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This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
In the present work the kinetic growth is analyzed for a hard coating applied on a low carbon steel AISI 8620. A thermochemical treatment of bored with dehydrated paste at temperatures of 900, 950 and 1000 °C with a residence time of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. The morphology and types of borides formed on the surface of the steel were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The layer formed has a size of 20 to 113 μm which will be dependent on the process temperature, the treatment time and the alloy elements of the substrate. Hardness of 1493-1852 HV are presented for treatment times and temperatures established in this study. The kinetics of growth were determined and analyzed using a mathematical model of diffusion, evaluating the penetration of the biphasic layer that is determined as a function of the time and temperature of the thermochemical treatment (TCT). The results show the increase in the growth constants (k) with respect to the bored temperatures. The activity energy (Q) of the material AISI 8620 was also obtained.
The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs. For this, tilapia were exposed to Pb, carbon nanotubes and Pb+carbon nanotubes for 4 days. The main alterations observed were epithelial structure, hyperplasia and displacement of epithelial cells, and alterations of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The most severe alterations were related to the Pb+carbon nanotubes. We conclude that the oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the acute lead toxicity in Nile tilapias. This work draws attention to the implications of carbon nanomaterials released in the aquatic environment and their interaction with classical pollutants.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
For optimal application of Nesidiocoris tenuis as a biological control agent, adequate field management and programmed mass rearing are essential. Mathematical models are useful tools for predicting the temperature-dependent developmental rate of the predator. In this study, the linear model and nonlinear models Logan type III, Lactin and Brière were estimated at constant temperatures and validated at alternating temperatures and under field conditions. N. tenuis achieved complete development from egg to adult at constant temperatures between 15 and 35°C with high survivorship (>80%) in the range 18–32°C. The total developmental time decreased from a maximum at 15°C (76.74 d) to a minimum at 33°C (12.67 d) and after that, increased to 35°C (13.98 d). Linear and nonlinear developmental models all had high accuracy (Ra2 >0.86). The maximum developmental rate was obtained between 31.9°C (Logan type III and Brière model for N1) and 35.6°C (for the egg stage in the Brière model). Optimal survival and the highest developmental rate fell within the range 27–30°C. The field validation revealed that the Logan type III and Lactin models offered the best predictions (95.0 and 94.5%, respectively). The data obtained on developmental time and mortality at different temperatures are useful for mass rearing this predator, and the developmental models are valuable for using N. tenuis as a biological control agent.
The present study determined the mineralogy and thermal properties of kaolin from Acoculco (Puebla), at the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and compared it with the nearby deposits of Agua Blanca (Hidalgo) and Huayacocotla (Veracruz). The mineralogy of the kaolins was determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis, dilatometry and hot-stage microscopy. The Acoculco deposit is composed mainly of kaolinite and SiO2 minerals. In the case of Agua Blanca and Huayacocotla, alunite is abundant in places and minor anatase is also present locally. The Acoculco kaolins are Fe-poor and relatively rich in some potentially toxic elements (Zr, Sb, Pb). They undergo a relatively small amount of shrinkage (∼3–4 vol.%), during firing at 20–1300°C and cooling down to 20°C, except when >10 wt.% alunite is present. These kaolins are a suitable raw material for the ceramics industry. Other applications (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics) would require an enrichment process to eliminate impurities such as Fe oxides.
Networks of protected areas are one of the main strategies used to address the biodiversity crisis. These should encompass as many species and ecosystems as possible, particularly in territories with high biological diversity, such as the Spanish arid zones. We produce a priority ranking of the arid zones of south-east Spain according to the rarity and richness of their characteristic flora and the level of endangerment. The resulting hierarchy shows that optimal zones for the preservation of the flora are located outside the network of protected areas. In particular, it is important to extend the network and encourage the creation of microreserves in the depression of the River Guadiana Menor (Granada), where there is least protection. This river valley is a particularly important arid site because of its unique flora and fauna, and palaeontological and archaeological findings.
In this paper, we give lower bounds for the fundamental tone of open sets in minimal submanifolds immersed into warped product spaces of type Nn ×f Qq, where f ∈ C∞(N). This setting allows us to deal, among other things, with minimal submanifolds bounded by cylinders, cones, spheres and pseudo-hyperbolic spaces where most of these examples are not covered in the literature. Applications also include the study of the essential spectrum of hyperbolic graphs over compact regions of the boundary at infinity.
In this work we report on the characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with a symmetric double two-dimensional electron gas (D-2DEG). Optical characterization was made by room temperature photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy as well as electrical properties were determinated using the quantum Hall effect measurements at 2K. In order to study the surface effects on the conduction band profile, three samples with different GaAs cap layer thickness (25, 60 and 80 nm) were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy. Photoreflectance spectra at room temperature show the wide-period Franz-Keldysh oscillations between 1.42 and 1.70 eV originated by the surface electric field. The analysis of these oscillations shows that the surface electric field varies from 503 to 120 kV/cm whereas the thickness of the cap layer increases that was produced by the reduction of the depletion zone near the surface. Using QHE measurements we found that electron density increases if the surface electric field decreases.
The muscid Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp, 1883) is a species with forensic importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This fly has recently been introduced into southern Europe and, until now, had not been recorded in forensic cases in this region. Here, morphology of all larval instars of S. nudiseta is documented in detail by using a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy. Literature data concerning larval morphology are revised and characters allowing identification from other forensically important Muscidae are listed. The life cycle of this species was studied at four constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C. Total development varied between 46.50 ± 0.97 days at 15 °C and 15.39 ± 0.32 days at 30 °C. Moreover, we report this species breeding in human corpses, for the first time in Europe, in forensic cases from autopsies at the Anatomical Forensic Institute of Madrid and the Institute of Legal Medicine of Alicante, Spain.