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There is no single ultrasound probe available that allows visualization of all airway structures in children of all ages. In larger children above approximately 8 years of age, the linear medium-to-high frequency (5–14 MHz) transducer is suitable for imaging superficial airway structures (within 0–5 cm beneath the skin surface). The curved low-frequency transducer (~4.0 MHz) is most suitable for obtaining sagittal and parasagittal views of the tongue and structures in the submandibular and supraglottic regions, mainly because of its wider field of view. Linear transducers, which are used for assessment of the upper airways, provide excellent images of superficial structures, such as ribs and the pleura, but deeper structures can be difficult to assess. A micro-convex transducer (~8.0 MHz) is a good all-round transducer for focused ultrasonographic examination of the lungs, since most micro-convex transducers have an acceptable image quality of both superficial (pleura) and deeper structures (e.g., lung consolidation, atelectasis). Furthermore, micro-convex transducers are often small, which makes it easier to access the posterior thoracic wall, when the patient can only be examined in the supine position. An alternative to the micro-convex transducer for examination of the lungs is the curved low-frequency transducer (~4.0 MHz), which also has an acceptable image quality of both superficial and deeper structures. Since visualization of superficial and deep structures is needed, it is important to continuously optimize transducer frequency to obtain the best possible images. The presence or absence of artifacts are an important part of lung ultrasonography; hence, one should be mindful to deactivate any image optimization software that is inherently built into newer ultrasound machines as this would remove or diminish the presence of these useful artifacts when performing lung ultrasonography.
Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
Translocation and rehabilitation programmes are critical tools for wildlife conservation. These methods achieve greater impact when integrated in a combined strategy for enhancing population or ecosystem restoration. During 2002–2016 we reared 37 orphaned southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis pups, using captive sea otters as surrogate mothers, then released them into a degraded coastal estuary. As a keystone species, observed increases in the local sea otter population unsurprisingly brought many ecosystem benefits. The role that surrogate-reared otters played in this success story, however, remained uncertain. To resolve this, we developed an individual-based model of the local population using surveyed individual fates (survival and reproduction) of surrogate-reared and wild-captured otters, and modelled estimates of immigration. Estimates derived from a decade of population monitoring indicated that surrogate-reared and wild sea otters had similar reproductive and survival rates. This was true for males and females, across all ages (1–13 years) and locations evaluated. The model simulations indicated that reconstructed counts of the wild population are best explained by surrogate-reared otters combined with low levels of unassisted immigration. In addition, the model shows that 55% of observed population growth over this period is attributable to surrogate-reared otters and their wild progeny. Together, our results indicate that the integration of surrogacy methods and reintroduction of juvenile sea otters helped establish a biologically successful population and restore a once-impaired ecosystem.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reduced life expectancy in patients with affective disorders, however, whether MetS also plays a role before the onset of affective disorder is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether MetS, inflammatory markers or oxidative stress act as risk factors for affective disorders, and whether MetS is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress.
We conducted a high-risk study including 204 monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission or partial remission (affected), their unaffected co-twins (high-risk) and twins with no personal or family history of affective disorder (low-risk). Metabolic Syndrome was ascertained according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Inflammatory markers and markers of oxidative stress were analyzed from fasting blood and urine samples, respectively.
The affected and the high-risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS compared to the low-risk group (20% v. 15% v. 2.5%, p = 0.0006), even after adjusting for sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption. No differences in inflammatory and oxidative markers were seen between the three groups. Further, MetS was associated with alterations in inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress was modestly correlated with inflammation.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with low-grade inflammation and may act as a risk factor and a trait marker for affective disorders. If confirmed in longitudinal studies, this suggests the importance of early intervention and preventive approaches targeted towards unhealthy lifestyle factors that may contribute to later psychopathology.
