aging and accompanied the process are the co-morbidities and disabilities. Have limitations in mental function and performance of activities, prior to 18 years and aging tend to exacerbate disabilities and increase dependency. Analyze and compare the functional profile of people with DI aged to the degree of prejudice to the deficiency diagnosed during childhood - adolescence. Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted between January to August 2014, with 124 men and women between 36 and 65 years, diagnosed with DI and enrolled in a specialized service. We used the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) to measure the functional independence and chart review for the collection of diagnostic data. Most are men, 46.6 years, non-specified etiology, degree of impairment of moderate functional disability and independent (105.64 points). The functional level ranged from complete dependence to the modified independence, communication and social cognition being the most limiting. The comparison of results between MIF and diagnostics data records proved conflicting as to the degree of mild and moderate impairment. People with moderate impairment showed higher levels of independence than light. It is believed that some factors influence these findings, nondiagnostic update, the influence of the quantity and quality of stimuli during life and the aging process. Highlights the importance of expanding the search for the longitudinal monitoring of the functionality of these people, contributing to the understanding of the aging process, the diagnostic changes in the degree of compromise of the DI and the promotion and prevention of health and functionality.
Diet and physical activity interventions are effective in psychiatric outpatients that suffer from obesity, namely those treated with antipsychotic drugs. However, there is less evidence related to these interventions in hospitalised acute patients.
To evaluate the effect of a diet and physical activity program on weight and BMI variation in acute psychiatric patients during hospitalisation.
Matched case-control study from January to September 2016. Inclusion criteria: patients with at least 15 days of hospitalisation in an acute psychiatry ward, evaluated by a nutritionist in the admission and medical discharge. The intervention consisted in a diet and physical activity program, with total restriction to visitors to bring food to the patients. Statistical analysis was done with T-student and multiple linear regression taking into account the effect of age, sex, daily dose of antipsychotics, and days of hospitalisation.
Sixty-six patients were studied (34 cases and 32 controls). Groups were statistically similar concerning the average of age, daily dose of antipsychotics, days of hospitalisation and sex. The differences of weight gain during hospitalisation were 0.088 kg (cases) versus 1484 kg (controls), P < 0.05. And the differences of the increased BMI during the hospitalisation were 0.041 kg/m2 (cases) versus 0.509 kg/m2 (controls), P < 0.05.
Obesity presents challenging health problems for individuals with severe mental illness that require inpatient treatment. This study provides evidence that individuals with acute mental illness can benefit from weight control interventions during their hospitalisation, in special a total restriction to visitors to bring food to the patients.
Although being highly consensual that antipsychotic adherence is an important outcome predictor in psychosis, existing reviews have found mean rates of adherence around 40–60%. Several aspects, such as patient-related, medication-related, environmental-related variables have been described as important predictors.
This study aim is to develop, administer and present preliminary psychometric properties of a new scale for antipsychotic medication adherence that includes different types of predictors (clinical, psychosocial, and practical among others).
The “AMAS” was developed by a multidisciplinary team and was based on recent research on factors influencing antipsychotic adherence. The scale evolved from multiple drafts and experts were contacted in order to improve the final version. Over 50 patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic-spectrum disorder taking antipsychotic medication will be assessed with the “AMAS” and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Additionally, each patient's psychiatrist will fill in a form with demographic and clinical variables (such as type of symptoms, previous adherence problems, current adherence, insight and other relevant variables).
This is an ongoing study and the sample is still being collected (scheduled finish date: February/2016). Our statistical analysis’ plan includes: reliability analysis (Chronbach's alpha, alpha if item deleted, inter item correlations and covariances and item-total correlations); validity (convergent validity); factorial analysis.
