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Ornithopters and entomopters should be insensitive to the gusty environment during outdoor operations. Hence, it becomes imperative to understand their behaviour under the influence of gust for ensuring stable flight. In light of this, the present numerical study focused on understanding the aerodynamics of flapping wings with five different planform shapes under the influence of a spatiotemporally varying frontal gust. 3D, unsteady, laminar, and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume formulation. A canonical case of asymmetric 1 degree of freedom (DoF) flapping kinematics was considered. Horizontal and vertical force patterns in constant and gusty inflow conditions were numerically computed and compared. Findings were analyzed quantitatively by comparing the differences in the instantaneous force patterns, ordinal scoring approach, and phase space plots. Qualitative comparisons were made based on plots of vortex structures and surface pressure contours for constant and gusty inflow conditions for wings with different planform shapes. Spanwise Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) of all the five wings were also compared. Studies revealed that the elliptical wing exhibited low sensitivity and inverse semi-elliptical wing exhibited high sensitivity to the gusty inflow. Rectangular, triangular and semi-elliptical shaped wings were moderately sensitive to the gusty inflow. This finding, within the limitations of the flapping kinematics and simulation conditions considered for the present study, supported the fact that many natural flyers like forest raptors, non-migratory passerines, pheasants, and partridges have adopted elliptical wing planform for efficient flight.
We report new laboratory experiments of a flow accelerating from an initially turbulent state following the opening of a valve, together with large eddy simulations of the experiments and extended Stokes first problem solutions for the early stages of the flow. The results show that the transient flow closely resembles an accelerating laminar flow superimposed on the original steady turbulent flow. The primary consequence of the acceleration is the temporal growth of a boundary layer from the wall, gradually leading to a strong instability causing transition. This extends the findings of previous direct numerical simulations of transient flow following a near-step increase in flow rate. In this interpretation, the initial turbulence is not the primary characteristic of the resulting transient flow, but can be regarded as noise, the evolution of which is strongly influenced by the development of the boundary layer. We observe the spontaneous appearance of turbulent spots and discontinuities in the velocity signals in time and space, revealing rich detail of the transition process, including a striking contrast between streamwise and wall-normal fluctuating velocities.
Childhood varicella vaccination has not yet been introduced in the UK. To inform decision-making about future vaccine programmes, data on the burden of varicella in general practice over a 10-year period (01/01/2005–31/12/2014) was calculated by age and ethnicity, using anonymised data from >8 million individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Varicella consultations peaked at 20 603 in 2007, then decreased annually in all age groups to 11 243 in 2014. Each year, consultation rates were common among infants, were highest among 1–3 year olds (61·2 consultations/1000 person-years in 2007, 39·7/1000 person-years in 2014) and then fell with increasing age to <1·0/1000 person-years at ages ⩾20 years. Varicella acquisition appeared to be delayed in some ethnic groups, with lower consultation rates for children aged <3 years but increased rates for older children and adults aged ⩽40 years among those of black African, Afro-Caribbean, South Asian or other Asian ethnicity. Decreasing general practice consultation rates over time could reflect changes in healthcare utilisation, with patients seeking care in alternative settings such as Accident and Emergency Departments, although current data prevent full assessment of this. Availability of data on varicella diagnoses across all health settings would enable estimation of the total healthcare burden due to varicella and the cost-effectiveness of introducing varicella vaccination.
Theoretically determined vertical excitation energies of C5 and C7 molecules have been shown to agree with the strongest diffuse interstellar band at 4430Å. Several other weak diffuse bands can be identified with vibrational transitions, if 4430Å band is taken as 0-3 transition and vibrational constant have a value of 2190cm−1. The vertical excitation energy of a second electronic transition of C7 molecule agrees with diffuse band at 6177Å. This electronic band system may account for diffuse bands at 5778Å, 6660Å and other bands near them.
Prematurity is a risk factor for hypertension, vascular stiffness, nephron deficit and adult onset cardiorenal disease. The vascular tree and kidneys share morphogenic drivers that promote maturation in utero before 36 weeks of gestation. Vascular elastin accrual terminates after birth leaving collagen to promote vascular stiffness. Our objective was to determine if the histomorphometry of the umbilical artery, an extension of the aorta, parallels nephron mass across gestational age groups. From a cohort of 54 newborns, 32 umbilical cord specimens were adequate for evaluation. The umbilical cord was sectioned, stained with trichrome, and digitalized. Muscular and collagenous areas of the umbilical artery were measured in pixels using the Image J 1.48q software. Total kidney volume was measured by ultrasound and factored by body surface area (TKV/BSA). The umbilical artery total area was significantly greater in term v. preterm infants (9.3±1.3 v. 7.0±2.0 mm2; P<0.05) and increased with gestational age; while the percent muscular and collagen areas were independent of gestational age (R2=0.04; P=ns). Percent muscular area correlated positively with TKV/BSA (r=0.53; P=0.002); while an increase in collagen correlated inversely with kidney mass (r=−0.53; P=0.002). In conclusion, an enhanced % muscular area and presumed vascular elasticity was associated with increased renal mass in all infants. Umbilical artery histomorphometry provides a link between the intrauterine environment, vascular and kidney development.