Maternal systemic inflammation during pregnancy may restrict embryo−fetal growth, but the extent of this effect remains poorly established in undernourished populations. In a cohort of 653 maternal−newborn dyads participating in a multi-armed, micronutrient supplementation trial in southern Nepal, we investigated associations between maternal inflammation, assessed by serum α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein, in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and newborn weight, length and head and chest circumferences. Median (IQR) maternal concentrations in α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein in the first and third trimesters were 0.65 (0.53–0.76) and 0.40 (0.33–0.50) g/l, and 0.56 (0.25–1.54) and 1.07 (0.43–2.32) mg/l, respectively. α1-acid glycoprotein was inversely associated with birth size: weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were lower by 116 g (P = 2.3 × 10−6), and 0.45 (P = 3.1 × 10−5), 0.18 (P = 0.0191) and 0.48 (P = 1.7 × 10−7) cm, respectively, per 50% increase in α1-acid glycoprotein averaged across both trimesters. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, gestational age, nutritional and socio-economic status and daily micronutrient supplementation failed to alter any association. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was largely unassociated with newborn size. In rural Nepal, birth size was inversely associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation during pregnancy as indicated by serum α1-acid glycoprotein.
We present the second data release (DR2) of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia, using six optical filters: u, v, g, r, i, z. DR2 is the first release to go beyond the
) limit of the Shallow Survey released in the first data release (DR1), and includes portions of the sky at full survey depth that reach
mag in g and r filters. The DR2 photometry has a precision as measured by internal reproducibility of 1% in u and v, and 0.7% in griz. More than 21 000
have data in some filters (at either Shallow or Main Survey depth) and over 7 000
have deep Main Survey coverage in all six filters. Finally, about 18 000
have Main Survey data in i and z filters, albeit not yet at full depth. The release contains over 120 000 images, as well as catalogues with over 500 million unique astrophysical objects and nearly 5 billion individual detections. It also contains cross-matches with a range of external catalogues such as Gaia DR2, Pan-STARRS1 DR1, GALEX GUVcat, 2MASS, and AllWISE, as well as spectroscopic surveys such as 2MRS, GALAH, 6dFGS, and 2dFLenS.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Residual herbicides applied to summer cash crops have the potential to injure subsequent winter annual cover crops, yet little information is available to guide growers’ choices. Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Blacksburg and Suffolk, Virginia, to determine carryover of 30 herbicides commonly used in corn, soybean, or cotton on wheat, barley, cereal rye, oats, annual ryegrass, forage radish, Austrian winter pea, crimson clover, hairy vetch, and rapeseed cover crops. Herbicides were applied to bare ground either 14 wk before cover crop planting for a PRE timing or 10 wk for a POST timing. Visible injury was recorded 3 and 6 wk after planting (WAP), and cover crop biomass was collected 6 WAP. There were no differences observed in cover crop biomass among herbicide treatments, despite visible injury that suggested some residual herbicides have the potential to effect cover crop establishment. Visible injury on grass cover crop species did not exceed 20% from any herbicide. Fomesafen resulted in the greatest injury recorded on forage radish, with greater than 50% injury in 1 site-year. Trifloxysulfuron and atrazine resulted in greater than 20% visible injury on forage radish. Trifloxysulfuron resulted in the greatest injury (30%) observed on crimson clover in 1 site-year. Prosulfuron and isoxaflutole significantly injured rapeseed (17% to 21%). Results indicate that commonly used residual herbicides applied in the previous cash crop growing season result in little injury on grass cover crop species, and only a few residual herbicides could potentially affect the establishment of a forage radish, crimson clover, or rapeseed cover crop.
The surprising election of Donald Trump to the presidency calls for a comprehensive assessment of what motivated voters to opt for a controversial political novice rather than a provocative but experienced political veteran. Our study provides a novel exploration of the Trump victory through the prism of the defeated candidate—Hillary Rodham Clinton (HRC). Losing candidates’ perceptions are usually not subject to academic analyses. Nevertheless, these people often hold substantial sway in their parties and thus understanding their views on the loss is essential, especially as a party regroups after defeat. Using HRC’s memoir What Happened, we devise the Hillary Hypotheses, her rationale for her electoral defeat. Using the 2016 American National Election Study (ANES), we provide the first systematic test of a losing candidate’s rationale for their defeat. We show that more often than not, HRC’s assumptions are supported. However, we find little evidence to support HRC’s most crucial assertion, namely that the e-mail scandal and specifically James Comey’s intervention ten days before Election Day cost her the presidency. Our findings have implications for understanding why Donald Trump won, but more broadly the contribution explores an understudied aspect of elections—a defeated candidate’s impression of their loss.