It is hypothesized that the “AMAS” will be a practical, reliable and valid unidimentional instrument with clinical utility assessing adherence to antipsychotics. The “AMAS” can be also useful in assessing intervention targets (e.g. psychoterapeutical, psychoeducational) to enhance adherence.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We investigated whether high adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet was independently associated with lower risk of incident hypertension. Participants included 5632 adults, without hypertension at the baseline (2008–2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, who took part in the second follow-up visit (2012–2014). Adherence to the DASH diet was estimated at baseline using a score based on eight food items (final scores from 8 to 40 points) and was categorised as high adherence (≥30 points, or ≥75 %) and low adherence (<75 %; reference). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive drugs. The association between adherence to the DASH diet and the risk of incident hypertension was estimated using Cox regression models adjusted by covariates. In total, 780 new cases of hypertension (13·8 %) were identified in about 3·8-year follow-up. Participants with high adherence to the DASH diet had 26 % lower risk of hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) 0·74; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·95) after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, diabetes and family history of hypertension. The HR reduced to 0·81 (95 % CI 0·63, 1·04) and was of borderline statistical significance after adjustment for BMI, suggesting that lower body weight explains about 10 % of the association between high adherence to the DASH diet and hypertension risk reduction. The results indicate that high adherence to the DASH diet lowered the risk of hypertension by one-fourth over a relatively short follow-up period.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma are unicellular flagellated microorganisms of the Trypanosomatidae. This study describes an isolate of the genus Trypanosoma naturally infecting Rhipicephalus microplus ticks, characterized through molecular, morphological and biological analysis. Trypanosome cultures, designated strain P1RJ, were obtained by isolation from R. microplus haemolymph in cultures of the tick cell line IDE8. After isolation, strain P1RJ grew well axenically in L15B medium at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34 °C. The new trypanosome remained stable in axenic culture over 14 passages in L15B at 30 °C and was successfully cryopreserved and resuscitated. Morphometric analysis was performed on randomly selected developmental forms. 18S rRNA and 24Sα rDNA sequence analyses confirmed that strain P1RJ is a new species of the genus Trypanosoma. The nucleotide sequences described were submitted to Genbank. Pathogenicity, involvement in vertebrate hosts, epidemiology, developmental cycle and transmission mechanisms of strain P1RJ are still unknown. Therefore, more studies will be necessary to determine life cycle aspects of this trypanosome, for which we propose the name Trypanosoma rhipicephalis sp. nov.
Four multidisciplinary oceanographic surveys were conducted in November and December from 2007 to 2010, along the Mauritanian coast (NW Africa). A total of 10,514 brachyuran crabs belonging to 33 species were captured in 316 hauls at depths between 79 and 1867 m. The most specious family was Inachidae represented by nine species; the remaining 24 species belonged to 16 other brachyuran families. Monodaeus cristulatus is reported for the first time since its original description. Seven other species, Ethusa rugulosa, Pseudomyra mbizi, Inachus grallator, Macropodia gilsoni, Macropodia hesperiae, Solenolambrus noordendei and Spinolambrus notialis extend their range of distribution northwards and, together with Goneplax barnardi, are reported here for the first time in Mauritanian waters. New data about depth ranges are reported for Acanthocarpus brevispinis, Ethusa rugulosa, Inachus aguiarii, Inachus grallator, Inachus nanus, Macropodia macrocheles, Solenolambrus noordendei, Spinolambrus notialis, Liocarcinus corrugatus and Monodaeus cristulatus. New data relating to the spawning period for most of the species are also included, as are some biogeographic and bathymetric considerations about brachyurans studied in the area.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.
To evaluate the association between weight gain in the first two years of life and the occurrence of wheezing, asthma, serum IgE, skin reactivity and pulmonary function.
The metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
The association was studied between 1997 and 2005 in 669 children up to 11 years of age. Data were collected on asthma and risk factors, both current factors and those present in the first years of life. Weight gain was considered fast when the Z-score was >0·67. Poisson regression was used in the multivariate statistical analysis.
Wheezing was reported in 25·6 % of the children. Weight gain was considered fast (Z-score >0·67) in 29·6 % of the children and slow (Z-score <−0·67) in 13·9 %. Children in the slow weight gain group had 36 % fewer symptoms of asthma (prevalence ratio = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·99).
Slower weight gain in the early years of life may constitute a protective factor against symptoms of asthma. The relevance of this finding for public health is not yet certain, since it is known that children with slow and fast weight gain may be more likely to develop adverse health consequences related to both these situations.