Rapid climatic and socio-economic changes challenge current agricultural R&D capacity. The necessary quantum leap in knowledge generation should build on the innovation capacity of farmers themselves. A novel citizen science methodology, triadic comparisons of technologies or tricot, was implemented in pilot studies in India, East Africa, and Central America. The methodology involves distributing a pool of agricultural technologies in different combinations of three to individual farmers who observe these technologies under farm conditions and compare their performance. Since the combinations of three technologies overlap, statistical methods can piece together the overall performance ranking of the complete pool of technologies. The tricot approach affords wide scaling, as the distribution of trial packages and instruction sessions is relatively easy to execute, farmers do not need to be organized in collaborative groups, and feedback is easy to collect, even by phone. The tricot approach provides interpretable, meaningful results and was widely accepted by farmers. The methodology underwent improvement in data input formats. A number of methodological issues remain: integrating environmental analysis, capturing gender-specific differences, stimulating farmers' motivation, and supporting implementation with an integrated digital platform. Future studies should apply the tricot approach to a wider range of technologies, quantify its potential contribution to climate adaptation, and embed the approach in appropriate institutions and business models, empowering participants and democratizing science.
Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range −86–129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI −4.0–6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57–103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.
Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000–2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. We suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.
Many years of study have failed to establish conclusively relationships between a quasar’s spectral energy distribution (SED) and the emission lines it is thought to produce. This is at least partially due to the lack of well-observed SEDs. We present initial results from a line–SED study for a sample of 43 quasars and active galaxies for which we have optical and ultraviolet spectra and far-infrared–X-ray SEDs. We present the results of tests for correlations between line equivalent widths and SED luminosity and slope parameters and compare these results to those from earlier studies. We find that the Baldwin effect is weaker when the luminosity is defined close to the ionizing continuum of that line and conclude that the detailed SED is likely to be important in making further progress.
Studies have linked ethnic differences in depression rates with neighbourhood ethnic density although results have not been conclusive. We looked at this using a novel approach analysing whole population data covering just over one million GP patients in four London boroughs.
Using a dataset of GP records for all patients registered in Lambeth, Hackney, Tower Hamlets and Newham in 2013 we investigated new diagnoses of depression and antidepressant use for: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black Caribbean and black African patients. Neighbourhood effects were assessed independently of GP practice using a cross-classified multilevel model.
Black and minority ethnic groups are up to four times less likely to be newly diagnosed with depression or prescribed antidepressants compared to white British patients. We found an inverse relationship between neighbourhood ethnic density and new depression diagnosis for some groups, where an increase of 10% own-ethnic density was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduced odds of depression for Pakistani [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.93], Indian (OR 0.88, CI 0.81–0.95), African (OR 0.88, CI 0.78–0.99) and Bangladeshi (OR 0.94, CI 0.90–0.99) patients. Black Caribbean patients, however, showed the opposite effect (OR 1.26, CI 1.09–1.46). The results for antidepressant use were very similar although the corresponding effect for black Caribbeans was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.07).
New depression diagnosis and antidepressant use was shown to be less likely in areas of higher own-ethnic density for some, but not all, ethnic groups.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Stars are changing entities in a constant evolution during their lives. At non-secular time scales – from seconds to years – the effect of dynamical processes such as convection, rotation, and magnetic fields can modify the stellar oscillations. Convection excites acoustic modes in solar-like stars, while rotation and magnetic fields can perturb the oscillation frequencies, lifting the degeneracy in the azimuthal component m of the eigenfrequencies (see Chapter 9 for the case in which rotation is slow and first-order perturbative theory can be used). Moreover, the interaction between rotation, convection, and magnetic fields can produce magnetic dynamos, which sometimes yield to regular magnetic activity cycles.
In this chapter we review how stellar dynamics can be studied and explain what long-term seismic observations can bring to the understanding of this field. Thus, we show how we can study some properties of the convective time scales operating in a star like the Sun. We also compare the stratified information we can obtain on the internal (radial) differential rotation from main-sequence solar-like stars to the Sun, and to more evolved subgiants and giants. We complement this information on the internal rotation with the determination of the surface (latitudinal differential) rotation obtained directly from the lightcurves. Indeed, when stars are active there can be spots on their surfaces dimming the light emitted. When the star rotates, the emitted light will be modulated by the presence of these spots with a period corresponding to the rotation rate at the active latitudes (where the spots develop). We finally give a brief summary of stellar magnetic studies based on spectroscopic observations and then we discuss the use of seismology to better understand the stellar magnetism of solar-like stars and the existence of possible magnetic cycles. We conclude this chapter by discussing the seismology of fast rotating stars and, from a theoretical point of view, what are the current challenges to infer properties of the internal structure and dynamics of intermediate-and high-mass stars.
