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The study examined (a) whether alcohol use subgroups could be identified among African Americans assessed from adolescence through early adulthood, and (b) whether subgroup membership was associated with the interaction between internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and environmental characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage). Participants (N = 436) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention trial in a Mid-Atlantic city. Youths reported on the frequency of their past year alcohol use from ages 14–26. DNA was obtained from participants at age 21. Internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior PRSs were created based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by Benke et al. (2014) and Tielbeek et al. (2017), respectively. Parental monitoring and community disadvantage were assessed at age 12. Four classes of past year alcohol use were identified: (a) early-onset, increasing; (b) late-onset, moderate use; (c) low steady; and (d) early-onset, decreasing. In high community disadvantaged settings, participants with a higher internalizing symptoms PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, decreasing class than the low steady class. When exposed to elevated community disadvantage, participants with a higher antisocial behavior PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, increasing class than the early-onset, decreasing and late-onset, moderate use classes.
We recently reported an association of offspring educational attainment with polygenic risk scores (PRS) computed on parent’s non-transmitted alleles for educational attainment using the second GWAS meta-analysis article on educational attainment published by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium. Here we test the replication of these findings using a more powerful PRS from the third GWAS meta-analysis article by the Consortium. Each of the key findings of our previous paper is replicated using this improved PRS (N = 2335 adolescent twins and their genotyped parents). The association of children’s attainment with their own PRS increased substantially with the standardized effect size, moving from β = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.079, 0.188 for EA2, to β = 0.223, 95% CI = 0.169, 0.278, p < .001, for EA3. Parent’s PRS again predicted the socioeconomic status (SES) they provided to their offspring and increased from β = 0.201, 95% CI = 0.147, 0.256 to β = 0.286, 95% CI = 0.239, 0.333. Importantly, the PRS for alleles not transmitted to their offspring — therefore acting via the parenting environment — was increased in effect size from β = 0.058, 95% CI = 0.003, 0.114 to β = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.012, 0.122, p = .016. As previously found, this non-transmitted genetic effect was fully accounted for by parental SES. The findings reinforce the conclusion that genetic effects of parenting are substantial, explain approximately one-third the magnitude of an individual’s own genetic inheritance and are mediated by parental socioeconomic competence.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations.
Pooled analyses of 14 studies comprising 21 023 individuals, on whom relevant cardiometabolic risk factors (including TG), HIV and ART status were assessed between 2003 and 2014, in SSA. The association between ART and raised TG (>2.3 mmol/L) was analysed using regression models.
Among 10 615 individuals, ART was associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised TG (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51–2.77, I2 = 45.2%). The associations between ART and raised blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, and other lipids were inconsistent across studies.
Evidence from this study confirms the association of ART with raised TG in SSA populations. Given the possible causal effect of raised TG on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence highlights the need for prospective studies to clarify the impact of long term ART on CVD outcomes in SSA.
To examine the relationships between objectively measured sleep patterns
(sleep duration, sleep efficiency and bedtime) and sugar-sweetened beverage
(SSB) consumption (regular soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and
fruit juice) among children from all inhabited continents of the world.
Multinational, cross-sectional study.
The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment
Children (n 5873) 9–11 years of age.
Sleep duration was 12 min per night shorter in children who reported
consuming regular soft drinks ‘at least once a day’
compared with those who reported consuming ‘never’ or
‘less than once a week’. Children were more likely to
sleep the recommended 9–11 h/night if they reported
lower regular soft drink consumption or higher sports drinks consumption.
Children who reported consuming energy drinks ‘once a week or
more’ reported a 25-min earlier bedtime than those who reported
never consuming energy drinks. Children who reported consuming sports drinks
‘2–4 d a week or more’ also reported a
25-min earlier bedtime compared with those who reported never consuming
sports drinks. The associations between sleep efficiency and SSB consumption
were not significant. Similar associations between sleep patterns and SSB
consumption were observed across all twelve study sites.
Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher intake of regular soft
drinks, while earlier bedtimes were associated with lower intake of regular
soft drinks and higher intake of energy drinks and sports drinks in this
international study of children. Future work is needed to establish
causality and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required. Here, we utilize the fact that parents pass, at random, 50% of their genome to a given offspring to create independent scores for the transmitted alleles (conventional EA PRS) and a parental score based on alleles not transmitted to the offspring (EA VP_PRS). The formal effect of non-transmitted alleles on offspring attainment was tested in 2,333 genotyped twins for whom high-quality measures of EA, assessed at age 17 years, were available, and whose parents were also genotyped. Four key findings were observed. First, the EA PRS and EA VP_PRS were empirically independent, validating the virtual-parent design. Second, in this family-based design, children's own EA PRS significantly predicted their EA (β = 0.15), ruling out stratification confounds as a cause of the association of attainment with the EA PRS. Third, parental EA PRS predicted the SES environment parents provided to offspring (β = 0.20), and parental SES and offspring EA were significantly associated (β = 0.33). This would suggest that the EA PRS is at least as strongly linked to social competence as it is to EA, leading to higher attained SES in parents and, therefore, a higher experienced SES for children. In a full structural equation model taking account of family genetic relatedness across multiple siblings the non-transmitted allele effects were estimated at similar values; but, in this more complex model, confidence intervals included zero. A test using the forthcoming EA3 PRS may clarify this outcome. The virtual-parent method may be applied to clarify causality in other phenotypes where observational evidence suggests parenting may moderate expression of other outcomes, for instance in psychiatry.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
Few studies have described clinical characteristics of patients subject to an involuntary detention in an Irish context. The Irish Mental Health Act 2001 makes provision under Section 23(1), whereby a person who has voluntary admission status can be detained.
This study aimed to describe all involuntary admissions to St Patrick’s University Hospital (SPUH) (2011–2013) and to evaluate clinical characteristics of voluntary patients who underwent Mental Health Act assessment during 2011 to determine differences in those who had involuntary admission orders completed and those who did not.
All uses of Mental Health Act 2001 within SPUH 2011–2013 were identified. All uses of Section 23(1) during 2011 were reviewed and relevant documents/case-notes examined using a pro forma covering clinical data, factors recognized to influence involuntary admissions and validated scales were used to determine diagnoses, insight, suicide and violence risk.
Over 2011–2013, 2.5–3.8% of all admissions were involuntary with more detained after use of Section 23(1) than Section 14(2). The majority of initiations of Section 23(1) did not result in an involuntary admission (72%), occurred out of hours (52%) and many occurred early after admission (<1 week, 43%). Initiation of Section 23(1) by a consultant psychiatrist (p=0.001), suicide risk (p=0.03) and lack of patient insight into treatment (p=0.007) predicted conversion to involuntary admission.
This study predicts a role for patient insight, suicide risk and consultant psychiatrist decision making in the initiation of Mental Health Act assessment of voluntary patients. Further data describing the involuntary admissions process in an Irish setting are needed.
AlGaN-based quantum well (QW) heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3 substrates have been studied. The high-temperature (785 °C) synthesis of AlN buffer layer nucleated by a migration-enhanced epitaxy and including several ultrathin GaN interlayers was the optimum approach for lowering the threading dislocations density down to 108–109 cm−2. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) has revealed the step-like roughness of the AlN/Al2O3 interface. Also, the formation of Al-rich barriers induced by temperature-modulated epitaxy and the spontaneous compositional disordering have been found in the AlxGa1−xN (x > 0.6) barrier layers. The origin of these phenomena and their influence on parameters of the mid-UV stimulated emission observed in the QW heterostructures were discussed. The fine structure of the QWs formed by a submonolayer digital alloying technique has been displayed by HAADF STEM, and optical properties of the QW structures were studied by temperature- and time-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy.
Internalizing symptoms during adolescence and beyond is a major public health concern, particularly because severe symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of a number of serious psychiatric conditions. This study utilizes a unique sample with a complex statistical method in order to explore Gene × Environment interactions found in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Data for this study were drawn from a longitudinal prevention intervention study (n = 798) of Baltimore city school children. Internalizing symptom data were collected using self-report and blood or saliva samples genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays. A major depression polygenic score was created for each individual using information from the major depressive disorder Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and used as a predictor in a latent trait–state–occasion model. The major depressive disorder polygenic score was a significant predictor of the stable latent trait variable, which captures time-independent phenotypic variability. In addition, an early childhood stressor of death or divorce was a significant predictor of occasion-specific variables. A Gene × Environment interaction was not a significant predictor of the latent trait or occasion variables. These findings support the importance of genetics on the stable latent trait portion of internalizing symptoms across adolescence.