The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TIO2 NPs) and oxidative stress effects were studied in two freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus and Danio rerio) exposed for 21 days to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100/mgL) of TiO2 NPs and to a control (tap water). Additional fish were transferred to clean water for 14 days to assess the ability to recover from exposure to TiO2 NPs. Activities of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) (malondialdheyde) were measured as indicators of oxidative stress. Histological and ultra-structural changes in livers from bothspecies of fish were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results show a general GST activity increase according to TiO2 NPs concentrations, which is in agreement with data from LPO. After 21 days, GST activities decreased possibly caused by suppression of GST synthesis as a result of severe stress. Histological and ultra-structural analysis of livers from exposed fish show degeneration of the hepatic tissue and alterations in hepatocytes such as glycogen depletion and an increase in lipofucsin lysosome-like granules. After a depuration period a partial recovery for biochemical markers and cells was observed. The results suggest that TiO2 promotes alterations in hepatic tissues compatible with oxidative stress.
Previous studies have described promising antitumor activity of an organometallic Ru(II) complex, η5-Cyclopentadienyl(2,2′-bipyridyl)(triphenylphosphane) Ruthenium(II) triflate ([(η5-C5H5)Ru(2,2′-bipyridyl)(PPh3)][CF3SO3]) herein designated as TM34. Its broad spectrum of activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines and high antiproliferative efficiency prompted us to focus on its mode of action. We present herein results obtained with two human tumor cell lines A2780 and MDAMB231 on the compound distribution within the cell, the mechanism of its activity, and its cellular targets. The prospective metallodrug TM34 revealed: (a) fast antiproliferative effects even at short incubation times for both cell lines; (b) preferential localization at the cell membrane and cytosol; (c) cellular activity by a temperature-dependent process, probably macropinocytosis; (d) inhibition of a lysosomal enzyme, acid phosphatase, in a dose-dependent mode; and (e) disruption and vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus, which suggest the involvement of the endosomal/lysosomal system in its mode of action. These results are essential to elucidate the basis for the cytotoxic activity and mechanism of action of this RuII(η5-cyclopentadienyl) complex.
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia play a crucial role in its clinical manifestation and seem to be related to changes in the cholinergic system, specifically the action of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Considering this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effects of ketamine in the activity of AChE, as well as in behavioural parameters involving learning and memory.
The ketamine was administered for 7 days. A duration of 24 h after the last injection, the animals were submitted to behavioural tests. The activity of AChE in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum was measured at different times after the last injection (1, 3, 6 and 24 h).
The results indicate that ketamine did not affect locomotor activity and stereotypical movements. However, a cognitive deficit was observed in these animals by examining their behaviour in inhibitory avoidance. In addition, an increase in AChE activity was observed in all structures analysed 1, 3 and 6 h after the last injection. Differently, serum activity of AChE was similar between groups.
Chronic administration of ketamine in an animal model of schizophrenia generates increased AChE levels in different brain tissues of rats that lead to cognitive deficits. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms associated with schizophrenia.
Amoebae graze on bacteria from the environment. In some cases, bacteria acquire resistance to the destructive action of amoebae and survive inside the host. The resistance of microorganisms to amoebae is often accompanied by resistance to the physiologically related human macrophage and displays increased pathogenic potential to humans. The association of bacteria with amoebae, that are ubiquitous in the environment, protects the bacteria from common disinfection measures. This leads to the creation of reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms that are difficult to eradicate. This process occurs widely in the environment, but is of special concern in hospitals, where many established and emerging pathogens involved in nosocomial disease, such as Legionella pneumophila, are increasingly being identified in association with amoebae. One particularly important amoeba-associated microorganism (AAM) is the newly recognized giant mimivirus, a member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large Deoxyribovirus (NCLDV) group. The virus has been isolated from hospital sources in France and, together with other members of the NCLDV group, is known from metagenomic studies to be widespread in the Oceans, representing one of the main groups of marine viruses. Our project aims to detect amoeba and potentially pathogenic AAMs with particular relevance to the NCLDVs in the environment and in hospital facilities. In the present work we have developed methods for detection, isolation and in vitro culture of amoebae from several environmental sources including hospital dust, sea water and estuarine sediments.