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Topical nasal decongestants are frequently used as part of the medical management of symptoms related to Eustachian tube dysfunction.
This study aimed to assess the effect of topical xylometazoline hydrochloride sprayed in the anterior part of the nose on Eustachian tube active and passive opening in healthy ears.
Active and passive Eustachian tube function was assessed in healthy subjects before and after intranasal administration of xylometazoline spray, using tympanometry, video otoscopy, sonotubometry, tubo-tympano-aerodynamic-graphy and tubomanometry.
Resting middle-ear pressures were not significantly different following decongestant application. Eustachian tube opening rate was not significantly different following the intervention, as measured by all function tests used. Sonotubometry data showed a significant increase in the duration of Eustachian tube opening following decongestant application.
There remains little or no evidence that topical nasal decongestants improve Eustachian tube function. Sonotubometry findings do suggest that further investigation with an obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction patient cohort is warranted.
Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this paper, we present our study on multi-frequency scatter-broadening observations of a large sample of pulsars, made using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). For each pulsar, the scatter-broadening time scales (τsc) have been estimated at different observing frequencies and the dependence of τsc with the observing frequency, i.e., the frequency scaling index (α) has been obtained. We report estimates of α for a set of 39 pulsars, of which 31 are completely new and provide the first-time measurement on about 50% of the sample. This enhanced sample suggests that almost 65% of the pulsars have an α much lower than the conventional value of 4.4 for a Kolmogorov type turbulence spectrum, and a considerably large scattering strength. An increase in scattering strength is observed with the distance to the pulsar in the Galaxy.
Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation.
Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome.
The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09–0.15, all p < 0.01). Additionally, the indirect paths from W1 assaultive violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01–0.02, all p < 0.05).
The findings illustrate that the economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors’ exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.
Faecal specimens collected from outbreak (n = 253) and sporadic (n = 147) cases of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in western India between 2006 and 2014 were tested for group C rotavirus (GCR) using partial VP6 gene-based RT–PCR. All specimens were tested previously for the presence of other viral and bacterial aetiological agents by conventional methods. The rate of GCR detection was 8·6% and 0·7% in outbreak and sporadic cases, respectively. GCR infections prevailed in outbreaks reported from rural areas (10·9%) compared to urban areas (1·6%). Clinical severity score of the patients with GCR infection (n = 23) indicated severe disease in the majority (70%) of cases. The age distribution analysis indicated 52·1% of GCR infections in children aged <10 years. The male:female ratio in GCR-positive patients was 2·3:1. Of the 23 GCR-positive cases, 17 (73·9%) had a sole GCR infection and six had mixed infections with other viral and/or bacterial agents. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences classified GCR strains of the study in to I2 genotype of the VP6 gene. This is the first study to show the occurrence of GCR in gastroenteritis outbreaks in India.
Docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil is an efficacious induction regimen but is more toxic than cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil. This study aimed to determine whether docetaxel and cisplatin without 5-fluorouracil maintains efficacy while decreasing toxicity.
A multicenter non-comparative pilot study of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was performed. Patients received primary therapy comprising three cycles of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the response rate to the docetaxel and cisplatin induction regimen.
A total of 26 patients were enrolled: of these, 23 (88.5 per cent) received all three docetaxel and cisplatin cycles. Common grade 3–4 adverse events were febrile neutropenia (19.2 per cent of patients), diarrhoea (19.2 per cent) and non-neutropenic infection (15.4 per cent). The overall response rate to docetaxel and cisplatin induction chemotherapy was 65.4 per cent. A total of 23 patients (88.5 per cent) subsequently received chemoradiotherapy with a median radiotherapy dose of 70 Gy. The response rate to chemoradiotherapy was 73 per cent. At a median follow up of 44 months, the 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 62 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively.
Docetaxel and cisplatin induction chemotherapy is a feasible induction regimen with comparable efficacy to docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy.
A regional, multistate investigation into a June–August 2013 cyclosporiasis outbreak was conducted in Nebraska, Iowa, and neighbouring states. Cases were confirmed on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. Of 227 cases in Iowa (n = 140) and Nebraska (n = 87) residents, 162 (71%) reported dining at chain A/B restaurants – 96% reported house salad consumption. A case-control study identified chain A/B house salad as the most likely vehicle. Traceback was conducted to ascertain production lot codes of bagged salad mix (iceberg and romaine lettuce, red cabbage, and carrots) served as house salad in implicated restaurants. A single production lot code of salad mix supplied by both a common producer and distributor was linked to the majority of confirmed cases in persons reporting regional chain A/B exposure. The salad mix linked to illnesses contained imported romaine lettuce from two separate single-grower fields-of-origin and ⩾1 additional field from another grower.
