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Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
Ultrasound technology provides a oportunity to quickly and economically estimate carcass atributes on the live animal (Brethour, 2000). In general, this technology has been used to detect variation for fat depth and ribeye area (longissimus dorsi muscle) in performance tested yearling bulls at several countries. In the present study, real time ultrasonography was used to predict the ribeye area (RA) and the subcutaneous fat thickness (FT) in Nellore crossbred.
This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil. Healthy pregnant women (n = 415) residing in Recife who agreed to have their children followed were enrolled. Children were followed during their first 24 months of age (May/2011–June/2014), before the 2015 Zika virus outbreak. DENV infection was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serology (anti-DENV IgM/IgG). The incidence rates per 1000 person-years (py) and its association with risk factors by age bands (0–12, >12–30 months) were estimated through Poisson regression models. Forty-nine dengue infections were detected; none progressed to severe forms. The incidence rates were 107·6/1000py (95% CI 76·8–150·6) and 93·3/1000py (95% CI 56·1–154·4) in the first and second years of age, respectively. Male children (risk ratios (RR) = 2·33; 95% CI 1·09–4·98) and those born to DENV-naïve mothers (RR = 2·42; 95% CI 1·01–5·80) were at greater risk of infection in the first year of age. In the second year, children born to Caucasian/Asian descent skin colour mothers had a threefold higher risk of infection (RR = 3·34; 95% CI: 1·08–10·33). These data show the high exposure of children to DENV infection in our setting and highlight the role of biological factors in this population's susceptibility to infection.
Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the tolerance of limpograss to increasing rates of hexazinone. Dose-response curves were generated using linear and quadratic regression models to determine the hexazinone estimated dose (ED) required to provide 10% (ED10) and 20% (ED20) of visual injury and herbage mass reduction. The ED10 and ED20 for visual estimates of injury were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.14 kg ai ha-1 at 60 d after treatment (DAT). Regarding forage herbage mass reduction, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.07 and 0.19 kg ai ha-1 in 2013, whereas in 2014, the ED10 and ED20 were estimated to be 0.03 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1, respectively. The significant difference in herbage mass reduction between 2013 and 2014 was likely due to rainfall patterns, which possibly promoted hexazinone leaching in 2013 and consequently, less activity. Overall, hexazinone resulted in high degrees of limpograss injury across all response variables in both years; therefore, smutgrass control in limpograss pastures with hexazinone may not be a viable option. The presence or absence of smutgrass should be considered before limpograss establishment as there is no viable herbicide to selectively remove smutgrass from limpograss swards.
Plants’ ability to rebuild their tiller population is affected by weather changes and management strategies. The hypothesis of the present study was that frequency and severity of defoliation alter Mulato grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis × Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) sward development, and the proportion of aerial and basal tillers, interfering with sward stability. The objective was to evaluate aerial, basal and total tiller population density and changes in tillering dynamics. Treatments corresponded to strategies of rotational grazing characterized by combinations between two pre-grazing (95% and maximum canopy light interception during regrowth; LI95% and LIMax) and two post-grazing conditions (15 and 20 cm stubble height). The experimental period comprised four seasons of the year: summer 2008 (February–March 2008); autumn–early spring (April to mid-November 2008); late spring (mid-November–December 2008); and summer 2009 (January–March 2009). Density of aerial tillers decreased from summer 2008 to late spring. Tiller death decreased from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring. Aerial and total tiller death increased from late spring to summer 2009, mainly for the LI95% treatment. No differences were observed in the tiller population stability index of aerial tillers for LI treatments or post-grazing heights. The balance between tiller appearance and death for basal tillers remained relatively stable from summer 2008 to late spring. For aerial tillers the balance decreased to negative values from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring for both LI treatments. For total tiller population, the balance decreased to negative values from summer 2008 to autumn–early spring. Results indicated a strong seasonal effect on Mulato grass tillering and growth. Tillering dynamics were affected primarily by grazing frequency, which changed the relative importance of basal and aerial tillers. The results suggested that basal tillering was the predominant perennation pathway.
After 22 yr of the low-level liquid scintillation counting 14C laboratory at the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) at São Paulo University (USP), Piracicaba, Brazil, and several collaborative projects with Brazilian and international researchers from distinct scientific areas, the first 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Latin America was installed at the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Brazil. A 250kV single stage accelerator produced by National Electrostatics Corporation began its operation in 2012. In this work, we compare measurements performed at the AMS Radiocarbon Laboratory at UFF (LAC-UFF) with those performed at CENA and the University of Georgia (UGAMS), Georgia, USA. All the results obtained from distinct inorganic and organic samples were in very good agreement.