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial. The polygenic score reflects the contribution of multiple genes and has been shown in prior research to be predictive of smoking cessation and tobacco use (Uhl et al., 2014). Using data from a longitudinal preventive intervention study, we examined age of first tobacco use from sixth grade to age 18. Genetic data were collected during emerging adulthood and were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. The polygenic score was computed using these data. Discrete-time survival analysis was employed to test for intervention main and interaction effects with the polygenic score. We found a main effect of the intervention, with the intervention participants reporting their first cigarette smoked at an age significantly later than controls. We also found an Intervention × Polygenic Score interaction, with participants at the higher end of the polygenic score benefitting the most from the intervention in terms of delayed age of first use. These results are consistent with Belsky and colleagues' (e.g., Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2007; Belsky & Pleuss, 2009, 2013; Ellis, Boyce, Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2011) differential susceptibility hypothesis and the concept of “for better or worse,” wherein the expression of genetic variants are optimally realized in the context of an enriched environment, such as provided by a preventive intervention.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
In this paper we present results on solid state reactions between Ti and Si1−xGex alloys selectively deposited onto Si (100) substrates using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for contact applications in novel device structures. Germanium concentrations of 0%, 30%, 50%, and 100% within the reacting Si1−xGex alloy are investigated. The Si1−xGex alloys (approximately 2500 ° thick) are deposited using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD). Titanium is then deposited by evaporation. Sheet resistance measurements as a function of RTA temperature (10 second anneals) provide indications of various phases that occur during the reactions through the formation of constant sheet resistance plateaus. The RTA temperature required for the formation of a minimum resistivity phase is observed to increase for increasing Ge concentrations within the reacting Si1−xGex alloy. Using x-ray diffraction we have determined that for the reactions of Ti with Si the C49 TiSi2 metastable phase forms prior to the minimum resistivity C54 TiSi2 phase. For the reactions between Ti and Ge a minimum resistivity TiGe2 phase also with the C54 structure forms, however, this phase is preceeded not by a C49 TiGe2 structure, but by a Ti6Ge5 phase. The minimum resistivity phases for Ti reactions with 30% and 50% Ge Si1−xGex, alloy reactions also have a C54 structure with unit cell dimensions varying from that of TiSi2) to TiGe2 as the Ge concentration is increased. The grain structures for the reactions are investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). As the Ge concentration within the reacting alloy decreases the lateral grain size for the C54 structures increases. A self-aligned germanosilicide process is identified and used to fabricate raised, ultrashallow junctions with Ti(SiGe)2 (germanosilicide) contacts. Forward and reverse bias characterization of the junctions indicate that leakage current induced during silicidation can be eliminated using raised junctions with germanosilicide contacts.
We present an update on the performance of our 2 mm bolometer camera GISMO (the Goddard IRAM 2 Millimeter Observer), which is used for astronomical observations at the IRAM 30 m Telescope. The camera is optimized to efficiently observe dusty high-redshift galaxies. GISMO uses a monolithic 8 by 16 Backshort Under Grid (BUG) array with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES). It serves as a testbed for our close-packed superconducting bolometer technologies and guides us in optimizing the design of future fast, low background bolometer cameras. Illustrated by astronomical observations we obtained recently, we demonstrate the scientific potential of the camera, highlighted by the detection of two high redshift galaxies.
Transmission electron microscope studies of Ti-doped, congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO3) have shown that extended structural faults are only present within the Ti diffused layer (i.e. the wave guiding region). Structural faults have not been observed in undoped control crystals of congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3. Therefore, it appears that the introduction of Ti is responsible for the formation of these defects. The chemical driving forces which may be controlling the formation of structural faults are discussed.
Diffraction contrast experiments, which have been interpreted in terms of two-beam dynamical theory for a centrosymmetric crystal, indicate that the faults are tensile in nature (i.e. formed by removing a plane of atoms – so-called intrinsic faults) and have a displacement vector of the type c/12/001] when indexed in the hexagonal coordinate system. That is, the displacement vector is along the c-axis. The detailed crystallographic character of the fault planes is not clear; both (118) and (1 1 12) planes have been confirmed from trace analyses and therefore the fault has a shear component. Additional contrast experiments will be required in order to clarify this feature of structural faults in Ti-doped LiNbO3.
Since the extent of these structural faults is tens of microns, they are clearly potential scattering sites for photons. In this regard, a systematic understanding of their origin and thermal stability is crucial to integrated optical device technologies based on LiNbO3 and on the Ti-doped waveguide fabrication technique.