This study provides a detailed exploration of the near-field shear-layer instabilities associated with a gaseous jet injected normally into crossflow, also known as the transverse jet. Jet injection from nozzles which are flush as well as elevated with respect to the tunnel wall are explored experimentally in this study, for jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios R in the range 1 ≲ R ≤ 10 and with jet Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3000. The results indicate that the nature of the transverse jet instability is significantly different from that of the free jet, and that the instability changes in character as the crossflow velocity is increased. Dominant instability modes are observed to be strengthened, to move closer to the jet orifice, and to increase in frequency as crossflow velocity increases for the regime 3.5 < R ≤ 10. The instabilities also exhibit mode shifting downstream along the jet shear layer for either nozzle configuration at these moderately high values of R. When R is reduced below 3.5 in the flush injection experiments, single-mode instabilities are dramatically strengthened, forming almost immediately within the shear layer in addition to harmonic and subharmonic modes, without any evidence of mode shifting. Under these conditions, the dominant and initial mode frequencies tend to decrease with increasing crossflow. In contrast, the instabilities in the elevated jet experiments are weakened as R is reduced below about 4, probably owing to an increase in the vertical coflow magnitude exterior to the elevated nozzle, until R falls below 1.25, at which point the elevated jet instabilities become remarkably similar to those for the flush injected jet. Low-level jet forcing has no appreciable influence on the shear-layer response when these strong modes are present, in contrast to the significant influence of low-level forcing otherwise. These studies suggest profound differences in transverse-jet shear-layer instabilities, depending on the flow regime, and help to explain differences previously observed in transverse jets controlled by strong forcing.