The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ −16.4 and US$ −2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ −30.8 and US$ −0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model’s results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically viable when the kids diet consists mainly of either cow milk or fermented colostrum, especially when kids are slaughtered at 90 days of age.
In this article, Conley’s connection matrix theory and a spectral sequence analysis of a filtered Morse chain complex
are used to study global continuation results for flows on surfaces. The briefly described unfoldings of Lyapunov graphs have been proved to be a well-suited combinatorial tool to keep track of continuations. The novelty herein is a global dynamical cancellation theorem inferred from the differentials of the spectral sequence
. The local version of this theorem relates differentials
to Smale’s theorem on cancellation of critical points.
Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0·3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98·6 (sem 2·6) v. 118·3 (sem 2·7) mmHg, P< 0·05) and HR (365·4 (sem 12·2) v. 398·2 (sem 7·5) beats per min, P< 0·05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12·1 (sem 0·6) ml and 7·8 (sem 1·1), respectively, P< 0·05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.
The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P<0.05; 10.4±0.06 kg/cow per day) in the SPS than in the OP (9.5±0.06 kg/cow per day) during the 1st year, but did not significantly differ (P>0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P<0.05) values for herbage mass and milk yield were observed during the 3rd year. In the SPS, with moderate shade (19% shade relative to a full-sun condition), the grass CP was higher (P<0.05) than in the OP, although the NDF content and digestibility coefficient were not modified. The animals spent more time (P<0.05) idling in the SPS than in OP. The higher legume proportion in the SPS was associated with the higher CP level in B. decumbens relative to the OP, which could explain the better (P<0.05) performance of the cows in silvopastoral areas during the 1st year. However, during the 2nd and 3rd years, similarities in the legume percentages of both systems resulted in similar (P>0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.
The global population of jaguars Panthera onca has decreased significantly since the beginning of the 20th century. Given the scarcity of demographic and biological information, estimating population parameters is critical for the design of conservation measures. The jaguar's elusive behaviour makes it impossible to estimate and monitor populations by direct observation. We propose a non-invasive genetic sampling approach and demonstrate its potential for large-scale monitoring. Sex identification was optimized for faecal samples of jaguars and other felids. We also optimized a set of 11 microsatellite markers for reliable identification of individuals. We estimated the effectiveness of faecal sample genotyping in two distinct Brazilian biomes: the Pantanal and the semi-arid Caatinga. Almost 90% of the samples that were molecularly identified as jaguar (n = 90) were successfully genotyped and were assigned to 30 individuals. Genetic diversity was generally high but was significantly lower in the Caatinga population. We show that non-invasive genetic sampling can be a reliable tool to study population parameters and to monitor the genetic status of jaguar populations in different habitats. It may also be useful for future surveys of jaguars that address ecological, behavioural and conservation issues, and could provide a baseline for non-invasive genetic studies of other wild felid populations.
The pathogens Plasmodium juxtanucleare and chicken anaemia virus (CAV) are easily transmitted and potentially harmful to chickens. In this study, we established an experimental model to investigate the effects of avian malaria caused by P. juxtanucleare in white leghorn specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks previously immunosuppressed with CAV. Parasitaemia, haematological variables and clinical and pathological parameters were determined in four different experimental groups: chicks coinfected by CAV and P. juxtanucleare strain (Coinfected group), chicks exclusively infected by CAV (CAV group) or P. juxtanucleare (Malaria group) and uninfected chicks (Control group). Our data demonstrated that P. juxtanucleare parasitaemia was significantly higher in the Coinfected group. Furthermore, haematological parameters, including the RBC, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration were significantly reduced in coinfected chicks. In agreement with the changes observed in haematological features, the mortality among coinfected chicks was higher compared with animals with single infections. Clinical analysis indicated moderate changes related to different organs size (bursa of Fabricius, heart and liver) in coinfected birds. The experimental coinfection of SPF chickens with P. juxtanucleare and CAV may represent a research tool for the study of avian malaria after CAV immunosuppression, enabling measurement of the impacts caused by different pathogens during malarial infection.
Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in the treatment of malignant tumours, but ototoxicity is a significant side effect.
To discuss the mechanisms of cisplatin ototoxicity and subsequent cell death, and to present the results of experimental studies.
Material and methods:
We conducted a systematic search for data published in national and international journals and books, using the Medline, SciELO, Bireme, LILACS and PubMed databases.