Are ordinary citizens better at predicting election results than conventional voter intention polls? The authors address this question by comparing eight forecasting models for British general elections: one based on voters' expectations of who will win and seven based on who voters themselves intend to vote for (including ‘uniform national swing model’ and ‘cube rule’ models). The data come from ComRes and Gallup polls as well as the Essex Continuous Monitoring Surveys, 1950–2017, yielding 449 months with both expectation and intention polls. The large sample size permits comparisons of the models' prediction accuracy not just in the months prior to the election, but in the years leading up to it. Vote expectation models outperform vote intention models in predicting both the winning party and parties' seat shares.
We simulate the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluids separated by an interface in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow at a shear Reynolds number equal to 15 200. The viscosity and density of the two fluids are equal, and various surface tensions and initial droplet diameters are considered in the present study. We show that the two-phase flow reaches a statistically stationary turbulent state sustained by a non-zero mean turbulent production rate due to the presence of the mean shear. Compared to single-phase flow, we find that the resulting steady-state conditions exhibit reduced Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers owing to the presence of the dispersed phase, which acts as a sink of turbulent kinetic energy for the carrier fluid. At steady state, the mean power of surface tension is zero and the turbulent production rate is in balance with the turbulent dissipation rate, with their values being larger than in the reference single-phase case. The interface modifies the energy spectrum by introducing energy at small scales, with the difference from the single-phase case reducing as the Weber number increases. This is caused by both the number of droplets in the domain and the total surface area increasing monotonically with the Weber number. This reflects also in the droplet size distribution, which changes with the Weber number, with the peak of the distribution moving to smaller sizes as the Weber number increases. We show that the Hinze estimate for the maximum droplet size, obtained considering break-up in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, provides an excellent estimate notwithstanding the action of significant coalescence and the presence of a mean shear.
Evolution of thermally stratified open channel flow after removal of a volumetric heat source is investigated using direct numerical simulation. The heat source models radiative heating from above and varies with height due to progressive absorption. After removal of the heat source the initial stable stratification breaks down and the channel approaches a fully mixed isothermal state. The initial state consists of three distinct regions: a near-wall region where stratification plays only a minor role, a central region where stratification has a significant effect on flow dynamics and a near-surface region where buoyancy effects dominate. We find that a state of local energetic equilibrium observed in the central region of the channel in the initial state persists until the late stages of the destratification process. In this region local turbulence parameters such as eddy diffusivity
and flux Richardson number
are found to be functions only of the Prandtl number
and a mixed parameter
, which is equal to the ratio of the local buoyancy Reynolds number
and the friction Reynolds number
. Close to the top and bottom boundaries turbulence is also affected by
and vertical position
. In the initial heated equilibrium state the laminar surface layer is stabilised by the heat source, which acts as a potential energy sink. Removal of the heat source allows Kelvin–Helmholtz-like shear instabilities to form that lead to a rapid transition to turbulence and significantly enhance the mixing process. The destratifying flow is found to be governed by bulk parameters
and the friction Richardson number
. The overall destratification rate
is found to be a function of
The aggregation of neurocognitive deficits among the non-psychotic first-degree relatives of adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia patients suggests that there may be a common etiology for these deficits in childhood- and adult-onset illness. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the presentation of neurobiological abnormalities, and whether there are differences in the extent of familial transmission for specific domains of cognitive function has not been systematically addressed.
We employed variance components analysis, as implemented in SOLAR-Eclipse, to evaluate the evidence of familial transmission for empirically derived composite scores representing attention, working memory, verbal learning, verbal retention, and memory for faces. We contrast estimates for adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families and matched community control pedigrees, and compare our findings to previous reports based on analogous neurocognitive assessments.
We observed varying degrees of familial transmission; attention and working memory yielded comparable, significant estimates for adult-onset and community control pedigrees; verbal learning was significant for childhood-onset and community control pedigrees; and facial memory demonstrated significant familial transmission only for childhood-onset schizophrenia. Model-fitting analyses indicated significant differences in familiality between adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia for attention, working memory, and verbal learning.
By comprehensively assessing a wide range of neurocognitive domains in adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families, we provide additional support for specific neurocognitive domains as schizophrenia endophenotypes. Whereas comparable estimates of familial transmission for certain dimensions of cognitive functioning support a shared etiology of adult- and childhood-onset neurocognitive function, observed differences may be taken as preliminary evidence of partially divergent multifactorial architectures.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.