Objective: Symptomatic neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly pose significant challenge. Within this cohort, neonates with associated anatomical pulmonary atresia have higher mortality. We review our experience with this difficult subset. Methods: A total of 32 consecutive symptomatic neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly underwent surgical intervention between 1994 and 2013. Of them, 20 neonates (62%, 20/32) had associated pulmonary atresia. Patients’ weights ranged from 1.9 to 3.4 kg. All patients without pulmonary atresia had two-ventricle repair. Of the 20 neonates, 16 (80%, 16/20) with Ebstein’s anomaly and pulmonary atresia had two-ventricle repair and 4 had single-ventricle palliation, of which 2 underwent Starnes’ palliation and 2 Blalock–Taussig shunts. Six recent patients with Ebstein’s anomaly and pulmonary atresia had right ventricle to pulmonary artery valved conduit as part of their two-ventricle repair. Results: Overall early mortality was 28% (9/32). For those without pulmonary atresia, mortality was 8.3% (1/12). For the entire cohort of neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly and pulmonary atresia, mortality was 40% (8/20; p=0.05). Mortality for neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly and pulmonary atresia having two-ventricle repair was 44% (7/16). Mortality for neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly and pulmonary atresia having two-ventricle repair utilising right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was 16% (1/6). For those having one-ventricle repair, the mortality was 25% (1/4). Conclusions: Surgical management of neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly remains challenging. For neonates with Ebstein’s anomaly and anatomical pulmonary atresia, single-ventricle palliation is associated with lower early mortality compared with two-ventricle repair. This outcome advantage is negated by inclusion of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit as part of the two-ventricle repair.
Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.
To document iodine status in Indian pregnancies, associations with maternal diet and demographics, and offspring developmental measures.
Longitudinal study following mothers through pregnancy and offspring up to 24 months.
Rural health-care centre (Vadu) and urban antenatal clinic (Pune) in the Maharashtra region of India.
Pregnant mothers at 17 (n 132) and 34 weeks’ (n 151) gestation and their infants from birth to the age of 24 months.
Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 203 and 211 μg/l at 17 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, respectively (range 26–800 μg/l). Using the UIC distribution adjusted for within-person variation, extreme UIC quartiles were compared for predictors and outcomes. There was no correlation between UIC at 17 and 34 weeks, but 24 % of those with UIC in the lowest quartile at 17 weeks had UIC in the same lowest quartile at 34 weeks. Maternal educational, socio-economic status and milk products consumption (frequency) were different between the lowest and highest quartile of UIC at 34 weeks. Selected offspring developmental outcomes differed between the lowest and highest UIC quartiles (abdominal circumference at 24 months, subscapular and triceps skinfolds at 12 and 24 months). However, UIC was only a weak predictor of subscapular skinfold at 12 months and of triceps skinfold at 24 months.
Median UIC in this pregnant population suggested adequate dietary provision at both gestational stages studied. Occasional high results found in spot samples may indicate intermittent consumption of iodine-rich foods. Maternal UIC had limited influence on offspring developmental outcomes.
This chapter provides an overview of Earth system models, the various model ‘flavours’, their state of development including model evaluation, benchmarking and optimization against observational data and their application to climate change issues.
The Earth system can be conceptualized as a suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes that regulate the planet’s low of matter and energy. Earth system models (ESMs; Box 5.1 ) are built to mirror these processes. In fact, ESMs are the only tool available to the scientific community to investigate the system properties of the Earth, as we do not have an alternative planet to manipulate that could serve as a scientist’s laboratory.
The term ‘Earth system model’ is commonly used to describe coupled land–ocean–atmosphere models that include interactive biogeochemical components. Such models have developed progressively from the physical climate models first created in the 1960s and 1970s. Conventional climate models apply physical laws to simulate the general circulation of atmosphere and ocean. As our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic controls on climate has grown, and given the steady advances in computing power, global climate models have been extended to include more comprehensive representations of biological and geochemical processes, involving the addition of the various interacting components of the Earth system with their own feedback mechanisms. Figure 5.1 shows the conceptual differences between a conventional global coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an ESM. In terms of the coupling between components, ESMs are more complex, and they have correspondingly higher computational demands.
Insufficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate during pregnancy can result in low concentrations in the fetus and have adverse effects on brain development. We investigated the relationship between maternal B12 and folate nutrition during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at two years of age (2 y). Mothers (n = 123) and their offspring (62 girls, 61 boys) from rural and middle-class urban communities in and around Pune city were followed through pregnancy up to 2 y. Maternal B12 and folate concentrations were measured at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. At 2 y, the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants was used to determine motor and mental developmental quotients and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for the social developmental quotient. Overall, 62% of the mothers had low B12 levels (<150 pmol/l) and one mother was folate deficient during pregnancy. Maternal B12 at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation was associated with offspring B12 at 2 y (r = 0.29, r = 0.32, P < 0.001), but folate was not associated with offspring folate. At 2 y, motor development was associated with maternal folate at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. Mental and social development quotients were associated positively with head circumference and negatively with birth weight. In addition, pregnancy B12 and folate were positively associated with mental and social development quotients. Maternal B12 and folate during intrauterine life may favorably influence brain development and function. Pregnancy provides a window of opportunity to enhance fetal psychomotor (motor and mental) development.