Designing bioactive materials, with controlled metal ion release, exerting significant bioactivity and associated low toxicity for humans, is nowadays one of the most important challenges for the scientific community. In this work, we propose a new material combining the well-known antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with those of bioactive chitosan (CS), a cheap natural polymer widely exploited for its biodegradability and nontoxicity. Here, we used ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses to finely fragment, via laser ablation, a Cu solid target immersed into aqueous CS solutions. Homogeneously dispersed copper-chitosan (Cu-CS) colloids were obtained by tuning the Cu/CS molar ratios, according to the initial chitosan concentration, as well as other experimental parameters. Cu-CS colloids were characterized by several techniques, like UV-Vis and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to morphologically characterize the novel nanocomposites.
The present work focuses on the polyol-mediated synthesis of pure and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesized samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques. The Standard Plate Count was used to assess the bactericidal properties of the nanoparticles against E. coli at 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm of concentration. The capacity of the Zn-Mg oxides to generate singlet oxygen (SO) species was also evaluated. X-ray diffraction information evidenced the formation of ZnO-wurtzite; no diffraction peaks corresponding to isolated Mg-phases were detected. The average crystallite size of the Zn-Mg oxide nanocrystals was estimated in the 6nm - 7nm range. Infrared spectroscopy measurements confirmed the formation of the oxide with a Metal-Oxygen band centered on 536 cm-1; other bands associated to the functional groups of polyol by product were also observed. The exciton peak of UV spectrum suggests similarity in the particle size with the dopant addition. The effect of particle composition (i.e. doping level) on the corresponding generation of SO and bactericidal capacity is presented and discussed.
We have developed a new method for controlling the size, crystallinity, and polydispersity of 100–2000 nm tetrafluoride phosphor particles. Five polyol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were downselected out of a set of more than 130 candidates. We analyzed their benefits in synthesizing phosphor matrix particles of β-NaYF4, β-NaYbF4, and β-NaGdF4. We produced green (λmax = 540 nm) and blue/UV (λmax = 450 nm) upconverting phosphors in DES using Yb,Er and Yb,Tm codopants, respectively. The blue/UV phosphor reaction was scaled the up to 25 L, yielding nearly 400 g of high-quality, bright photoluminescent, β-phase product under mild conditions. We conclude that polyol-based DES systems offer a uniquely specialized and useful toolkit for phosphor synthesis.
Solution-based fabrication methods have been widely used for depositing uniform functional coatings. These coatings can be utilized in a variety of applications such as optoelectronics, biomedical, and energy. However, such fabrication techniques are not appropriate for directly depositing patterned micro/nano-scale features, which are required in many contact-based applications such as in MEMS.
In this work we propose the direct writing of hydrophobic silica-based sol-gel patterns with sustained functionality and their subsequent tribological characterization. Such an approach may be an advantageous alternative to current lithography-based methods due to the relative ease of processing and low material waste. This investigation involves the abrasive wear and frictional analysis of patterned fluorinated silica sol-gel coatings that are directly printed onto glass substrates with a robotically controlled pneumatic nozzle system. Such work sheds light on the tribological properties of lithography-free processed hydrophobic patterns for applications spanning from micromotors to biomedical fluidic devices.
A PbSe film was grown by chemical bath deposition on a thermally oxidized Si (111) substrate. Morphological change of the PbSe film during sensitization under the oxygen and iodine atmospheres was studied by SEM. The as-grown polycrystalline PbSe film consists of clusters of about 200nm in diameter. By the oxidation treatment for 30 min at 380°C, the clusters became joined together. On the other hand, recrystallization of new PbSe crystals with faceted surfaces occurred during the iodination treatment under an iodine plus nitrogen atmosphere at 380°C for different durations. This morphological change during the sensitization treatment might affect the electro-optical properties of the PbSe film.
In here we depict the morphogenesis and associated properties of TiO2-based macroscopic fibers designed for the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We employed a continuous industrially scalable extrusion-based process making the use of hybrid sols of amorphous titania nanoparticles, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and occasionally latex nanoparticles. This process allowed for the continuous generation of hybrid TiO2/latex/PVA or TiO2/PVA macroscopic fibers. Upon thermal treatment, biphasic porous fibers are obtained containing the anatase phase of TiO2 with 10-15% of brookite. These fibers, which can be manufactured under several hundred meter of length, are offering significantly improved phototocatalytic efficiency now comparable to the commercial Quartzel®PCO photocatalyst for gas-phase acetone mineralization.