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 3 isoform (also termed NOX3) seems to be the main source of reactive oxygen species in the cochlea. These reactive oxygen species react with other molecules and trigger processes such as lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane and increases in expression of the transient vanilloid receptor potential 1 ion channel.
Cisplatin ototoxicity proceeds via the formation of reactive oxygen species in cochlear tissue, with apoptotic cell death as a consequence.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly targets the synovial membrane, cartilage and bone. It affects 1 % of the population and is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality. Se is an essential trace element with antioxidant properties and the ability to modulate the immune responses. Selemax® is an inactive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) enriched with organic Se. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Selemax® administration in models of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in C57BL/6 mice, and of an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AdIA) in Holtzman rats. As control, the animals were treated with the same inactivated yeast species that was not enriched for Se. In the AIA model, treatment with different doses of Selemax® (0·01, 0·1, 1 and 10 % added to food) significantly decreased the number of inflammatory cells recruited to the knee cavity, essentially by reducing the number of neutrophils. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1/keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL1/KC), were also reduced in the peri-articular tissue of mice treated with Selemax® at the tested dose (1 %). In the AdIA model in rats, Selemax® treatment decreased paw oedema and hypernociception. This reduction was associated with inhibition of the influx of proinflammatory cells. Therefore, treatment with Selemax® is associated with amelioration of several inflammatory and functional parameters in models of arthritis, suggesting that this Se-enriched yeast should be evaluated further in patients with RA.
The kinetics of intermediate phase formation in the Cu/Mg multilayer system is analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Three main exothermic processes are found during the continuous DSC treatments. The first two, significantly overlapped, are related to the same process, nucleation and growth of the Mg2Cu along the interface. We interpret differences between the Mg/Cu and Cu/Mg interfaces are at the origin of this unexpected behavior. The third exothermic reaction is due to the growth of the Mg2Cu phase perpendicular to the original interface. A kinetic model is developed which yields calorimetric traces in good agreement with the experimental data.
Physical activity is a known protective factor, with benefits for both metabolic and psychological aspects of health. Our objective was to verify early and late determinants of physical activity in young adults. A total of 2063 individuals from a birth cohort in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were studied at the age of 23–25 years. Poisson regression was performed using three models: (1) early model considering birth weight, gestational age, maternal income, schooling and smoking; (2) late model considering individual’s gender, schooling, smoking and body mass index; and (3) combined (early + late) model. Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, stratifying the individuals into active or sedentary. The general rate of sedentary behavior in the sample was 49.6%. In the early model, low birth weight (relative risk (RR) = 1.186, confidence interval (95%CI) 1.005–1.399) was a risk factor for sedentary activity. Female gender (RR = 1.379, 95%CI = 1.259–1.511) and poor schooling (RR = 1.126, 95%CI = 1.007–1.259) were associated with sedentary behavior in the late model. In the combined model, only female gender and participant’s schooling remained significant. An interaction between birth weight and individual’s schooling was found, in which sedentary behavior was more prevalent in individuals born with low birth weight only if they had higher educational levels. Variables of early development and social insertion in later life interact to determine an individual’s disposition to practice physical activities. This study may support the theoretical model ‘Similarities in the inequalities’, in which opposed perinatal backgrounds have the same impact over a health outcome in adulthood when facing unequal social achievement during the life-course.
A rubella serological survey of 476 individuals selected by cluster sampling technique from Caieiras, a small town located in the outskirts of São Paulo city, southeastern Brazil, was carried out over the period November 1990–January 1991. The aim of the study was to characterize rubella epidemiology in a representative non-immunized community in south east Brazil. The survey comprised a seroprevalence study, stratified by age (0–40 years) and a seroconversion study of rubella vaccine in non-infected children below 2 years of age. Mathematical techniques were applied to resultant data sets to determine the age dependent rates of decay in the proportion of individuals with maternally derived antibodies, vaccine seroconversion, and infection of susceptibles, termed the force of infection, and to estimate the average age at first infection.
Despite previous research on mycorrhizal association with plants, the data on associations with coffee (Coffea species) are very sparse despite the great economic importance of this crop for many tropical developing countries. The present paper reviews the main aspects of the association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and coffee plants. This review includes topics on mycorrhizal effects on coffee nutritional status, pathogen–AMF interactions and responses to several environmental stresses. It also summarizes findings about the natural occurrence of AMF in different soils in which coffee is cultivated, some ecological aspects of this specific association and outlines trends for future investigations, which must elucidate the real benefits of mycorrhizae to coffee plants.