Longitudinal studies investigating vitamin B12 and folate status of mothers and their offspring will provide a better understanding of intergenerational nutrition. During pregnancy and 2 years (2y) after delivery, we measured plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in 118 women [aged (mean ± s.d.) 22.9 ± 3.9y] who attended a rural (n = 68) or an urban (n = 50) antenatal clinic in Pune, India. Cord blood vitamin B12 and folate were measured, and when the child was 2y total homocysteine (tHcy) was also measured. Demographic and diet measurements were recorded using standard methods.
Pregnancy plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 34 weeks was low [median (25th, 75th), 115 (95, 147) pm]; 75% had low status (<150 pm). Plasma folate was high (mean ± s.d., 33 ± 21 nm); one had a folate concentration <7 pm. Cord plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were higher than and positively associated with maternal concentrations. In stepwise regression, higher child vitamin B12 at 2y was predicted (total R2 15.7%) by pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β 0.201, R2 7.7%), current consumption of cow's milk (std β 0.194, R2 3.3%) and whether breast feeding was stopped before 2y (std β −0.234 R2 7.2%). Child's 2y tHcy concentration was high (11.4 ± 3.6 μm) and predicted by lower pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β −0.206, R2 4.1%), lack of vitamin supplementation (std β −0.256, R2 5.6%) in pregnancy and whether currently breastfed (std β 0.268, R2 8.4%).
Low maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and prolonged breast-feeding results in disturbed one-carbon metabolism in offspring at 2y. Supplementation of women of child-bearing age, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, may improve the homocysteine status of these children.
Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are widely used in dentistry and as a
bone substitutes in orthopedic applications. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) –
a type of calcium phosphate and a shortest linear polyphosphate can also be
used as a bone graft. Successive applications of theses materials depend on
the degree of bio-resorption, mechanical strength and bio-compatibility.
Zinc improves the bone activity of osteoblast, promotes the bone
regeneration and also stimulates enzyme activity. In the present study Zn
doped calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (Zn-CPPD) nanoparticles were
synthesized using surfactant mediated approach with varying [Zn]/[Ca] molar
ratio as 0% (pure CPPD), 2%, 5% and, 10%. The crystalline
nature and the average crystallite size was studied by Powder XRD. Zinc
doping was confirmed by EDAX. The TEM study indicated that pure and Zn doped
CPPD nanoparticles were in the range from 4 nm to 40 nm. The presence of
various bonds was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The amount of water of
hydration and the thermal stability was studied by thermo-gravimetry.
Formation of other phases on heating CPPD at
were identified by the powder XRD. Substitution of Zn content significantly
affects the crystallinity and thermal stability of nanoparticles. The
results are discussed.
We report an adult case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radical chemo-radiotherapy, with subsequent development of a histologically proved temporal cavernous haemangioma within the radiation field.
Case report and review of the current literature concerning radiation-induced, secondary, space-occupying lesions.
The increasing role of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment, together with improved patient survival, is likely to lead to radiation-induced, secondary, space-occupying lesions being encountered more frequently. We emphasise the need to be vigilant for this important but relatively rare complication, which has significant associated morbidity.
On-farm participatory varietal selection (PVS) trials are often of two types: mother trials (with all of the entries) and baby trials (each having one, or very few of the entries from the mother trials). We conducted PVS trials on 17 wheat varieties in 12 villages of four districts of Bangladesh over three years but the data were highly unbalanced. Both quantitative and qualitative traits were measured in the on-farm trials. The factors in the trials were both fixed effects (varieties and districts) and random (years and farmers). We used the residual or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis for the mixed model for quantitative traits. For qualitative data on farmers' perceptions, logistic regression procedures were used that are equally applicable to balanced and unbalanced data sets. The REML analysis provided adjusted mean values for quantitative traits for all the varieties, for the mother and baby trials separately, using the data from all years and all locations. It identified varieties BAW 1006 and BAW 1008 that yielded 19–30% more than the control Kanchan and also had a higher 1000-grain weight, were at least as early to flower and had a high overall ranking by farmers in the mother trials. The logistic regression analysis of perception data agreed with the results of the REML analysis as these varieties were most preferred by farmers for grain yield, earlier maturity and better chapatti making quality. The less labour-intensive method of recording qualitative perceptions can usefully replace actual yield measurements, particularly when validated by other participatory measures such as intended and actual adoption. In 2005, BAW 1006 was released as BARI Gom 23 or Bijoy and BAW 1008 as BARI Gom 24 or Prodip for the whole of Bangladesh. The validity of the results of the REML analysis was confirmed by the high early adoption trends of the identified varieties. Since REML is an effective analysis for unbalanced PVS trial data using a mixed model, its wider use by researchers would increase the value of the PVS process.